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Encyclopedia > Texas
State of Texas
Flag of Texas [[Image:|100px|State seal of Texas]]
Flag of Texas Seal
Nickname(s): Lone Star State
Motto(s): Friendship
Before Statehood Known as
The Republic of Texas
Official language(s) No official language
See languages of Texas
Demonym Texan
Capital Austin
Largest city Houston
Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington[1]
Area  Ranked 2nd in the US
 - Total 268,820[2] sq mi
(696,241 km²)
 - Width 773[3] miles (1,244 km)
 - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)
 - % water 2.5
 - Latitude 25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N
 - Longitude 93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ W
Population  Ranked 2nd in the US
 - Total 20,851,820
 - Density 79.6[4]/sq mi 
30.75/km² (28th in the US)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Guadalupe Peak[5]
8,749 ft  (2,667 m)
 - Mean 1,700 ft  (520 m)
 - Lowest point Gulf of Mexico coast[5]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  December 29, 1845 (28th)
Governor Rick Perry (R)
Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst (R)
U.S. Senators Kay Bailey Hutchison (R)
John Cornyn (R)
Congressional Delegation List
Time zones  
 - most of state Central: UTC-6/-5
 - tip of West Texas Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations TX Tex. US-TX
Website www.texas.gov
Map of Texas, showing major cities and roads
Map of Texas, showing major cities and roads

Texas (IPA: /ˈtɛksəs/) is a state geographically located in the South Central United States. Texas is known as the Lone Star State. Austin is the state capital. Texas is the second largest U.S. state in both area and population, with an area of 268,820 square miles (696,200 km²) and a growing population of 23.9 million. Houston is the state's largest city. The Dallas/Fort Worth area is the largest metropolitan statistical area. Texas is a state of the United States of America, formerly the Republic of Texas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Texas. ... Flag of Texas The flag of Texas is defined by law as follows: The flag is known as the Lone Star Flag (giving Texas its nickname of the Lone Star State). This flag was introduced to the Congress of the Republic of Texas on December 28, 1838, by Senator William... The Seal of the Great State of Texas. ... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames -- both official and traditional (official state nicknames are in bold). ... Here is a list of state mottos for the states of the United States. ... For the latter day independence movement surrounding Texas, see Republic of Texas (group). ... Image File history File links Previous_flag_of_Texas. ... Image File history File links Map_of_USA_TX.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Texas ... The United States does not have an official language, but English is spoken by about 82% of the population as a native language. ... Of the languages spoken in Texas none has been designated the official language, although at various points in its history English, Spanish, and French have all been the primary dominant language used by government officials. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... State nickname: Lone Star State Other U.S. States Capital Austin Largest city Houston Governor Rick Perry Official languages None Area 696,241 km² (2nd)  - Land 678,907 km²  - Water 17,333 km² (2. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... Houston redirects here. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas. ... The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, a title designated by the U.S. Census as of 2003, encompasses 12 counties within the U.S. state of Texas. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... This is a complete list of the states of the United States ordered by total area, land area, and water area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... “km” redirects here. ... Map of states populations (2007) This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison) as of July 1, 2007, according to the 2007 estimates of the United States Census Bureau. ... Map of states showing population density This is a list of the 50 U.S. states, ordered by population density. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... Guadalupe Peak is the highest point in Texas. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... James Richard Perry (b. ... This is a complete and current List of United States Lieutenant Governors. ... Texas Lt. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Kathryn Ann Bailey Hutchison, usually known as Kay Bailey Hutchison (born July 22, 1943, in Galveston, Texas), is the senior United States Senator from Texas. ... John Cornyn III (born February 2, 1952) is the junior United States Senator from Texas. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... These are tables of congressional delegations from Texas to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Map of U.S. time zones with new CST and EST areas displayed This is a list of United States of America States by time zone. ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Standard Time Zone (CST) is a geographic region in the Americas that keeps time by subtracting six hours from UTC (UTC-6). ... ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... West Texas is a region in Texas that has more in common geographically with the Southwestern United States than it does with the rest of the state. ... MST is UTC-7 The Mountain Standard Time Zone (MST) is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting seven hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC-7. ... ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... The following is a list of abbreviations used by the United States Postal Service. ... U.S. states This is a list of traditional abbreviations for U.S. states and territorries, which were in wide use prior to the U.S. postal abbreviations. ... ISO 3166-2 codes for the United States of America cover 50 states, 1 district, 6 outlying areas (including 9 minor outlying islands under separate ISO 3166-1 country code UM). ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Texas Categories: National Atlas images | Texas maps ... File links The following pages link to this file: Texas Categories: National Atlas images | Texas maps ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Red states show the core of the South Central, states shown as pink may or may not be included in the South Central, and thus their inclusion or exclusion varies from source to source. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... In countries with federal constitutions divided into subnational entities known as states, the state capital is the administrative center of a state. ... Houston redirects here. ... The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, a title designated by the U.S. Census as of 2003, encompasses 12 counties within the U.S. state of Texas. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas, which are organized around county boundaries. ...


Traveling from east to west, the landscape of Texas gradually evolves from that of the Deep South into that of the desert Southwest, going from piney woods to semi-forests of oak and cross timbers, into rolling plains and prairie, then finally to desert in the Big Bend. These wide open spaces of the Texas prairie have lent currency to the phrase that "everything is bigger in Texas".[6] Due to its long history as a center of the American cattle industry, Texas is associated throughout much of the world with the image of the cowboy. The geography of Texas covers a wide and far reaching scope. ... The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ... The Piney Woods viewed from Loop 390 outside of Marshall, Texas The Piney Woods is a terrestrial ecoregion in the Southern United States covering 54,400 mi² (140,900 km²) of East Texas, Southern Arkansas, Western Louisiana, and Southeastern Oklahoma. ... The Cross Timbers is a savanna on the southern Great Plains running from southeastern Kansas, across central Oklahoma, into central Texas. ... For other uses, see Prairie (disambiguation). ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Casa Grande is a prominent peak in the Chisos Mountains of the Big Bend area of west Texas. ... For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ...


Historically and culturally, partly due to settlement patterns and its membership in the Confederacy, Texas has close ties to the American South. However, having once been both a Spanish and Mexican possession, it can also be classified as a Southwestern state. While residents acknowledge these categories, many claim an independent "Texan" identity superseding regional labels. The history of Texas (as part of the United States) began in 1845, but settlement of the region dates back to the end of the Upper Paleolithic Period, around 10,000 BC. Its history has been shaped by being part of six independent countries: Spain, France, Mexico, the Republic of... This article should appear in one or more categories. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Historic Southern United States. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ...


Spain was the first European country to claim Texas. In 1836 it became the independent Republic of Texas. In 1845 it joined the United States as the 28th state. Texas is the only state to enter the United States by treaty instead of territorial annexation.[7] The state's annexation was part of a chain of events that led to the Mexican-American War and the U.S. Civil War. The discovery of oil in the early 1900s led to an economic boom in the state. It has become economically diversified with a growing base in high technology. For the latter day independence movement surrounding Texas, see Republic of Texas (group). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... Republic of Texas The Texas Annexation of 1845 was the voluntary annexation of the Republic of Texas by the United States of America as Texas, the 28th state. ... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Spindletop is a salt dome oil field located in south Beaumont, Texas (approx. ... The economy of Texas is a dominant force in the economy of the United States. ...

Contents

Etymology

Texas state welcome sign
Texas state welcome sign

The state's name derives from táyshaʔ, a word in the Caddoan language of the Hasinai, which means "friends" or "allies".[2][8][9] The word "Texas" has been incorporated into American English vernacular in many ways. Due to the state's large geographic size, the term "Texas-sized" is a metaphor for "big".[10][11] The state's name is used in brands such as Texas Roadhouse and Texas Instruments. The abbreviated form of "Texas", "Tex", is used as a nickname for someone born and/or raised in the state, such as country music singer Tex Ritter. "Tex" is also a prefix for Texas related words including Tex-Mex or the restaurant chain, Texadelphia. The nickname, The Lone Star State, comes from the single star of the former Republic of Texas.[12] Texas lethal injection File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Texas lethal injection File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Caddoan languages are a family of Native American languages. ... The Hasinai were a confederation of Caddo-speaking Native Americans. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Texas Roadhouse is a chain restaurant that specializes in steaks and promotes a western theme. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; written with a lowercase e in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ... // A nickname is a name of an entity or thing that is not its proper name. ... Tex Ritter Tex Ritter (January 12, 1905 – January 2, 1974) was an American country singer and actor. ... A prefix is the initial portion of some object or term (typically in text or speech) with a distinct and he base semantics for a word. ... Tejano is also the name of Texans of Spanish origin. ... Texadelphia is a chain of more than thirty restaurants specializing in unique cheesesteaks. ... For the latter day independence movement surrounding Texas, see Republic of Texas (group). ...


History

Main article: History of Texas
The display of the "Six Flags" in Austin, Texas includes the flags of (left to right) Crown of Castile (Spain), the Fleur-de-lis of France, Mexico, the Confederate States of America, the Republic of Texas, and the United States of America.
The display of the "Six Flags" in Austin, Texas includes the flags of (left to right) Crown of Castile (Spain), the Fleur-de-lis of France, Mexico, the Confederate States of America, the Republic of Texas, and the United States of America.[13]

The history of Texas (as part of the United States) began in 1845, but settlement of the region dates back to the end of the Upper Paleolithic Period, around 10,000 BC. Its history has been shaped by being part of six independent countries: Spain, France, Mexico, the Republic of... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1293x204, 22 KB)Display of the Six flags over Texas at the Texas State History Museum, Austin, Texas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1293x204, 22 KB)Display of the Six flags over Texas at the Texas State History Museum, Austin, Texas. ... This article is about the theme park. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... For the latter day independence movement surrounding Texas, see Republic of Texas (group). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

Colonization

Image:Texasflaginstate.PNG
History of Texas
French Texas
Spanish Texas
Mexican Texas
Republic of Texas
Texas in the Civil War
State of Texas
Main articles: Spanish Texas and Mexican Texas

Alonso Álvarez de Pineda, creator of the first map of the northern Gulf Coast, made the first documented European sighting of Texas in 1519.[14][15] On 6 November 1528, shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca became the first known European in Texas.[16] Texas was claimed as part of New Spain but was not settled immediately.[17] In 1685 La Salle established the first European community in Texas, the French colony of Fort Saint Louis.[18] The colony, located along Matagorda Bay, lasted only four years before succumbing to harsh conditions and hostile natives.[19] Image File history File links This image, including all photography and graphics used in it, was taken and created by myself, Shem Daimwood. ... The history of Texas (as part of the United States) began in 1845, but settlement of the region dates back to the end of the Upper Paleolithic Period, around 10,000 BC. Its history has been shaped by being part of six independent countries: Spain, France, Mexico, the Republic of... Spanish Texas is the name given by Texas history scholars to the period between 1690 and 1821 when Texas was goverened as a province of the Spanish colony of New Spain. ... The province of Coahuila and Texas in 1833, showing the major land grants Mexican Texas is the given name by Texas history scholars to the period between 1821 and 1836, when Texas was governed by Mexico. ... For the latter day independence movement surrounding Texas, see Republic of Texas (group). ... Texas seceded from the United States on February 1, 1861, and joined the Confederate States of America on March 2, 1861, replacing its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. ... Spanish Texas is the name given by Texas history scholars to the period between 1690 and 1821 when Texas was goverened as a province of the Spanish colony of New Spain. ... The province of Coahuila and Texas in 1833, showing the major land grants Mexican Texas is the given name by Texas history scholars to the period between 1821 and 1836, when Texas was governed by Mexico. ... Alonso Alvarez de Pineda (1494 - 1519) was a Spanish explorer and cartographer. ... The Gulf of Mexico is a major body of water bordered and nearly landlocked by North America. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (c. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... La Salle can refer to: Lasalles invariance principle - a concept in control theory LaSalle automobile La Salle Records LaSalle Bank USS La Salle (AGF-3) USS La Salle (AP-102) Geography LaSalle, Ontario LaSalle, Quebec, borough of Montreal La Salle, Vosges, France La Salle, Italy La Salle, Colorado La... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... Fort Saint Louis was a frontier fort built in 1685 by French exporer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle near what is now Inez, Texas. ... Matagorda Bay is a large bay on the Texas coast, located between Calhoun and Matagorda counties. ...


Due to the perceived French encroachment, Spain established its first presence in Texas in 1691 constructing of missions in East Texas.[20] The missions failed quickly, and Spain did not resettle Texas until two decades had passed.[21] Spain returned to East Texas in 1716, establishing missions and a presidio to maintain a buffer between New Spain and the territory of Louisiana.[22][23] Two years later, the first civilian settlement in Texas, San Antonio, was established as a way station between the missions and the rest of New Spain.[24] The Spanish Missions in Texas comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Dominicans, Jesuits, and Franciscans to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier land. ... Red counties show the core of East Texas; pink and red counties may or may not be included in East Texas, and thus their inclusion varies from source to source. ... Presidio is a place in the State of Texas in the United States of America: see Presidio, Texas. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... San Antonio redirects here. ...


Fear of attacks from native tribes and remoteness from New Spain discouraged settlers from moving to Texas; it remained one of New Spain's least populated provinces.[25] San Antonio was a target for raids by the Lipan Apache.[26] In 1749, the Spanish signed a peace treaty with the Apache,[27] which angered the enemies of the Apache and resulted in raids by the Comanche, Tonkawa, and Hasinai tribes.[28] The Comanche signed a treaty with Spain in 1785[29] and later assisted in defeating the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes which had continued to cause difficulties for Spanish settlers.[30][31] An increased number of missions in the province allowed for a peaceful conversion of other tribes, and by the end of the 1700s only a few nomadic tribes had not been "Christianized".[32] Lipan Apache are also known as Nde buffalo hunters, called by anthropologists and historians for many years as Eastern Apache, Apache de los Llanos, Lipan, Ipande, and other names. ... For other uses, see Comanche (disambiguation). ... Seal of the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma Tonkawa The Tonkawa are a people native to central Texas, speaking the Tonkawa language. ... The Hasinai were a confederation of Caddo-speaking Native Americans. ... Karankawa A group of Native American peoples, now extinct, known collectively as the Karankawa (also Karankawan, Clamcoëhs, and called in their language Auia), played a pivotal part in early Texas history. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar...


The Louisiana Purchase by the United States from Napoleon led to a border dispute over Texas.[33] U.S. President Thomas Jefferson insisted that the purchase included land to the east of the Rocky Mountains and to the north of the Rio Grande.[34] The dispute was resolved in 1819, with the signing of the Adams-Onís Treaty recognizing the Sabine River as Texas's eastern boundary.[35] The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory (Louisiana) in 1803. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ... Map showing results of the Adams-Onís Treaty. ... The Sabine River is shown highlighted, along with the Neches River The Sabine River is a river, 555 miles (893 km) long, in the U.S. states of Texas and Louisiana. ...

In 1821, the state became a province of Mexico after the Mexican War of Independence.[36] Texas became the northern section of Coahuila y Tejas in 1824. Spain's policy of allowing only full-blooded Spaniards to settle Texas also ended with Mexico's independence. On 3 January 1823, Stephen F. Austin began a colony of 297 Anglo-American families known as the "Old Three Hundred" along the Brazos River, after he was authorized to do so by Governor Antonio María Martínez.[37] By 1830, the 30,000 Anglo settlers in Texas outnumbered Tejanos six to one.[38] Stephen F. Austin Image taken from http://www. ... Stephen F. Austin Image taken from http://www. ... Stephen F. Austin Stephen Fuller Austin (November 3, 1793 – December 27, 1836), known as the Father of Texas led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by the United States. ... Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ... Coahuila y Tejas (or Coahuila and Texas) was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Stephen F. Austin Stephen Fuller Austin (November 3, 1793 – December 27, 1836), known as the Father of Texas led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by the United States. ... The Old Three Hundred is a term used to describe the 297 grantees, made up of families and some partnerships of unmarried men, who purchased 307 parcels of land from Stephen Fuller Austin and established a colony in south Texas, along the Texas gulf coast area between the [Colorado River... The Brazos River, originally called, the Rio Brazos de Dios which can be translated as The River of Gods Arms. is the 11th longest river in the United States at 2060 km (1280 miles) from its source of Blackwater Draw, Curry County, New Mexico[1] to its mouth at... Antonio María Martínez (?-1823) was a colonel in the infantry regiment of Zamora and the last governor of Spanish Texas. ... Tejano is also the name of Texans of Spanish origin. ...


Independence

The Convention of 1832 and the Convention of 1833 were responses to rising unrest at policies of the Mexican government. Delegates feared the end of duty-free imports from the United States and the threat of ending slavery.[39] In 1835, Antonio López de Santa Anna, President of Mexico, created a unified constitution for Mexico.[39] The new constitution, imposed a central style of government with power concentrated in the President, and turned states into provinces with governors appointed from Mexico City. States around Mexico rebelled against this imposition, including Chihuahua, Zacatecas and Yucatan. Centralista forces' suppression of dissidents in Zacatecas also inspired fear of the Mexican government.[40] Texans also resented policies such as, the forcible disarmament of settlers, and the expulsion of immigrants and legal landowners originally from the United States. Combatants Texas Mexico Commanders Stephen F. Austin Sam Houston Antonio López de Santa Anna Martin Perfecto de Cos Strength c. ... For the latter day independence movement surrounding Texas, see Republic of Texas (group). ... In 1832, fifty-five delegates met at San Felipe de Austin to petition for changes within Coahuila y Texas with the goal of taking care of Texas first. ... The Convention of 1833 was a gathering of politicans and leaders of the state of Coahuila y Tejas (then part of Mexico) in San Felipe on April 1, 1833. ... This article is about a tax measure. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (February 21, 1794 – June 21, 1876), often known as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against the independence from Spain... Mexicos so-called 1835 Constitution was not a formal, fully-fledged constitution, but two documents that amended the 1824 Constitution in a way that substantially changed the character of Mexican government: the Siete Leyes (Seven Laws) of 1835 and the 1836 Constitution Laws. ... THEY SUC |native_name = |nickname = Lady of the Desert |settlement_type = |motto = |image_skyline = |imagesize = |image_caption = |image_flag = Mexico stateflags Chihuahua. ... This article is about a state of Mexico. ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... This article is about a state of Mexico. ...

Republic of Texas. The present-day outlines of the U.S. states are superimposed on the boundaries of 1836–1845
Republic of Texas. The present-day outlines of the U.S. states are superimposed on the boundaries of 1836–1845

On 2 March 1836, the Convention of 1836 signed a Declaration of Independence.[41][42] On 21 April 1836, the Texans—led by General Sam Houston—won their independence at the Battle of San Jacinto. Santa Anna's capture led to the Treaties of Velasco, which gave Texas firm boundaries. Mexico repudiated the treaties, considered Texas a breakaway province, and vowed to reconquer it. Later in 1836, the Texans adopted a constitution that formally legalized slavery. The Republic of Texas included the area of the present state of Texas, and additional unoccupied territory to the west and northwest.[40] is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Convention of 1836 was a meeting of elected delegates in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas, then part of Mexico, at which was adopted the Texas Declaration of Independence. ... The Texas Declaration of Independence was the formal declaration of independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico in the Texas Revolution. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other persons named Sam Houston, see Sam Houston (disambiguation). ... Combatants Mexico Republic of Texas Commanders Antonio López de Santa Anna{POW} Manuel Fernandez Castrillon† Juan Almonte{POW} Sam Houston{wounded} Strength about 1,400 800 Casualties 630 killed, 208 wounded, 730 captured 9 killed, 26 wounded For other battles of the same name, see San Jacinto. ... The Treaties of Velasco were two treaties signed at Velasco, Texas, on 14 May 1836 between Antonio López de Santa Anna of Mexico and the Republic of Texas, in the aftermath of the Battle of San Jacinto (21 April 1836). ... For the latter day independence movement surrounding Texas, see Republic of Texas (group). ...


Statehood

Main article: Texas Annexation

Most Texans wanted their Republic to be annexed into the United States because of the Republic's defensive and financial difficulties. Events such as the Dawson Massacre and two recaptures of Béxar in Texas of 1842 added momentum to the desire for statehood.[43] However, strong Northern opposition to adding another slave state blocked Texas's admission until pro-annexation James K. Polk won the election of 1844. On 29 December 1845, Texas was admitted to the U.S. as a constituent state of the Union.[44] The Mexican–American War followed, with decisive victories by the U.S.[45] Texas's boundaries were set at their present form after the Compromise of 1850. Land which included most of present day Arizona and New Mexico, as well as parts of Colorado, Oklahoma, and Wyoming, was ceded for the federal government's assumption of $10 million of the old republic's debt.[46] Republic of Texas The Texas Annexation of 1845 was the voluntary annexation of the Republic of Texas by the United States of America as Texas, the 28th state. ... Republic of Texas The Texas Annexation of 1845 was the voluntary annexation of the Republic of Texas by the United States of America as Texas, the 28th state. ... The Dawson Massacre was an event in the history of the Republic of Texas, in which thirty-six Texans were killed by 400-500 Mexican soldiers with cannon at the Battle of Salado Creek outside San Antonio, Texas on September 18, 1842. ... The free and slave states as of 1861, with free states in blue and slave states in red. ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... The United States presidential election of 1844 saw Democrat James Knox Polk defeat Whig Henry Clay in a close contest that turned on foreign policy, with Polk favoring the annexation of Texas and Clay opposed. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 18,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded... Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber; Millard Fillmore presides as Calhoun and Webster look on. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...


Post-war Texas grew rapidly as migrants poured into the cotton lands of the state.[47] German immigrants started to arrive in the early 1840s because of economic, social and political conditions in their states. In 1842, German nobles organized the Adelsverein, banding together to buy land in central Texas to enable German settlement. The Revolutions of 1848 acted as another catalyst for so many immigrants that they became known as the "48ers". Many were educated artisans and businessmen. Germans continued to arrive in considerable numbers until 1890.[48] With their investments in cotton cultivation, Texas planters imported enslaved blacks. They established plantations mostly in the eastern part of the state. The central area was settled more by subsistence farmers. By 1860, the population of Texas totaled 604,215 and was 30 percent enslaved African Americans.[49] Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 had been a collection of 38 states loosely bound together in the German Confederation. ...


Civil War, Reconstruction and disfranchisement

Civil war monument in Galveston, Texas
Civil war monument in Galveston, Texas

On 1 February 1861, elected delegates met in convention and authorized secession from the United States, which voters later approved in state-wide referendum. The state was accepted as a charter member of the Confederate States of America on 1 March 1861.[50][2] During the American Civil War Texas was a "supply state" for the Confederate forces, due to its distance from the front lines, contributing men, especially cavalry. Texan regiments fought in every major battle throughout the war.[51] Texas was cut off from the rest of the Confederacy mid-1863, when the Union capture of the Mississippi River made large movements of men or cattle impossible. The last battle of the Civil War was fought in Texas, at Palmito Ranch, on 13 May 1865.[52] Texas seceded from the United States on February 1, 1861, and joined the Confederate States of America on March 2, 1861, replacing its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. ... Galveston redirects here. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Theodore H. Barrett John Rip Ford Strength Detachments from the: 62nd U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment, 2nd Texas Cavalry Regiment, 34th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Detachments from: Gidding’s Regiment, Anderson’s Battalion of Cavalry, and other Confederate units and Southern... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Texas descended into anarchy two months between the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia and the assumption of authority by Union General Gordon Granger. Violence also marked the early months of Reconstruction, as people paid off old grudges and struggled for power.[53] Juneteenth commemorates the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation on 19 June 1865 in Galveston by General Gordon Granger, over 2-1/2 years after the original announcement.[54] [55] President Johnson, on 20 August 1866, declared that civilian government had been restored to Texas.[56] Despite not meeting reconstruction requirements, on 30 March 1870 the Congress readmitted Texas into the Union.[57] Social volatility continued as Texas struggled with agricultural depression and labor issues. Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert Edward Lee # Strength Army of the Potomac, Army of the James Army of Northern Virginia Casualties and losses 164[1] ~500 killed and wounded[1] 27,805 surrendered and paroled The Battle of Appomattox Courthouse (April 9, 1865) was... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Gordon Granger (November 6, 1822 – January 10, 1876) was a Union Major General during American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Juneteenth (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


Like other Southern states, by the late 1870s white Democrats regained control, often with a mix of intimidation and terrorism. They passed a new constitution in 1876 that segregated schools and established a poll tax to support them, but it was not originally required for voting.[58] In 1901 the legislature passed a poll tax as a prerequisite for voter registration. Given the economic difficulties of the times, the poll tax caused participation by poor whites, African Americans and Mexican Americans to drop sharply. By the early 20th century, the Democratic Party in Texas started using a "white primary", which the state legislature authorized in 1923.[54] Since the Democratic Party dominated the state after 1900 for decades, the "white primary" provision reduced what little minority participation there was as the primaries were the true competitive contest. These provisions extended deep into the 20th century.[54] The Texas Constitution is the document that describes the structure and function of the government of Texas. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... White primaries were primary elections in the Southern States of the United States of America in which any non-White voter was prohibited from participating. ...


Modern era

The first major oil well in Texas was Spindletop, south of Beaumont, on 10 January 1901. Other fields were later discovered nearby in East Texas, West Texas, and under the Gulf of Mexico. The resulting “Oil Boom” permanently transformed the economy of Texas.[59] Oil production eventually averaged three million barrels of oil per day at its peak in 1972.[60] The Lucas Gusher at Spindletop. ... The Lucas Gusher at Spindletop. ... Spindletop is a salt dome oil field located in south Beaumont, Texas (approx. ... Spindletop is a salt dome oil field located in south Beaumont, Texas (approx. ... // Beaumont can refer to: Places In Australia Beaumont, South Australia, a suburb of Adelaide In Belgium Beaumont, Belgium, in the province of Hainaut In Canada Beaumont, Alberta, Canada In France Beaumont, Ardèche, in the Ardèche département Beaumont, Corrèze, in the Corrèze département Beaumont, Gers... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Red counties show the core of East Texas; pink and red counties may or may not be included in East Texas, and thus their inclusion varies from source to source. ... West Texas is a region in Texas that has more in common geographically with the Southwestern United States than it does with the rest of the state. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


The economy, significantly improved since the civil war, was dealt a double blow by the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. Migrants abandoned the worst hit sections of Texas during the Dust Bowl years. Especially from this period on, blacks left Texas in the Great Migration to get work in the North or California and to escape the oppression of segregation.[61] With increased immigration, although the numbers of African Americans increased, their proportion of population decreased from 20.4 percent in 1900 to 12.4 percent in 1960.[61] The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... Farmer and two sons during a dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 1936 The Dust Bowl, or the dirty thirties, was a period of horrible dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940), caused by severe... The states in blue had the ten largest net gains of African-Americans, while the states in red had the ten largest net losses. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


From 1950 through the 1960s, Texas modernized and expanded its system of higher education. Under the leadership of Governor John B. Connally, the state created a long-range plan for higher education, a more rational distribution of resources, and a central state apparatus designed to manage state institutions more efficiently. These changes helped Texas universities receive federal research funds during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations.[62] John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... LBJ redirects here. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Texas
See also: List of Texas state parks

Texas is located at the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. It is in the south-central part of the United States of America. The state has been categorized as part of the U.S. South and also part of the U.S. Southwest. The geography of Texas covers a wide and far reaching scope. ... This is a list of state parks in the state of Texas. ... Download high resolution version (2304x1536, 1373 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2304x1536, 1373 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... El Capitan is a peak in Texas, USA. It lies within the Guadalupe Mountains National Park. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... The Sierra Madre Oriental is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico, spanning 1000 km from Coahuila south through Nuevo León, southwest Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo, to northern Puebla and Querétaro, where it joins with the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Eje Volcánico Transversal of central Mexico. ... Red states show the core of the South Central, states shown as pink may or may not be included in the South Central, and thus their inclusion or exclusion varies from source to source. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ...


The Rio Grande, Red River and Sabine River are natural state borders, Oklahoma on the north, Louisiana and Arkansas on the east, & the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south. To the west, its borders with New Mexico & Oklahoma are not based on natural features of terrain. The state's Texas Panhandle has a western border with New Mexico at 100° W, a northern one at 36°30' N and a western one at 103° W. The state's western tip is located on the 32th parallel extending from the Rio Grande to the Panhandle.[46] “Río Bravo” redirects here. ... The Red River is one of several rivers with that name, and of two rivers with that name in the United States. ... The Sabine River is shown highlighted, along with the Neches River The Sabine River is a river, 555 miles (893 km) long, in the U.S. states of Texas and Louisiana. ... For other uses, see Border (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the state in Mexico; for the city of Chihuahua, see: Chihuahua. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Location within Mexico Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 51 Largest City Monterrey Government  - Governor Natividad González Parás  - Federal Deputies PAN: 7 PRI: 5  - Federal Senators PAN :2 PRI: 1 Area Ranked 13th  - Total 64,210 km² (24,791. ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... The Texas Panhandle is a region of the state of Texas consisting of the northernmost 26 counties in the state. ... Sign marking the 100th meridian in Cozad, Nebraska The 100th meridian west is a line of longitude passing through North America and the Pacific Ocean. ... The parallel 36°30 north is an imaginary circle of latitude that is 36. ... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ...


Because of its size and unique history, the regional affiliation of Texas is debatable. Depending on the source, it can be fairly considered either or both a Southern or Southwestern state. The vast geographic, economic, and cultural diversity within the state itself prohibits easy categorization of the whole state into a recognized region of the United States. The East, Central, and North Texas, regions have a stronger association with the American South than with the Southwest. Others, such as far West Texas and South Texas share more similarities with the latter. The upper Texas Panhandle is similar to the Midwestern United States and the South Plains parts of West Texas, is a blend of South and Southwest.[citation needed] This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... The Texas Panhandle is a region of the state of Texas consisting of the northernmost 26 counties in the state. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Region in West Texas comprising the area north of the Caprock Escarpment on the Llano Estacado, and extending north into the Texas Panhandle. ...


Texas can be divided into five human geographical regions: North, East, Central, South, and West. Texas Almanac divides Texas into four physical geographical regions: Gulf Coastal Plains, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, and The Basin and Range Province.[citation needed] Population density by country, 2007 Human geography, is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earths surface. ... This is an article about a region of Texas. ... Red counties show the core of East Texas; pink and red counties may or may not be included in East Texas, and thus their inclusion varies from source to source. ... Central Texas (a part of which is Texas Hill Country), is a region in the U.S. state of Texas. ... South Texas is a region of the U.S. state of Texas which lies roughly south of, or beginning at, San Antonio. ... West Texas is a region in Texas that has more in common geographically with the Southwestern United States than it does with the rest of the state. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... The geography of Texas covers a wide and far reaching scope. ... The geography of Texas covers a wide and far reaching scope. ... The geography of Texas covers a wide and far reaching scope. ... The geography of Texas covers a wide and far reaching scope. ...


Geology

Main article: Geology of Texas
Shaded Relief Map of the Llano Estacado

Texas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. The continental crust here is a stable Mesoproterozoic craton which changes across a broad continental margin and transitional crust into true oceanic crust of the Gulf of Mexico. The oldest rocks in Texas date from the Mesoproterozoic and are about 1,600 million years old. These Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the state, and are exposed in three places: Llano uplift, Van Horn, and the Franklin Mountains, near El Paso. This is overlain by mostly sedimentary rocks. The oldest sediments were deposited on the flanks of a rifted continental margin, or passive margin that developed during Cambrian time. This margin existed until Laurasia and Gondwana collided in the Pennsylvanian era to form Pangea. This is the buried crest of the Appalachian MountainsOuachita Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision. This orogenic crest is today buried beneath the DallasWacoAustinSan Antonio trend. During this time E. Texas was a region of high mountains and shallow seas covered W. Texas.[citation needed] Shaded Relief Map of the Llano Estacado. ... Image File history File links LlanoEstacadoShadedRelief. ... Image File history File links LlanoEstacadoShadedRelief. ... Shaded Relief Image of the Llano Estacado Llano Estacado (or Staked Plains) is a region in the southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... This picture shows an aerial view of the Sierra Madre Occidental crossing the territory of Durango, western Mexico The Sierra Madre Occidental is a mountain range in western Mexico and the extreme southwest of the United States, extending 1500 km from southeast Arizona (south and east of Tucson) southeast through... The thickness of the Earths crust (km). ... The Mesoproterozoic era is a geologic period that occurred between 1600 and 900 million years ago. ... World geologic provinces. ... Age of oceanic crust Oceanic crust is the part of Earths lithosphere that surfaces in the ocean basins. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... The term Metamorphic can be associated with a number of meanings:- Metamorphic rock The term for rocks that have been transformed by extreme heat and pressure. ... Llano is a city located in Llano County, Texas. ... Van Horn is a town located in Culberson County, Texas. ... Elephant-shaped bluff west of South Franklin peak, looking south on Transmountain Road, El Paso, Texas The Franklin Mountains of Texas are a small range (23 miles long, 3 miles wide) that extend from El Paso, Texas north into New Mexico. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... In plate tectonics, a passive margin is the normally gently sloping continental shelf area located on the trailing edge of a drifting continent. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... The Pennsylvanian is an epoch of the Carboniferous period lasting from roughly 325 Ma to 299 Ma (million years ago). ... Pangea may refer to: a common alternative spelling of the name Pangaea given to the supercontinent that is believed to have existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras Pangea, a geology equipment supplier/developer of mineralogical testing equipment Pangea (cable system), a submarine telecommunications cable system connecting the Netherlands and... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Ouachita Mountains The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range located in west central Arkansas and east central Oklahoma. ... The Pennsylvanian is an epoch of the Carboniferous period lasting from roughly 325 Ma to 299 Ma (million years ago). ... Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of our solid Earth. ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation). ... For the Branch Davidian siege in Waco, Texas, see Waco Siege. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... San Antonio redirects here. ...


The late Paleozoic mountains collapsed as rifting in the Jurassic era began to open the Gulf of Mexico. Pangea began to break up in the Triassic but seafloor spreading to form the Gulf of Mexico occurred only in the mid and late Jurassic. The shoreline shifted again to the eastern margin of the state and the Gulf of Mexico passive margin began to form. Today there are 9 miles (14 km) to 12 miles (19 km) of sediments buried beneath the Texas continental shelf and a large proportion of remaining US oil reserves are to be found here. At the start of its formation, the incipient Gulf of Mexico basin was restricted and seawater often evaporated completely to form thick evaporite deposits of Jurassic age. These salt deposits have buoyantly risen up through the passive margin sediments to form salt dome diapirs, commonly found in East Texas, along the Gulf coast.[citation needed] The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... In geology, a rift is a place where the Earths lithosphere is expanding. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago). ... Age of oceanic crust. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... In plate tectonics, a passive margin is the normally gently sloping continental shelf area located on the trailing edge of a drifting continent. ... Petro redirects here. ... A sample of evaporite material Evaporites (IPA: ) are water-soluble, mineral sediments that result from the evaporation of bodies of surficial water. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... A salt dome is formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir. ... A lava lamp illustrates the basic principle of diapirism. ...


East Texas outcrops consist of Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments with contain important deposits of Eocenelignite. Oil is found in the Mississippian ad Pennsylvanian sediments in the north, Permian sediments in the west, Cretaceous sediments in the east, and along the Gulf coast and out on the Texas continental shelf. Oligocene volcanic rocks are found in far west Texas, in the Big Bend area. A blanket of Miocene sediments known as the Ogallala formation in the western high plains region is an important aquifer. Texas has no volcanoes and few earthquakes, being situated far from an active plate tectonic boundary.[citation needed] // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... Strip mining lignite at Garzweiler, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ... Petro redirects here. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Casa Grande is a prominent peak in the Chisos Mountains of the Big Bend area of west Texas. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The Ogallala aquifer underlies portions of eight states. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Climate

Main article: Climate of Texas
2004 Christmas Eve snowstorm in South Texas
2004 Christmas Eve snowstorm in South Texas

The large size of Texas and its location at the intersection of multiple climate zones gives the state very variable weather. In general, though, there are three main climate zones: the humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) of the eastern half of Texas, the temperate semi-arid (Koppen BSk) steppe climate of the northwestern part, including the Panhandle, and the subtropical steppe climate (nearly an arid desert climate, Koppen BSh) of the southern parts of West Texas, particularly around El Paso.[citation needed] Texass climate varies widely, from arid in the west to wet in the east. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... Semi-arid generally describes regions that receive low annual rainfall (25 to 50 cm /10 to 20 in) and generally have scrub or grass vegetation. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ...


The Panhandle of the state is colder in winter than North Texas, while the Gulf Coast has mild winters. Texas has wide variations in precipitation patterns. El Paso, on the western end of the state, averages as little as 8 inches (200 mm) of annual rainfall while Houston, on the southeast Texas averages as much as 54 inches (1,400 mm) per year.[63] Dallas in the North Central region averages a more moderate 37 inches (940 mm) per year. Snowfall often falls in the winter months in the north. Maximum temperatures in the summer months average from the 80s °F (26 °C) in the mountains of West Texas and on Galveston Island to around 100 °F (38 °C) in the Rio Grande Valley. Night time summer temperatures range from the upper 50s °F (14 °C) in the West Texas mountains[64] to 80 °F (27 °C) in Galveston.[65] For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... A map of Galveston Island, a barrier island on the Texas Gulf coast in the United States Galveston Island is a barrier island on the Texas Gulf coast in the United States, about 50 miles (80 kilometers) south of Houston. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... The Rio Grande Valley is an area located in the southernmost tip of Texas. ...


Thunderstorms are very common in Texas, especially the eastern and northern portion of the state. Texas also experiences the highest number of tornadoes out of every state in the Union, with an average of around 139 a year. Although these tend to strike most frequently in North Texas and the Panhandle, every part of the state is subject to these violent storms.[66] Tornadoes occur mostly between the months of April–July but may strike any time.[citation needed] A rolling thundercloud over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ...


Texas emits the most greenhouse gases in the US.[67] The state's annual carbon dioxide emissions are nearly 1.5 trillion pounds (680 billion kg). Texas would be the world's seventh-largest producer of greenhouse gases if it were an independent nation.[68][69] Much of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the state's refining and manufacturing industries which provide the bulk of the United States's petroleum products.[citation needed] Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Texas
The annual Houston International Festival spotlights a different culture each year
The annual Houston International Festival spotlights a different culture each year
Texas Population Density Map
Texas Population Density Map

As of 2006, the state has an estimated population of 23,507,783, an increase of 2.5% from the prior year and 12.7% since the year 2000. The natural increase since the last census was 1,389,275 people, immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 801,576 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 451,910 people.[2] As of 2004, the state has 3.5 million foreign-born residents (15.6 percent of the state population), of which an estimated 1.2 million are illegal aliens. More than one-third of the foreign-born population in Texas and 5.4 percent of the total state population comes from illegal immigration.[citation needed] Texas from 2000–2006 had the fastest growing illegal immigration rate in the nation.[70] Texas Population Density Map The center of population of Texas is located in Bell County, in the town of Holland [1]. As of 2005, the state has an estimated population of 22. ... Image File history File links Houston_International_Festival. ... Image File history File links Houston_International_Festival. ... Image File history File links Texas_population_map. ... Image File history File links Texas_population_map. ... Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law. ...


Racial group and ethnic origins

As of the 2006 US Census estimates, the racial distribution in Texas are as follows:

The largest reported ancestry groups in Texas are: Mexican (25.3%), German (10.9%), African American (10.5%), English (7.2%), and Scots-Irish (7.2%). Descendants from these ancestry groups are underreported.[citation needed] Much of the population of east, central, and north Texas have a white Protestant heritage, primarily descended from ancestors from Great Britain and Ireland.[citation needed] Much of central and southeast-central Texas is inhabited by German descendants. African Americans, who historically made up one-third of the state population during the 19th century, are concentrated in the parts of East Texas where the cotton plantation culture was most prominent before the American Civil War, as well as in Dallas and Houston.[citation needed] Because of a strong labor market, from 1995–2000, Texas is one of three states in the South that are receiving the high numbers of black college graduates in a New Great Migration.[71] Recently, the Asian population in Texas has grown—primarily in Houston and Dallas. The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... This article is about U.S. white Hispanic residents. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ...


After the European revolutions of 1848, German, Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, Czech and French immigration grew, and continued until World War I.[citation needed] The influence of the diverse immigrants from Europe survives in the names of towns, styles of architecture, genres of music, and varieties of cuisine. German settlements formed in frontier Texas, particularly in Fredericksburg and New Braunfels.[citation needed] Lavaca County is predominantly Czech.[citation needed] The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... A French American or Franco-American is a citizen of the United States of America of French descent and heritage. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ... Fredericksburg is a city in Gillespie County, Texas, United States. ... Motto: friendship Coordinates: County Comal County Founded 1845 Government  - Mayor Bruce Boyer Area  - City 76. ...


Over one-third of Texas residents are of Hispanic origin.[4] Many recently arrived, while Tejanos have ancestors with multigenerational ties in Texas. Hispanics dominate south, south-central, and west Texas. They are a significant proportion of residents in the San Antonio, Houston, and Dallas metropolitan areas. Immigrants (including illegal aliens)—primarily from far southern Mexico and Central America, contribute heavily to the state's growth.[citation needed] The influx of immigration is partially responsible for the state's having a young population compared relative to the rest of the United States.[citation needed] Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... Tejano is also the name of Texans of Spanish origin. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Illegal Aliens is a 2007 movie starring Anna Nicole Smith and Joanie Laurer. ...


American Indian tribes who once lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Comanche, Cherokee, Kiowa, Tonkawa, Wichita, Hueco and the Karankawa of Galveston. Currently, there are three federally recognized Native American tribes that reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo of Texas.[72] This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the Native American tribe, for other uses of the word see Apache (disambiguation). ... Atakapa The Atakapa (also Attacapan) were a Southeastern culture of Native American tribes and with a common language that lived along the Gulf of Mexico. ... |- Link title |}]]]]</nowiki> and Caddo, Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Comanche (disambiguation). ... This page contains special characters. ... This article is about the tribe. ... Seal of the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma Tonkawa The Tonkawa are a people native to central Texas, speaking the Tonkawa language. ... Tribal flag Wichita camp, 1904 For other uses, see Wichita (disambiguation). ... Karankawa A group of Native American peoples, now extinct, known collectively as the Karankawa (also Karankawan, Clamcoëhs, and called in their language Auia), played a pivotal part in early Texas history. ... Galveston redirects here. ... The Alabama or Alibamu (Albaamaha in the Alabama language) are a Southeastern culture of Native Americans, originally from what is now southern Alabama, which is named after them. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... The Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo is a United States federally-recognized Native American tribal entity outside El Paso, Texas, comprising Tiwa (Spanish: Tigua) pueblo people who were displaced from New Mexico in 1680 during the Pueblo Revolt against the Spaniards. ...


Religion

Lakewood Church interior
Lakewood Church interior

Texas is a part of the strong socially conservative Evangelical Protestant, Bible Belt, and has the highest percentage people with an religious affiliation in the nation.[73] Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas is home to three major evangelical seminaries and several of America's largest megachurches, including the Potter's House pastored by T.D Jakes and Prestonwood Baptist pastored by Jack Graham. Houston is home to the largest "church" in the nation, Lakewood Church, pastored by Joel Osteen. Lubbock, Texas has the most churches per capita in the nation.[73] Image File history File links The new Lakewood Church at the former Compaq Center. ... Image File history File links The new Lakewood Church at the former Compaq Center. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The approximate extent of the Bible Belt, indicated in red The Bible Belt is an informal term for an area of the United States of America in which socially conservative Christian Evangelical Protestantism is a dominant part of the culture. ... The Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex encompasses the metropolitan divisions of Dallas–Plano–Irving and Fort Worth–Arlington, within the U.S. state of Texas. ... The interior of Rev. ... Bishop T.D. (Thomas Dexter) Jakes (born June 9, 1957 in South Charleston, West Virginia) is an American televangelist. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... Lakewood Church exterior Lakewood Church interior Lakewood Church is a diverse, non-denominational megachurch located in Houston, Texas. ... Joel Scott Hayley Osteen (born March 5, 1963[2] in Houston, Texas) is the senior pastor of Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas, North America’s largest[3] and 2006s fastest growing church,[4] averaging more than 47,000 attendees at weekly services. ... “Lubbock” redirects here. ...


In 2000, The religious demographics of Texas were:[74]

The largest single denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Catholic Church 4,368,969, the Southern Baptist Convention 3,519,459 and the United Methodist Church 1,022,342[74]. Figures further note that there are approximately 400,000 Muslims in Texas.[75] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... In the United States, the Mainline churches are those Protestant denominations with moderate theologies which attempt to be open to new ideas and societal changes without abandoning what they consider to be the historical basis of the Christian faith. ... in Christianity: Eastern Christianity Oriental Orthodoxy Orthodox Christianity Orthodoxy by country in Judaism: Orthodox Judaism Modern Orthodox Judaism Jewish organisations: Orthodox Union Categories: ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States-based Christian denomination that consists of numerous agencies including six seminaries, two mission boards and a variety of other organizations such as: the Executive Committee of the Southern Baptist Convention, which can act for the SBC ad interim between annual meetings... This article is about the current Christian denomination based in the United States. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


Cities and towns

See also: List of cities in Texas, List of Texas metropolitan areas, and Population of Texas cities in 2000
Houston
Houston
San Antonio
San Antonio

As of 2000, six incorporated places in Texas had populations greater than 500,000, of which two are global cities: Houston and Dallas.[76] Texas has a total of 25 metropolitan areas, with four having populations over 1 million and two over 5 million. Texas has three cities with populations exceeding 1 million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas. This is the most cities of this size within one state.[citation needed] These three are also among the 10 largest cities of the United States. Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are also among the top 25 largest U.S. cities.[77] The Texas Urban Triangle is a region defined by three interstate highwaysI-35 to the west (Dallas-Fort Worth to San Antonio), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston). The region contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas, as well as nearly 75 percent of Texas' total population.[78] List of cities in Texas, arranged in alphabetical order. ... Texas has 25 metropolitan areas (MSAs) defined by the United States Census Bureau. ... Categories: Cities in Texas ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 413 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Houston, Texas Texas... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 413 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Houston, Texas Texas... “World city” redirects here. ... Texas has 25 metropolitan areas (MSAs) defined by the United States Census Bureau. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 35 Interstate 35 (abbreviated I-35) is a north–south interstate highway in the central United States. ... Interstate 45 (I-45) is an Interstate Highway located entirely within the U.S. state of Texas. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 10 Interstate 10 (abbreviated I-10) is the southernmost east-west, coast-to-coast interstate highway in the United States. ... Texas has 25 metropolitan areas (MSAs) defined by the United States Census Bureau. ...


Colonias

Colonias along the U.S.Mexican border, refer to rural, unincorporated settlements which often lack basic infrastructure and which are marked by poverty. As of 2007, Texas has the largest concentration of people, approximately 400,000, living in colonias on the U.S. side of the border.[79] There are more than 2,294 Texas colonias, located primarily along the state's 1,248-mile (2,008 km) border with Mexico. The colonia population is predominately Hispanic. Colonias, as used along the U.S.-Mexican border, refer to rural, unincorporated settlements which often lack basic infrastructure and which are marked by poverty. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ...


Government and politics

The Texas Constitution, adopted in 1876, like many state constitutions, explicitly provides separation of powers. The state's Bill of Rights has provisions unique to Texas and is considerably longer than its federal counterpart.[80] The Government of Texas consists of a state government, as well as governments at the county and municipal levels. ... For approximately 100 years, from the end of Reconstruction until the 1970s, the Democratic Party was dominant in Texas Politics. ... The Texas Constitution is the document that describes the structure and function of the government of Texas. ... In the context of the United States of America, a state constitution is the governing document of a U.S. state, comparable to the U.S. Constitution which is the governing document of the United States. ... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ...


State government

See also: List of Texas state agencies

Texas's has a plural executive branch system with limits the power of the Governor. Except for the Secretary of State, all executive officers are elected independently making them directly answerable to the public not the Governor.[81] Past executive branches have been split between parties. When Republican President George W. Bush served as Texas' governor, the state's Lieutenant Governor, Bob Bullock, was a Democrat. The executive branch positions consists of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Land Commissioner, Attorney General, Agriculture Commissioner, the three-member Texas Railroad Commission, the State Board of Education, and the Secretary of State.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2400x1641, 2664 KB) Summary Description: The Texas State Capitol Source: Image taken by Larry D. Moore (User:Nv8200p) using a Kodak EasyShare Z740 Date: January 27, 2006 Location: 30. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2400x1641, 2664 KB) Summary Description: The Texas State Capitol Source: Image taken by Larry D. Moore (User:Nv8200p) using a Kodak EasyShare Z740 Date: January 27, 2006 Location: 30. ... The Capitol Building is brilliantly illuminated at night The Texas State Capitol, located in Austin, Texas, is the fourth building to serve as the seat of Texas government. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The Secretary of State is keeper of the Seal of the State of Texas, depicted here The Secretary of State of Texas is one of six state officials designated by the Texas Constitution to form the Executive Department of the State. ... GOP redirects here. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Texas Lieutenant Governor Bob Bullock Bob Bullock (July 10, 1929 - June 18, 1999) was an American politician from Texas. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... In politics, Governor of Texas is the title given to the chief executive of the state of Texas. ... Lieutenant Governor of Texas is the second-highest executive office in state government. ... The Texas Railroad Commission was a government agency created in the 1930s to regulate the petroleum industry in the state of Texas. ...


The bicameral Texas Legislature consists of the House of Representatives, with 150 members, and a Senate, with 31 members. The Speaker of the House leads the House, and the Lieutenant Governor leads the Senate. The Legislature meets in regular session biennially, but the Governor can call for special sessions as often as desired.[citation needed] In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Texas Senate in session The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. ... The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. ... The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ...


Judicial system

Main article: Texas judicial system
See also: Capital punishment in Texas

The judicial system of Texas is one of the most complex in the United States, with many layers and overlapping jurisdictions. Texas has two courts of last resort: the Texas Supreme Court, for civil cases, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. Except for some municipal benches, partisan elections select judges at all levels of the judiciary; the Governor fills vacancies by appointment.[82] The Texas judicial system has been called one of the most complex in the United States, if not the world. ... Capital punishment has been used in the U.S. state of Texas and its predecessor entities since 1819. ... The U.S. state of Texas has two courts of last resort: the Texas Supreme Court, which is the highest state appellate court for civil matters (including juvenile delinquency, which the law considers to be a civil matter and not criminal) and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, the highest... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The justice system in Texas has strict sentencing for criminals. Texas leads the nation in the curious distinction of carrying out the most executions, 400, from 1982 to 2007.[83] Only capital murder is eligible for the death penalty. In 2008 the state considered a bill making rape of a child a capital crime in some instances.[84] Before 2005, the alternate sentence was life with the possibility of parole after 40 calendar years; in 2005, the law was modified to make the alternate sentence life without parole. Murder is both a legal and a moral term, that are not always coincident. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Life imprisonment or life incarceration is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, often for most or even all of the criminals remaining life, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 7 to 50 years... It has been suggested that Medical parole be merged into this article or section. ... Life imprisonment or life incarceration is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, often for most or even all of the criminals remaining life, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 7 to 50 years...


Known for their role in Texas law enforcement history, the Texas Ranger Division of the Texas Department of Public Safety continue to provide special law enforcement services to the state. Texas Game Wardens—law enforcement officers employed by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department—are given the same level of authority as standard law enforcement officers.[citation needed] For other uses, see Texas Rangers. ... The Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS) is a department of the government of the state of Texas. ... Official Texas Parks and Wildlife Department logo The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department is a Texas state agency that oversees and protects wildlife and their habitats. ...


Politics

Main articles: Republican Party of Texas and Texas Democratic Party
See also: Disfranchisement after the Civil War
Lyndon B. Johnson, the 36th president of the United States from Texas
Lyndon B. Johnson, the 36th president of the United States from Texas

Like other "Solid South" states, whites resented the Republican Party after the American Civil War. After regaining power near the end of Reconstruction, the Democratic Party held a monolithic political presence in Texas until the late 20th century. After the 1960s, Conservative Democrats in Texas began to endorse Republican presidential candidates.[citation needed] When President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, he reportedly said "We have lost the South for a generation".[85] Scholars attribute the change to the success of Nixon's Southern Strategy. In 1978, Texas Republicans elected their first post-reconstruction governor and in 2003 they gained control of the state legislature.[citation needed] The Republican Party of Texas is the affiliate of the Republican Party in Texas. ... The Texas Democratic Party is the local branch of the Democratic Party in the state of Texas. ... The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1870 to protect the suffrage of freedmen after the American Civil War. ... Download high resolution version (407x619, 70 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (407x619, 70 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... LBJ redirects here. ... The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ... GOP redirects here. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... In American politics, Conservative Democrat is a term referring to a member of the Democratic Party who holds some conservative political views. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. ... In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states. ... The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. ...


Today, Republicans control most of Texas's U.S. House of Representatives delegation, and both U.S. Senators. Of the 32 congressional districts in Texas, 19 seats are held by Republicans and 13 by Democrats. Texas Republicans in the U.S. Senate are Kay Bailey Hutchison and John Cornyn. Since 1994, Texans have not elected a Democrat to a statewide office. The state's Democratic presence is primarily comprised of minority groups and urban voters, particularly in Austin. Democrats and independents still hold positions in city governments.[citation needed] The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Texas to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Kathryn Ann Bailey Hutchison, usually known as Kay Bailey Hutchison (born July 22, 1943, in Galveston, Texas), is the senior United States Senator from Texas. ... John Cornyn III (born February 2, 1952) is the junior United States Senator from Texas. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ...


The Texas political atmosphere leans towards fiscal and social conservatism.[citation needed] Since 1980, most of Texas voters have supported Republican Presidential candidates. In 2000 and 2004, Republican George W. Bush won Texas with 60.1% of the vote. He was a "favorite son" as a recent Governor of the state. Austin is the state's most liberal or "populist" city. Houston is among the few urban areas that consistently vote Republican, but its metropolitan areas are very divided politically. Dallas remains approximately split. In the southwest part of the state, particularly in El Paso, Democrats are strong.[citation needed] Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic liberalism) is a term used in the United States to refer to economic and political policy that advocates restraint of government taxation, government expenditures and deficits, and government debt. ... Social conservatism generally refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or ones community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... Houston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation). ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Administrative divisions

Map outlining 254 counties of Texas
See also: List of Texas counties

Texas has 32 congressional districts, the second-most after California. See map. There are 254 counties—the most nationwide. Each county is run by a Commissioners' Court consisting of four elected commissioners and a county judge. County government is similar to a "weak" mayor-council system; the county judge has no veto authority, but votes along with the other commissioners. County elections are partisan.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1009x964, 106 KB) This image is a work of a United States Census Bureau employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1009x964, 106 KB) This image is a work of a United States Census Bureau employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Index: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Anderson County formed in 1846 from part of Houston County. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Texas to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Congressional districts for representation in the United States House of Representatives are determined after each census. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... Mayor-Council government is one of two variations of government most commonly used in modern representative municipal governments. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ...


Texas does not allow consolidated city-county governments, nor does it have metropolitan governments. Cities and counties are permitted to enter "interlocal agreements" to share services. Further, counties are not granted home rule status; their powers are strictly defined by state law. The state does not have townships— areas within a county are either incorporated or unincorporated. Incorporated areas are part of a municipality. The county provides services to unincorporated areas. Municipalities are classified as either "general law" or "home rule". A municipality may elect home rule status once it exceeds 5,000 population with voter approval. Municipal elections in Texas are nonpartisan.[citation needed] In the United States the term metropolitan government is most frequently used to describe a system of municipal government in which most or all of the functions of a government of a county are combined with those of its principal city. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... The term township generally means the district or area associated with a town. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... In U.S. politics, nonpartisan denotes an election in which the candidates do not declare or do not formally have a political party affiliation. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Texas
See also: List of military installations in Texas

Texas' large population, its abundance of natural resources, and diverse population and geography has led the state to have a large and highly diverse economy. For a time, since the discovery of oil, the state's economy reflected the state of the petroleum industry. In recent times, urban centers of the state have diversified employing two-thirds of the population in 2005. Growth in the state's economy has caused problems in Texas associated with urban sprawl.[86] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An aerial view of the complete Johnson Space Center facility in Houston, Texas in 1989. ... The economy of Texas is a dominant force in the economy of the United States. ... Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio Randolph Air Force Base, San Antonio Brooks City-Base, San Antonio Dyess Air Force Base, Abilene Goodfellow Air Force Base, San Angelo Laughlin Air Force Base, Del Rio Sheppard Air Force Base, Wichita Falls Fort Hood, Killeen Fort Bliss, El Paso Fort Sam Houston... Petro redirects here. ... Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ...


In the fourth quarter of 2006, Texas had a gross state product of $1.09 trillion, the second highest in the U.S.[87][88] Gross state product per capita as of 2005 was $42,975. The state is home to the most Fortune 500 companies in the United States. [89][90] In 2004, the Site Selection magazine ranked Texas as the most business friendly state in the nation. A big reason for this ranking is the state's three billion dollar, Texas Enterprise Fund.[91] GDP redirects here. ... Map of states by Gross state product This article presents a list of U.S. states sorted by their gross state product (GSP). ... Gross state product is a measurment of the economic output of a U.S. state or an Australian state. ... The Fortune 500 is a ranking of the top 500 United States corporations as measured by gross revenue. ... The Texas Enterprise Fund is a business incentive fund that was created by legislation in 2003. ...


Texas's growth can be attributed to the availability of jobs, the low cost of housing, the lack of a personal state income tax, high quality of education, low taxation and limited regulation of business, a central geographic location, a limited government, favorable weather, and abundant natural resources.[citation needed] On a darker note, the economic impact of illegal immigration is significant but difficult to estimate.[citation needed] States with no state income tax are in red, states taxing only dividend and interest income are in yellow Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        State income tax is an income tax in the United States that is levied by each... In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses. ... Texas Senate in session The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. ... Texass climate varies widely, from arid in the west to wet in the east. ... Those who find positive economic effects focus on added productivity and lower costs to consumers for certain goods and services. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ...


Agriculture and mining

Texas is a productive agricultural state with the most farms both in number and acreage in the United States.[92] Texas leads the nation in the value of cattle it produces, the state's most valuable agricultural product.[92] The state also leads nationally in production of sheep and goat products. Texas is king of cotton leading the nation in cotton production, its leading crop and second-most-valuable farm product.[92] Texas is a leader in cereal crop production. The state is a large produce growing state especially with watermelons, grapefruits and cantaloupes.[92] Texas also has a large commercial fishing industry. With mineral resources, Texas leads in creating cement, crushed stone, lime, salt, sand and gravel.[92] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (2748 × 1963 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (2748 × 1963 pixel, file size: 3. ... For other uses, see Longhorn. ... King Cotton is a phrase used in the Southern United States. ... Grain redirects here. ... Produce on display at La Boqueria market in Barcelona, Spain. ...


Energy

An oil well
An oil well
See also: Deregulation of the Texas electricity market

Texans consume the most energy in the nation both in per capita and as a whole.[93] Since 2002, Texas deregulated its electric service with mixed results.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The Railroad Commission of Texas, contrary to its name, regulates the state's oil and gas industry, gas utilities, pipeline safety, safety in the liquefied petroleum gas industry, and surface coal and uranium mining. Until the 1970s, the commission had enormous control the price of petroleum because of its ability to regulate Texas oil reserves. The founders of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) used the Texas agency as as one of their models for petroleum price control.[94] The Railroad Commission of Texas is the state agency that regulates the oil and gas industry, gas utilities, pipeline and rail safety, safety in the liquefied petroleum gas industry, and surface coal and uranium mining. ... The Oil industry brings to market what is currently considered the lifeblood of nearly all other industry, if not industrialized civilization itself. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ...


The state has known petroleum deposits of about 8 billion barrels (1,300,000,000 m³), which makes up approximately one-third of the known U.S. supply.[95] Texas refineries can process 4.6 million barrels (730,000 m³) of oil a day.[93] As wells are depleted in the eastern portions of the state, drilling in state has moved westward.[92] Several petroleum companies are based in Texas such as: Conoco-Phillips, Exxon-Mobil, Halliburton, Valero, and Marathon Oil. Petro redirects here. ... This is a list of petroleum companies. ... ConocoPhillips (NYSE: COP) is an international energy corporation with its headquarters located in Houston, Texas. ... Exxon-branded gas station in California (actually operated by Valero) Greenpeace protest against Exxon Mobil Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... For other uses, see Haliburton. ... Valero Energy Corporation (NYSE: VLO) is a Fortune 500 company based in San Antonio, Texas, with 21,836 employees and annual revenue of more than US$90 billion. ... For other senses of this word, see Marathon (disambiguation). ...


The state is also a leader in alternative energy sources producing the most wind power of nationwide.[93][96] Texas also leader in natural gas production producing one-fourth of the nation's supply.[93] Vestas wind turbine in Lubbock, Texas Wind power in Texas consists of many wind farms with a total installed capacity of 2,749 megawatts (MW) at the end of December 2006. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Technology

With large universities systems coupled with initiatives like TEF and the Texas Emerging Technology Fund, a wide array of different high tech industries have developed in Texas. The Austin area is nicknamed the "Silicon Hills" (the Austin area) and the north Dallas area the "Silicon Prairie". High tech companies such as the computer manufacturer Dell, Inc., the semiconductor company Texas Instruments, and the information technology consulting company Electronic Data Systems (EDS) are headquartered in Texas. As for emerging technologies, in 2008, FierceBiotech ranked Texas as one of the top five biotechnology states.[97] Image File history File links GodPod. ... Image File history File links GodPod. ... Electronic Data Systems (EDS) (NYSE: EDS, LSE: EDC) is a global business and technology services company that defined the outsourcing business when it was established in 1962 by Ross Perot. ... Nickname: Location within the state of Texas Coordinates: , County Government  - Mayor Pat Evans Area  - City 185. ... The Texas Emerging Technology Fund (TETF) was created by legislation in 2005 and had its first award given out by 2006. ... The Silicon Prairie usually refers to the Dallas metropolitan area (specifically the northern region and its suburbs) for the high concentration of Information Technology companies in the area. ... Dell Inc. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... Information technology consulting (IT consulting or business and technology services) is a field that focuses on advising businesses on how best to use information technology to meet their business objectives. ... Electronic Data Systems (EDS) (NYSE: EDS, LSE: EDC) is a global business and technology services company that defined the outsourcing business when it was established in 1962 by Ross Perot. ... Emerging technologies and converging technologies are terms used interchangeably to cover the emergence and convergence of new and potentially disruptive technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, cognitive science, robotics, and artificial intelligence. ...


The crown jewel of Texas's aeronautics industry is the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, the center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), located in Southeast Houston. Both Lockheed Martin's Aeronautics division and Bell Helicopter Textron are located in Fort Worth, Texas.[citation needed] The F-16 Fighting Falcon, the largest Western fighter program is produced in Fort Worth, and its successor, the F-35 Lightning II will also be produced in Fort Worth.[citation needed] An aerial view of the Johnson Space Center facility of Houston in 1989 The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations center for human spaceflight activities. ... NASA Logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Lockheed/BAE/Northrop F-35 Lockheed Trident missile C-130 Hercules; in production since the 1950s, now as the C-130J Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is an aerospace manufacturer formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. ... Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company is a major unit of Lockheed Martin with headquarters at Fort Worth, Texas. ... Bell Helicopter Textron is an American helicopter and tiltrotor manufacturer headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas. ... Nickname: Motto: Where the West Begins Location of Fort Worth in Tarrant County, Texas Coordinates: , Country State Counties Tarrant, Denton Government  - Mayor Michael J. Moncrief Area  - City 298. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ... The F-35 Lightning II is a single-seat, single-engine, stealth-capable military strike fighter, a multi-role aircraft that can perform close air support, tactical bombing, and air-to-air combat. ...


Commerce

Texas' affluence has led to a strong commercial sector consisting of retail, wholesale, banking and insurance, and construction industries. Examples of Fortune 500 companies that are not based on Texas traditional industries are: AT&T, Men's Warehouse, Landry's Restaurants, Kimberly-Clark, Blockbuster, Whole Foods Market, and Tenet Healthcare.[98] Nationally, the Dallas–Fort Worth area, home to the second shopping center in the United States, Highland Park Village, has the most shopping centers per capita than any metropolitan area.[99] The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... The Fortune 500 is a ranking of the top 500 United States corporations as measured by gross revenue. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... Mens Wearhouse (NYSE: MW) is the largest mens dress apparel retailer in the United States. ... Landrys Restaurants, Inc. ... Kimberly-Clark Corporation (NYSE: KMB, BMV: Kimber) is an American corporation that produces mostly paper-based consumer products. ... Blockbuster can refer to: Block Buster firework Illegal firecracker Blockbuster Fireworks, a chain of firework stands located in the Los Angeles area. ... Whole Foods Market (NASDAQ: WFMI) is an Austin, Texas-based natural foods grocer, which, as of July 5, 2007, consisted of 196[3] locations in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. ... Tenet Healthcare Corporation NYSE: THC is a holding company that owns and operates hospitals in the United States. ... Highland Park Village is an upscale shopping mall located at the southwest corner of Mockingbird Lane and Preston Road in Highland Park, Texas (USA) and was the second shopping mall ever to be constructed in the United States. ... For the traditional meaning of the word mall, see mall. ...


In 2006, for the fifth year in a row, Texas led the nation in export revenues. Texas exports for 2006 totaled $150.8 billion, which is $22.1 billion more than 2005 and represents a 17.2 percent increase.[citation needed] A large contributor to this trend is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The state's largest trading partner is Mexico, with the accounts for a third the state's exports. NAFTA has led to the formation of controversial maquiladoras on the Texas/Mexico border.[100] NAFTA redirects here. ... A maquiladora (or maquila) is a factory, that imports materials and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly or manufacturing. ...


Transportation

Transportation in Texas has been difficult historically because of the state's large size and terrain. To compensate, Texas has built both the largest road and railway in terms of mileage nationwide.[101] The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) is the state's regulatory authority, whose stated mission is to "work cooperatively to provide safe, effective and efficient movement of people and goods."[102] Though the public face of the agency is generally associated with maintenance of the state's immense highway system, the agency is also responsible for aviation.[103] in the state and overseeing public transportation systems.[104] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... // History The Texas Legislature created the Texas Highway Department in 1917 to administer federal highway construction and maintenance. ... A Regulatory Authority or Regulator is a government agency that regulates an area of human activity by codifying and enforcing rules and regulations, supervision or oversight, for the benefit of the public at large. ... For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ...


Highways

I-10 and I-45 interchange in Houston
I-10 and I-45 interchange in Houston
Main articles: Texas state highways and Texas Tollways

Texas freeways have been heavily traveled since the 1948 opening of the Gulf Freeway in Houston.[105] As of 2005, there were 79,535 miles (127,999 km) of public highway in Texas (up from 71,000 miles (114,263 km) in 1984).[106] Tollways are common in Texas primarily due to lack of funds from traditional revenue sources. There are approximately 17 current toll roads in the state with additional roads proposed.[107] In the western part of the state, both I-10 and I-20 have a speed limit of 80 miles per hour (130 km/h), the highest in the nation.[108] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... The Gulf Freeway is a stretch of Interstate Highway 45 in the U.S. state of Texas, connecting Galveston with Houston. ... Houston redirects here. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... This is a list of toll roads in the United States. ... Interstate 10, or I-10, is the southernmost east-west, coast-to-coast interstate highway in the United States. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Speed limits in the United States are set by each state. ...


The Trans-Texas Corridor (TTC), also known has the NAFTA freeway, is a transportation network in the planning and early construction stages. The network, as planned, would be composed of a 4,000-mile (6,000 km) network of supercorridors up to 1,200 feet (370 m) wide to carry parallel lines of tollways, rails, and utility lines.[109] The Trans-Texas Corridor (TTC) is a transportation network in the planning and early construction stages in the U.S. state of Texas. ... Nafta or NAFTA may refer to: an acronym for the North American Free Trade Agreement an acronym for the New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement the town/Tokyo of Nafta, Tunisia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ...


Airports

See also: List of airports in Texas

The Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, is the largest airport in the state, the second largest in the United States, and fourth largest in the world.[110] In traffic, DFW is the busiest in the state, fourth busiest in the United States,[111] and sixth busiest in the world.[112] The airport serves 135 domestic destinations and 40 international. DFW is the largest and main hub for American Airlines, the world's largest in total passengers-miles transported[113] and passenger fleet size.[114] List of airports in Texas (U.S. state), grouped by type and sorted by location. ... Download high resolution version (1487x1058, 320 KB)Aerial shot of Dallas Fort Worth airport from [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport Categories: NASA images ... Download high resolution version (1487x1058, 320 KB)Aerial shot of Dallas Fort Worth airport from [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport Categories: NASA images ... DFW redirects here. ... DFW redirects here. ... An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. ... American Airlines, Inc. ...


Texas's second-largest air facility is Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH). Houston is the headquarters of Continental Airlines, and is the airline's largest hub. IAH offers service to the most Mexican destinations of any U.S. airport. IAH ranks second among U.S. airports with scheduled non-stop domestic and international service.[citation needed] George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IATA: IAH, ICAO: KIAH, FAA LID: IAH)[2] is an international airport in the city of Houston, Texas, United States serving the Greater Houston area. ... Houston redirects here. ... Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) is a U.S. certificated air carrier. ...


Southwest Airlines, headquartered in Dallas, Texas, began its operations at Dallas Love Field.[115] It is the largest airline in the United States by number of passengers carried domestically per year and the largest airline in the world by number of passengers carried.[116] The airline's growth from its original hub is limited by the Wright Amendment of 1979. The amendment originally limited most nonstop flights to destinations within Texas and neighboring states. The limits were expanded in 1997 and 2005, and a law repealing the amendment was enacted in October 2006. That law eliminates some of the restrictions and leaves others intact until 2014.[117] This article is about the American airline. ... Dallas Love Field (IATA: DAL, ICAO: KDAL, FAA LID: DAL) is a public airport located five miles (8 km) northwest of the central business district (CBD) of the City of Dallas, in Dallas County, Texas, USA. The airport covers 1,300 acres and has three runways. ... There are several methods to measure the size of an airline, so several different lists of the worlds largest airlines are available. ... The Wright Amendment of 1979 was a federal law which originally limited traffic from Dallass Love Field airport to points within Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. ...


Ports

Over 1,000 seaports dot Texas's coast with over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of channels.[118] Ports employ nearly one-million people and handle and average of 317 million metric tons.[119] Texas ports are connected with the rest of the US Atlantic seaboard in the Gulf section of the Intracoastal Waterway.[118] Until the deadliest hurricane in US history of 1900, the state's primary port, was Galveston. The Port of Houston replaced Galveston and today is the busiest port in the United States in foreign tonnage, second in overall tonnage, and tenth worldwide tonnage.[120] The Houston Ship Channel, is currently 530 feet (160 m) wide by 45 feet (14 m) deep by 50 miles (80 km) long and continues to be expanded.[121] The Port of Houston The Port of Houston is the port of Houston, Texas, the fourth-largest city in the United States. ... This is a list of ports of the United States, ranked by tonnage. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... For the geographical meanings of this word, see channel (geography). ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... Categories: Stub ... Tug and barge on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway Navigation on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW), where it intersects with Bayou Perot, in the vicinity of New Orleans The Intracoastal Waterway is a 4,800-km (3,000-mile) recreational and commercial waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the... Lowest pressure 936 mbar (hPa; 27. ... Galveston redirects here. ... The Port of Houston The Port of Houston is the port of Houston, Texas, the fourth-largest city in the United States. ... This is a list of the worlds busiest seaports by cargo tonnage, the total mass of actual cargo transported through the port. ... The Port of Houston is the port of Houston, Texas, the fourth largest city in the United States. ...


Railroads

See also: List of Texas railroads

Part of the state's cowboy legends are based on cattle drives where livestock was herded from Texas to railroads in Kansas. The first railroad in Texas completed in 1872, the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad, diminished the need for these drives. The desire for the benefits of railroads was so strong that Dallasites paid $5,000 for the Houston and Central Texas Railroad to shift its route through its location, rather than Corsicana as planned.[122] Since 1911, Texas has led the nation in railroad length. Texas railway mileage peaked in 1932 at 17,078 miles (27,484 km), but since has dwindled to 14,006 miles (22,540 km) in 2000.[101] The state's oldest regulatory agency, the Railroad Commission of Texas, originally regulated the railroads, but in 2005, the state transferred to these duties to TxDOT.[123] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,110 × 2,070 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,110 × 2,070 pixels, file size: 2. ... METRORail is the light rail service in Houston, Texas, United States that started on January 1, 2004. ... Houston redirects here. ... . Current common carriers Amtrak (AMTK) Angelina and Neches River Railroad (ANR) Blacklands Railroad (BLR) Border Pacific Railroad (BOP) Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway (BNSF) Fort Worth and Western Railroad (FWWR) Georgetown Railroad (GRR) Grainbelt Corporation (GNBC) Gulf, Colorado and San Saba Railway (GCSR) Jefferson and Cypress Bayou Railway (JCB) Kansas... For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ... The cattle drives started in the late 1800s. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... The Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad (known as the MKT, or Katy) began as the Union Pacific Railway, Southern Branch (unrelated to the Union Pacific Railroad) in 1865. ... Corsicana is a city in Navarro County, Texas, United States. ... The Railroad Commission of Texas is the state agency that regulates the oil and gas industry, gas utilities, pipeline and rail safety, safety in the liquefied petroleum gas industry, and surface coal and uranium mining. ...


Light rail systems have been in have been implemented in both Dallas and Houston. Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) operates the first light rail system in the Southwest United States.[124] The commuter rail service, the Trinity Railway Express (TRE), links Fort Worth & Dallas provided by the Fort Worth Transportation Authority (the T) and DART.[125] The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (METRO) operates lines in the Houston area. Currently, intercity passenger rail service in Texas is limited from both network and frequency viewpoint, with just three Amtrak trains serving the state: the daily Texas Eagle (Chicago–San Antonio), the tri-weekly Sunset Limited (New Orleans–Los Angeles), and the daily Heartland Flyer (Fort Worth–Oklahoma City). This article is about light rail systems in general. ... A DART Bus operating in downtown Dallas The Dallas Area Rapid Transit authority (or DART) is the transit agency in Dallas, Texas that operates buses, light rail (including an underground station), commuter rail, and HOV lanes in Dallas and 12 of its suburbs. ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... The Trinity Railway Express (or TRE) is a commuter rail line in the system of mass transit in Dallas and Fort Worth operated by an interlocal agreement between the Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) system and The T in Fort Worth. ... Fort Worth Transportation Authority is the operator of the bus system of the city of Fort Worth, Texas, popularily known as The T. The T also partners with DART of Dallas through the Trinity Railway Express (TRE), which offers commuter rail service from downtown Fort Worth to DFW Airport and... A group of METRO buses parked at the Texas Medical Center Transit Center The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (METRO) operates bus, lift bus, and light rail service in Harris County, Texas, which includes Houston. ... Vermonter at the Brattleboro, Vermont, station, 18 March 2004. ... The Texas Eagle is a 1306-mile (2102 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the central and western United States. ... Amtraks eastbound Sunset Limited at the Houston Amtrak station. ... Amtraks Heartland Flyer is a daily train that follows a 206-mile (332-km) route between Fort Worth, Texas and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Texas
See also: List of people from Texas, List of Texas symbols, Don't Mess with Texas, Gone to Texas, and Architecture of Texas
Big Tex has presided over every Texas State Fair since 1952

Texas historically has had a culture that has been a blend of Southern (Dixie), Western (frontier), and Mexican influences.[citation needed] In addition to Texas's traditional culture, immigration has caused Texas to become a melting pot of different cultures around the world. Texas's strong academic institutions and strong biomedical, energy, manufacturing and aerospace industries are the state's primary attractions for immigrants.[citation needed] This article should appear in one or more categories. ... The following are people who were either born/raised or have lived for a significant period of time in Texas. ... // USS Texas (BB-35), the oldest remaining dreadnought. ... The phrase Dont Mess with Texas is a slogan for the Texas Department of Transportation designed to reduce littering on Texas roadways used as part of a statewide advertising campaign in 1986. ... Gone to Texas, often abbreviated G.T.T. or GTT, was a phrase used by Americans immigrating to Texas in the 19th century[1] often to escape debt[2], especially in the South and Midwest. ... Download high resolution version (800x1200, 346 KB) Taken by Joyous at the Texas State Fair, October 11, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (800x1200, 346 KB) Taken by Joyous at the Texas State Fair, October 11, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Big Tex has presided over every Texas State Fair since 1952. ... The Texas Star, North Americas largest ferris wheel at the State Fair of Texas The State Fair of Texas is an annual state fair held in Dallas, Texas (USA). ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ...


Arts

Further information: Music of Texas

Houston is one of only five American cities with permanent professional resident companies in all of the major performing arts disciplines (the Houston Grand Opera, the Houston Symphony Orchestra, the Houston Ballet, and The Alley Theatre).[126] Known for the vibrancy of its visual and performing arts, the Houston Theatre District—a 17-block area in the heart of Downtown Houston—is ranked second in the country in the number of theatre seats in a concentrated downtown area with 12,948 seats for live performances and 1,480 movie seats.[126] Texas has long been a center for musical innovation. ... Houston redirects here. ... The Houston Grand Opera (HGO) is a Houston, Texas-based opera company. ... Jones Hall The Houston Symphony Orchestra is one of the United States of Americas major orchestras, based, as its name suggests, in Houston, Texas. ... The Houston Ballet, operated by the Houston Ballet Foundation, is the fourth-largest professional ballet company in the United States, based in Houston, Texas. ... Alley Theater, February 2003 Alley Theatre is a famous theatre in Downtown Houston. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... The Alley Theatre The Houston Theater District, a 17-block area in the heart of Downtown Houston, is home to Houstons nine world-class performing arts organizations, the 130,000 square-foot Bayou Place entertainment complex, restaurants, movies, plazas and parks. ... Skyline District of Downtown Downtown Houston is Houstons largest business district. ...


Fort Worth is an epicenter of the North Texas region's art scene. Founded in 1892, The Modern, formerly the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, is the oldest art museum in Texas. The city is also home to the Kimbell Art Museum, the Amon Carter Museum, the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame, the Will Rogers Memorial Center, and the Bass Performance Hall downtown.[citation needed] The Arts District of Downtown Dallas is home to arts venues such as the Dallas Museum of Art, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, and the Nasher Sculpture Center.[citation needed] Fort Worth is the sixth-largest city in the state of Texas, located about 30 miles west of Dallas on the West Fork Trinity River and forming part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. ... Fort Worth Texas Modern Art Museum This image is taken from the deck of The Modern, looking over the new reflecting pool towards downtown Fort Worth. ... The Kimbell Art Museum is situated in the Cultural District of Fort Worth, Texas. ... The Amon Carter Museum is located in Fort Worth, Texas. ... The National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame is located in Forth Worth, Texas. ... The Will Rogers Memorial Center is an 85-acre public entertainment and sports complex located in Forth Worth, Texas in the United States. ... The Bass Performance Hall in Fort Worth, Texas The Nancy Lee and Perry R. Bass Performance Hall in Fort Worth, Texas is located in downtown Fort Worth near Sundance Square, occupies a whole city block, and was opened in 1998. ... The Nasher Sculpture Center. ... Pedestrians along Stone Street. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Meyerson Symphony Center Exterior Meyerson Symphony Center Exterior The Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center is a concert hall in the Arts District of Downtown Dallas, Texas designed by Chinese-American architect I.M. Pei and opened in September of 1989. ... This museum is a gift from Mr. ... A sculpture at the center. ...

The Deep Ellum district within Dallas became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz and blues hotspot in the Southern United States. The name Deep Ellum is thought to have derived from local people saying "Deep Elm", with it sounding like "Deep Ellum".[citation needed] Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson, Robert Johnson, Huddie "Leadbelly" Ledbetter, and Bessie Smith played in early Deep Ellum clubs like The Harlem and The Palace.[citation needed] Today, the district is home to hundreds of artists who live in lofts and operate in studios throughout the district alongside bars, pubs, and concert venues[citation needed]. One major art infusion has resulted from the city's lax stance on graffiti: several public ways, including tunnels, sides of buildings, sidewalks, and streets, are covered in graffiti murals.[citation needed] Hobby Center for the Performing Arts is a theater in Houston, Texas. ... The Gypsy Tea Room in Deep Ellum Deep Ellum is an arts and entertainment district near downtown Dallas, Texas (USA). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Blues music redirects here. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Blind Lemon Jefferson (October 26, 1894 – December 1929) was an influential blues singer and guitarist from Texas. ... Robert Johnson, born Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8, 1911 – August 16, 1938) is among the most famous of Delta blues musicians. ... Leadbelly, also known as Lead Belly (born Huddie William Ledbetter; January 20, 1889 (although this is debatable) - December 6, 1949), was an American folk and blues musician, notable for his clear and forceful singing, his virtuosity on the twelve string guitar, and the rich songbook of folk standards he introduced. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ...


Austin, Texas, the The Live Music Capital of the World, boasts the most venues per capita citywise.[127] The city's music revolves around the nightclubs on 6th Street and an annual film, music, and multimedia festival known as South by Southwest.[128] The longest-running concert music program on American television, Austin City Limits and its similarly named music festival are located at the University of Texas at Austin at Zilker Park. Over the past couple of decades, San Antonio has evolved into the "Nashville of Tejano music." The Tejano Music Awards have provided a forum to create greater awareness and appreciation for Tejano music and culture.[129] Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... Stevie Ray Vaughan statue on Austins Town Lake. ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... 6th Street is a street in Austin, Texas. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Downtown Austin, Texas, where SXSW is held each spring Bloc Party performing at Stubbs BBQ in 2007 Carrie Rodriguez, a SXSW 2007 performer Morrissey at SXSW 2006 South by Southwest (SXSW) is a set of interactive, film, and music festivals and conferences that have taken place every spring in... Stevie Ray Vaughan performing on Austin City Limits. ... The Austin City Limits Music Festival is an annual three-day music and art festival in Austin, Texass Zilker Park. ... University of Texas at Austin The University of Texas at Austin (full official name), often UT or Texas for short, is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System, the largest public university system in Texas, established in 1883. ... Zilker Metropolitan Park is a recreational area in the heart of south Austin (near Barton Springs Pool and Lady Bird Lake) that comprises over 350 acres (1. ... San Antonio redirects here. ... Tejano music (Spanish-Texan music) is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic populations of Central and Southern Texas. ... Tejano (Spanish for Texan) or Tex-Mex music is the various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Mexican-descended Tejanos of Central and South Texas. ...


Sports

Main article: Sports in Texas
Further information: List of Texas sports teams, and List of University Interscholastic League events
Rangers Ballpark in Arlington, home of the Texas Rangers
Rangers Ballpark in Arlington, home of the Texas Rangers

While American football has long been considered “king” in the state, Texans today enjoy a wide variety of sports.[130] Texans have a plethora of professional sports teams to cheer for. Texas is home to two NFL teams, the Houston Texans and the Dallas Cowboys; two Major League Baseball teams, the Texas Rangers and Houston Astros; three NBA teams: the Houston Rockets, the San Antonio Spurs, and the Dallas Mavericks; and one National Hockey League team, the Dallas Stars. Dallas/Fort Worth metropolitan area is one of only 13 American cities that have sports teams from the "Big Four" professional leagues. Other professional teams include the WNBA, Arena Football League, and Major League Soccer.[citation needed] The Houston Oilers, formerly based in Texas, moved to Memphis and later to Nashville, Tennessee, and became the Tennessee Titans. ... This is a list of University Interscholastic League events. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a picture I took myself at The Ballpark in Arlington on August 2, 2003. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a picture I took myself at The Ballpark in Arlington on August 2, 2003. ... Rangers Ballpark in Arlington is a baseball stadium in Arlington, Texas, located between Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Professional sports began at North Panola High School in the early 1600s. ... NFL redirects here. ... This article is about the current National Football League team. ... City Irving, Texas Other nicknames Americas Team, The Boys, The Pokes Team colors White, Silver, Silver-Green, Royal Blue, Navy Blue Head Coach Wade Phillips Owner Jerry Jones General manager Jerry Jones League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1960–present) Western Conference (1960) Eastern Conference (1961-1969) Capitol Division... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Major league affiliations American League (1961–present) West Division (1972–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 26, 34, 42 Name Texas Rangers (1972–present) Washington Senators (1961-1971) Other nicknames None in common use Ballpark Rangers Ballpark in Arlington (1994–present) a. ... Major league affiliations National League (1962–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 5, 24, 25, 32, 33, 34, 40, 42, 49 Name Houston Astros (1965–present) Houston Colt . ... NBA redirects here. ... The Houston Rockets are an American professional basketball team based in Houston, Texas. ... The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas. ... The Dallas Mavericks (also known as the Mavs) are a professional basketball team of the National Basketball Association based in Dallas, Texas. ... The Dallas Stars are a National Hockey League team based in Dallas, Texas. ... In the United States, the four prominent major professional sports leagues are the following: Major League Baseball (MLB), in existence de facto since 1903 National Football League (NFL), founded in 1920 National Basketball Association (NBA), founded in 1946 National Hockey League (NHL), founded in 1917 There are currently thirteen metropolitan... Major Leagues redirects here. ... The Womens National Basketball Association (WNBA) is an organization governing a professional basketball league for women in the United States. ... The Arena Football League (AFL) was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. ... Major League Soccer (MLS) is a North America professional soccer league. ...


Collegiate athletics have deep significance in Texas culture. The state has the most Division I-FBS schools in America, ten. The four largest programs are part of the Big 12 Conference: the Baylor Bears, Texas A&M Aggies, Texas Longhorns, and Texas Tech Red Raiders. According to a survey of Division I-A coaches, the rivalry between the University of Oklahoma and the University of Texas, the Red River Shootout, is ranked the third best collegiate rivalry in the nation.[131] The largest interstate rivalry, the Lone Star Showdown, is between Texas A&M University and the University of Texas.[citation needed] Refers to a set of physical activities comprising sports and games. ... This article is about the NCAA division. ... The Big 12 Conference is a college athletic conference of twelve schools located mostly in the central United States. ... Baylor Bears is the name for sports teams of Baylor University. ... Texas A&M Aggies is the name given to the sports teams of Texas A&M University. ... For other uses, see Longhorn. ... Texas Tech University is a nationally recognized doctoral/research university located in Lubbock, Texas, established in 1923 originally as Texas Technological College. ... Pairs of schools, colleges and universities, especially when they are close to each other either geographically or in their areas of specialization, often establish a college rivalry with each other over the years. ... University of Oklahoma, abbreviated OU, is a coeducational public research university located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. ... Logo for the 2006 meeting between Oklahoma and Texas. ... Lone Star Showdown logo The State Farm Lone Star Showdown is the official moniker (trademarked in 1996)[1] for all varsity mens and womens athletics competitions between Texas A&M University and the University of Texas at Austin. ...

As described the book Friday Night Lights: A Town, a Team, and a Dream, high school football is a major part of Texas culture.[citation needed] Texas is an American Football recruiting hotbed for college teams nationwide. In 2006, 170 players in the NFL were from Texas high schools.[132] The University Interscholastic League (UIL) organizes most primary and secondary school competitions. Events organized by UIL include athletic events as well as the arts and academic subjects such as mathematics.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3456x2304, 2943 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Texas A&M University Lone Star Showdown 2006 Texas Longhorn football team Texas A&M Aggies Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3456x2304, 2943 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Texas A&M University Lone Star Showdown 2006 Texas Longhorn football team Texas A&M Aggies Metadata This... Lone Star Showdown logo The State Farm Lone Star Showdown is the official moniker (trademarked in 1996)[1] for all varsity mens and womens athletics competitions between Texas A&M University and the University of Texas at Austin. ... Darrell K Royal-Texas Memorial Stadium, located in Austin, Texas, is home to the University of Texas Longhorn football team. ... The University Interscholastic League or UIL is an organization which creates rules for and sometimes administers almost all athletic, music, and academic contests for public elementary and secondary schools in the American state of Texas. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...


From 1905–1915, people in Dallas and Fort Worth turned out by the thousands for horse racing, which was usually tied to the state fair schedule. Dallas established a Jockey Club early on. The Fort Worth Driving Club (for owners of Standardbred trotters and pacers) had 101 members when it opened in 1905. Trotters raced at a park in Fort Worth, but both cities attracted thousands of people for each style of racing.[133]


Texans also enjoy going to the rodeo. The annual Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo is the largest rodeo in the world. The event begins with trail rides that originate from several points throughout the state, of which convene at Reliant Park. The World’s first rodeo was held in Pecos, Texas on 4 July 1883.[134] The Southwestern Exposition and Livestock Show in Fort Worth, Texas has a cowboy, a Mexican and many traditional rodeos. The State Fair of Texas is held in Dallas, Texas each year at Fair Park.[citation needed] For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ... The Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, also called RodeoHouston, with attendance approaching over two and a half million visitors per year, is the worlds largest livestock exhibition as well as the worlds largest rodeo event, requiring the support of sixteen thousand volunteers. ... Photograph of a sign at the entrance to the Reliant Park Complex, with Six Flags Astroworld in the background Reliant Park (formerly the Astrodomain) is a complex in Houston, Texas named after the energy company Reliant Energy. ... Pecos is a city located in Reeves County, Texas. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Where the West Begins Location of Fort Worth in Tarrant County, Texas Coordinates: , Country State Counties Tarrant, Denton Government  - Mayor Michael J. Moncrief Area  - City 298. ... The Texas Star, North Americas largest ferris wheel at the State Fair of Texas The State Fair of Texas is an annual state fair held in Dallas, Texas (USA). ... For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation). ... Fair Park is a 277 acre (112 hectare) recreational and educational complex located in Dallas, Texas (USA). ...


Other popular sports in Texas include golf, fishing, auto racing, lacrosse, and Fact|date=May 2008}} This article is about the game. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... Juuso Pykälistö driving a Peugeot 206 World Rally Car at the 2003 Swedish rally Racing cars redirects here. ... For other uses, see Lacrosse (disambiguation). ...


Healthcare

The Commonwealth Fund ranks the Texas healthcare system the third worst in the nation.[135] It also ranks Texas close to last in access to healthcare, quality of care, avoidable hospital spending, and equity among various groups.[135] Causes of the state's poor rankings include: politics, a high poverty rate, and illegal immigration, Texas having the highest rate in the nation.[70] In May 2006, Texas initiated the program "code red" in response to the report that the state had 25.1 percent of the population without health insurance, the largest proportion in the nation.[136] Texas also has controversial non-economic damages caps medical malpractice lawsuits set at $250,000, in an attempt to "curb rising malpractice premiums, and control escalating healthcare costs".[137] The Commonwealth Fund is a charitable foundation established in 1918 by Anna Harkness (wife of one of the original Standard Oil investors, Stephen Harkness) with her initial gift of $10,000,000. ... A healthcare system is the organization by which health care is provided. ... Non-economic damages caps are a controversial tort reform to limit (, cap) damages for intangible harms such as pain and suffering and loss of companionship. ... Medical malpractice is an act or omission by a health care provider which deviates from accepted standards of practice in the medical community and which causes injury to the patient. ...


The Trust for America's Health ranked Texas 12th highest adult obesity rate, 24.6 percent, nationwide, and the 4th highest in the percentage of overweight high school students, 13.9 percent.[138] The 2008 Men's Health obesity survey ranked four Texas cities among the top 25 fattest cities in America; Houston ranked 6th, Dallas 7th, El Paso 8th, and Arlington 14th.[139] Austin was the only Texan city in the top 25 among the "fittest cities" in America and ranked 21st.[139] The same survey has evaluated the state's obesity initiatives favorably with a "B+".[139] Trust for Americas Health (TFAH) is a Washington, DC-based health policy organization. ... Mens Health (MH), published by Rodale Press in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA, is the largest circulation mens lifestyle magazine in the world. ... Arlington is a city in Tarrant County, Texas (USA) within the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metropolitan area. ...


Medical research

Aerial of Texas Medical Center in Houston
Aerial of Texas Medical Center in Houston
See also: List of hospitals in Texas

Texas is home to elite research medical centers. The state has eight medical schools,[140] three dental schools, and one optometry school. Texas has two Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories: one at The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston,[141] and the other at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio—the first privately owned BSL-4 lab in the United States.[142] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... List of hospitals in Texas (U.S. state), sorted by location. ... See Texas state entry. ... Optometry is a doctoral-degree health care profession concerned with eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention specifies four levels of biosafety precautions for biological agents. ... Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research (SFBR) is a large private research institute located in San Antonio Texas. ...


The Texas Medical Center, in Houston, is the world's largest concentration of research and healthcare institutions, with 45 member institutions in the Texas Medical Center.[143] More heart transplants are performed at Texas Medical Center than anywhere else in the world.[144] San Antonio's South Texas Medical Center facilities rank sixth in clinical medicine research impact in the United States[145] with the University of Texas Health Science Center recognized as a "world leading research and educational institution".[citation needed] Texas Medical Center The Texas Medical Center, with more than five million patient visits annually and one of the highest densities of clinical facilities and basic science and translational research of any location, is the largest medical district in the world. ... This article is about the concept. ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... Texas Medical Center The Texas Medical Center, with more than five million patient visits annually and one of the highest densities of clinical facilities and basic science and translational research of any location, is the largest medical district in the world. ... The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA) is the largest comprehensive health sciences university in South Texas. ...


Dallas is home to the American Heart Association and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, "among the top academic medical centers in the world".[146] The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at the center employs the most medical school Nobel laureates in the world.[147][146] The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center is one of the world’s highly regarded academic institutions devoted to cancer patient care, research, education and prevention.[148] The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke American Stroke Association Web site. ... The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (also known as “Southwestern”) is one of the leading medical research facilities in the United States. ... The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School is a public medical school in Dallas, Texas. ... Winners of the Nobel prize are scientists, writers and peacemakers who have been awarded in their field of endeavour, and who are known collectively as either Nobel laureates or Nobel Prize winners. ... M. D. Anderson Cancer Center is a cancer research facility in the United States. ...


Education

Main article: Education in Texas
Plano East Senior High School, in 2005, had the largest graduating class in the nation.
Plano East Senior High School, in 2005, had the largest graduating class in the nation.[149]

The American Legislative Exchange Council ranked Texas 26 among the 50 states for education in 2007. Texas students ranked higher than average in on mathematics, but lower in reading. Between 2005–2006, Texas spent $7,584 per pupil ranking it below the national average of $9,295. The pupil/teacher ratio was 15.0 slightly below average. Instructors were paid $38,130, below the national average. 10.8% of the educational funding in Texas came from the federal government, 89.22% from state funding.[150] There are 181 colleges, universities and dozens of other institutions engaged in the research and development of Texas. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Plano East Senior High School by Gibrán Lule-Hurtado File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Plano East Senior High School by Gibrán Lule-Hurtado File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Plano East Senior High School (commonly East, Plano East, or PESH) is a secondary school in Plano, Texas serving high school juniors and seniors. ... The American Legislative Exchange Council, or ALEC, is a nonpartisan, ideologically conservative [2], non-profit 501(c)(3) membership association of state legislators and private sector policy advocates. ...


The state's public school systems are administered by the Texas Education Agency (TEA). Texas has over 1,000 school districts—all but one of the school districts in Texas are separate from municipal government.[citation needed] School districts may (and often do) cross city and county boundaries—an exception to this rule is Stafford Municipal School District.[citation needed] School districts have the power to tax their residents and to assert eminent domain over privately owned property. The "Robin Hood plan" is a controversial tax redistribution system that provides court-mandated equitable school financing for school districts. Property tax revenue from property-wealthy school districts is distributed to those in property-poor districts, in an effort to equalize the financing and provide opportunities for children throughout Texas.[citation needed] The TEA has no authority over private school operations; private schools may or may not be accredited, and achievement tests are not required for private school graduating seniors. Neither TEA nor the local school district has authority to regulate home school activities.[citation needed] The Texas Education Agency (TEA) is a branch of the state government of Texas and oversees public primary and secondary education in the state. ... School districts are a form of special-purpose district in the United States (amongst some other places) which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Local government of the United States. ... Stafford is a city in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown Metropolitan Area. ... A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a state, or to functional equivalents of a state, including tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements. ... Eminent domain (United States), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to seize a citizens private property, expropriate property, or rights in property, without the owner... The Robin Hood plan was a media nickname given to legislation enacted by the U.S. state of Texas in 1990 to provide court-mandated equitable school financing for all school districts in the state. ... For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ... Homeschooling[1] ( also called home education), home learning or homeschool[1] – is the education of children at home, typically by parents or guardians, rather than in a public or private school. ...


The Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) is a standardized test used in Texas primary and secondary schools to assess students' attainment of reading, writing, math, science, and social studies skills required under Texas education standards. Though created before the No Child Left Behind Act was passed, it complies with the law. In spring 2007, Texas legislators repealed TAKS for freshmen in the 2011–2012 school year and onward in favor of End of Course exams for core classes in high school.[151] The Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) is a standardized test used in Texas primary and secondary schools to assess students attainment of reading, writing, math, science, and social studies skills required under Texas education standards. ... A standardized test is a test administered and scored in a consistent manner. ... A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Reading is a process of retrieving and comprehending some form of stored information or ideas. ... Write redirects here. ... Incorrect shortening of Mathematics. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Social studies is a term used to describe the broad study of the various fields which involve past and current human behavior and interactions. ... President Bush signing the bipartisan No Child Left Behind Act at Hamilton H.S. in Hamilton, Ohio. ...


Colleges and universities

Further information: List of colleges and universities in Texas
The University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin

There are 181 colleges, universities and dozens of other institutions engaged in the research and development of Texas within five different university systems.[citation needed]. The University of Texas at Austin, Texas A&M University, University of Houston and the University of North Texas are Texas's four largest comprehensive doctoral degree – granting institutions with a combined enrollment of over 145,000. Texas's controversial alternative affirmative action plan, Texas House Bill 588, guarantees Texas students who graduated in the top ten percent of their high school class automatic admission to state-funded universities. The bill was created to encourage diversity while avoiding problems identified with policy in the Hopwood v. Texas (1996) case. As for private universities, Rice University—one of the country’s leading teaching and research universities—ranked the 17th-best university overall in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.[152] Additionally, Baylor University—the oldest university in the state—was chartered by the Republic of Texas.[citation needed] See Texas state entry. ... Image File history File linksMetadata The_University_of_Texas_at_Austin_-_Littlefield_Fountain_and_Main_Building. ... Image File history File linksMetadata The_University_of_Texas_at_Austin_-_Littlefield_Fountain_and_Main_Building. ... University of Texas redirects here. ... Texas A&M University redirects here. ... For other system schools, see University of Houston System. ... UNT redirects here. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Texas House Bill 588 is a Texas law passed in 1997. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... The first successful legal challenge to racial preferences in student admissions since Bakke. ... Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University (commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art) is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas, United States, near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... {{Infobox_University |image_name = 135px-Baylor_seal. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area Estimates, US Census, 2007-04-04, <http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/CBSA-est2006-pop-chg.html>. Retrieved on 28 April 2008 
  2. ^ a b c d Facts (2008-2009 ed.), Texas Almanac, 2008, <http://www.texasalmanac.com/facts/>. Retrieved on 29 April 2008 
  3. ^ Environment (2008-2009 ed.), Texas Almanac, 2008, <http://www.texasalmanac.com/environment/>. Retrieved on 29 April 2008 
  4. ^ a b c Texas QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, US Census, 2006, <http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=&geo_id=04000US48&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US48&_street=&_county=&_cityTown=&_state=04000US48&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=040&_submenuId=factsheet_1&ds_name=DEC_2000_SAFF&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=>. Retrieved on 28 April 2007 
  5. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 8, 2006.
  6. ^ [Lloyd] (June, 1994). Texas: they say everything is bigger in Texas, but is this true about opportunities for African-Americans in the state's largest cities? (html). Black Enterprise. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
  7. ^ Texas Revolution (HTML). globalsecurty.org (2008-01-20). Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
  8. ^ Texas. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  9. ^ Wallace Chafe, p.c.
  10. ^ Farivar, Cyrus (2007-06-26). Texas-Sized Supercomputer to Break Computing Power Record. Wired News. Retrieved on 2008-01-30.
  11. ^ Blumenthal, Ralph (2007 July 30). Texas-sized noxious weed threatens State's largest natural lake. International Herald Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-01-30.
  12. ^ Texas. NETSTATE.COM (2007-12-11). Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  13. ^ Flags of Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online
  14. ^ Chipman (1992), p. 243.
  15. ^ Weber (1992), p. 34.
  16. ^ Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca from the Handbook of Texas Online
  17. ^ Spanish Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online
  18. ^ Weber (1992), p. 149.
  19. ^ Chipman (1992), p. 83.
  20. ^ Chipman (1992), p. 89.
  21. ^ Weber (1992), p. 155.
  22. ^ Chipman (1992), pp. 111–112.
  23. ^ Weber (1992), p. 160.
  24. ^ Weber (1992), p. 163.
  25. ^ Chipman (1992), p. 205.
  26. ^ Weber (1992), p. 188.
  27. ^ Weber (1992), p. 193.
  28. ^ Weber (1992), p. 189.
  29. ^ Weddle (1995), p. 163.
  30. ^ Weddle (1995), p. 164.
  31. ^ Chipman (1992), p. 200.
  32. ^ Chipman (1992), p. 202.
  33. ^ Weber (1992), p. 291.
  34. ^ Weber (1992), p. 292.
  35. ^ Weber (1992), p. 299.
  36. ^ Weber (1992), p. 300.
  37. ^ Old Three Hundred from the Handbook of Texas Online Accessed 2008-04-27
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Handbook of Texas (ISBN 0-87611-151-7) is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Texas geography, history, and historical persons published jointly by the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA) and the General Libraries at the University of Texas at Austin. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dallas Morning News is the major daily newspaper serving the Dallas, Texas area. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fortune magazine is Americas second longest-running business magazine after Forbes magazine. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The University of Texas System comprises fifteen educational institutions in Texas, of which nine are general academic universities, and six are health institutions. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // History The Texas Legislature created the Texas Highway Department in 1917 to administer federal highway construction and maintenance. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // History The Texas Legislature created the Texas Highway Department in 1917 to administer federal highway construction and maintenance. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // History The Texas Legislature created the Texas Highway Department in 1917 to administer federal highway construction and maintenance. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “IATA” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... The Handbook of Texas (ISBN 0-87611-151-7) is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Texas geography, history, and historical persons published jointly by the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA) and the General Libraries at the University of Texas at Austin. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Texas Railroad Commission was a government agency created in the 1930s to regulate the petroleum industry in the state of Texas. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Alley Theatre The Houston Theater District, a 17-block area in the heart of Downtown Houston, is home to Houstons nine world-class performing arts organizations, the 130,000 square-foot Bayou Place entertainment complex, restaurants, movies, plazas and parks. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Daily Texan is the student newspaper of the University of Texas at Austin. ... The University of Texas System comprises fifteen educational institutions in Texas, of which nine are general academic universities, and six are health institutions. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dallas Morning News is the major daily newspaper serving the Dallas, Texas area. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rivals is a network of websites that focus mainly on college football and basketball recruiting. ... The Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, also called RodeoHouston, with attendance approaching over two and a half million visitors per year, is the worlds largest livestock exhibition as well as the worlds largest rodeo event, requiring the support of sixteen thousand volunteers. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fort Worth Star-Telegram is a major U.S. daily newspaper serving Fort Worth and the western half of the North Texas area known as the Metroplex. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mens Health (MH), published by Rodale Press in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA, is the largest circulation mens lifestyle magazine in the world. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (also known as “Southwestern”) is one of the leading medical research facilities in the United States. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (also known as “Southwestern”) is one of the leading medical research facilities in the United States. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... M. D. Anderson Cancer Center is a cancer research facility in the United States. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Skyline from Town Lake Austin is the capital of the state of Texas, within the United States of America. ... The University of Texas Press is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin. ... This article is about the city in Connecticut. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... City nicknames: Aggieland, heart of the Research Valley Location in the State of Texas County Brazos County Mayor Ron Silvia Area  - Land  - Water 104. ... Texas A&M University Press is a scholarly publishing house associated with Texas A&M University. ...

External links

Find more about Texas on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • The State of Texas
  • The Handbook of Texas Online – Published by the Texas State Historical Association
  • Texas Register, hosted by the University of North Texas Libraries
  • Open Directory: Texas
  • Texas State Facts
  • USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Texas
  • Texas travel guide from Wikitravel
  • South and West Texas, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
Texas Portal

Coordinates: 31° N 100° W This article is about the theme park. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1776 × 1185 pixel, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Spanish Flag redirects here. ... Image File history File links Pavillon_royal_de_France. ... The national flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico_(1823-1864,_1867-1968). ... eat icecream The Flag of the United Mexican States or Mexico is a vertical tricolor of green, white, and red with the national coat of arms charged in the center of the white stripe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Texas. ... Flag of Texas The flag of Texas is defined by law as follows: The flag is known as the Lone Star Flag (giving Texas its nickname of the Lone Star State). This flag was introduced to the Congress of the Republic of Texas on December 28, 1838, by Senator William... Image File history File links CSA_FLAG_4. ... The Confederate States of America used several flags during its existence from 1861 to 1865. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Dakotan Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... Motto Samoa, Muamua Le Atua(Samoan) Samoa, Let God Be First Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner, Amerika Samoa Capital Pago Pago; Fagatogo (seat of government) Official languages English, Samoan Government  -  Governor Togiola Tulafono United States unincorporated territory  -  Treaty of Berlin 1899   -  Deed of Cession of Tutuila 1900   -  Deed of Cession... Anthem: Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi(Chamorro) Satil Matawal Pacifiko(Carolinian) Capital Saipan Official languages English, Chamorro, Carolinian Government Presidential representative democracy  -  Governor Benigno R. Fitial  -  Lt. ... For the board game, see Puerto Rico (board game). ... Motto United in Pride and Hope Anthem Virgin Islands March Capital (and largest city) Charlotte Amalie Official languages English Government  -  Head of State George W. Bush  -  Governor John de Jongh Organized, unincorporated territory  -  Revised Organic Act 22 July 1954  Area  -  Total 346. ... The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular United States possessions: All of these islands are in the Pacific Ocean except Navassa Island... Bajo Nuevo Bank, also called the Petrel Islands, is located in the western United States and Jamaica. ... Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°13′N 176°31′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Howland Island Howland Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°48′N 176°38′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Jarvis Island (formerly also known as Bunker Island[1]) is an uninhabited 4. ... Johnston Atoll is a 130 km² atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at 16°45′N 169°30′W, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands. ... The flag of the US is used for Kingman Reef Kingman Reef Kingman Reef—NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kingman Reef is a one-square-kilometer tropical coral reef located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly half way between Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at 6°24... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Navassa Island map from The World Factbook Navassa Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Navassa Island (La Navase in French, Lanavaz in Haitian Kreyòl) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea. ... Palmyra Atoll - Landsat Image N-03-05_2000 (1:50,000) Palmyra Atoll - Marplot Map (1:50,000) Orthographic projection over Palmyra Atoll Palmyra Atoll, is an incorporated atoll administered by the United States government. ... Serranilla Bank is a western Caribbean island located about 210 miles north-northeast of Nicaragua. ... USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image File history File links Confederate_National_Flag_since_Mar_4_1865. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The South Atlantic States form one of the nine divisions within the United States that are formally recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... The East South Central States constitute one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The West South Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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