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Encyclopedia > Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights

Active c. 1192–Present
Allegiance Papacy, Holy Roman Emperor
Type Roman Catholic religious order
(1192-1929 as military order)
Headquarters Acre (1192–1291)
Venice (1291–1309)
Marienburg (1309–1466)
Königsberg (1466–1525)
Mergentheim (1525–1809)
Vienna (1809–Present)
Nickname Teutonic Knights, German Order
Patron The Virgin Mary, Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, & Saint George
Attire White mantle with a black cross
Commanders
First Grand Master Heinrich Walpot von Bassenheim
Current Grand Master Bruno Platter

The Teutonic Order is a predominantly German Roman Catholic religious order based in Vienna, Austria. Its members have commonly been known as the Teutonic Knights, since it was a crusading military order during the Middle Ages and much of the modern era. Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... The Teutonic Knights (Polish: ) is a 1900 historical novel written by Polish writer and Nobel laureate Henryk Sienkiewicz. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x908, 176 KB) Piotr Jaworski; PioM EN DE PL 01:36, 26 July 2005 (UTC); POLAND/PoznaÅ„; Coat of Arms of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order of Our Lady of Jerusalem (DE: Deutscher Orden, PL: Krzyżacy). ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Malbork Castle (German: ) was built by the Teutonic Order as Ordensburg and named Marienburg (literally Marys Castle). The city which grew around it was also named Marienburg, now called Malbork. ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... Bad Mergentheim (Mergentheim until 1926) is a town in the Main-Tauber district in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... Elisabeth of Hungary St. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... Coat of Arms of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. ... Coat of Arms of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. ... Bruno Platter, Th. ... Catholic religious orders (Religious Institutes, cf. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Formed at the end of the 12th century in Acre, Palestine, the medieval Order played an important role in Outremer, controlling the port tolls of Acre. After Christian forces were defeated in the Middle East, the Order moved to Transylvania in 1211 to help defend Hungary against the Cumans. They were expelled in 1225 after allegedly attempting to place themselves under Papal instead of Hungarian sovereignty. For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Outremer, French for overseas, was the general name given the Crusader states established after the First Crusade; County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ...


Following the Golden Bull of Rimini, Grand Master Hermann von Salza and Duke Konrad I of Masovia made a joint invasion of Prussia in 1230 to Christianise the Baltic Old Prussians in the Northern Crusades. The knights were then accused of cheating Polish rule and creating an independent monastic state. The Order lost its main purpose in Europe, when the neighbouring country of Lithuania accepted Christianity. Once established in Prussia, the Order became involved in campaigns against its Christian neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Novgorod Republic (after assimilating the Livonian Order). The Teutonic Knights had a strong urban economy, hired mercenaries from throughout Europe to augment their feudal levies, and became a naval power in the Baltic Sea. The Golden Bull of Rimini was issued by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in March 1226. ... Coat of Arms of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. ... Hermann of Salza (c. ... Konrad I of Masovia. ...  Baltic tribes and Prussian clans ca. ... A cropped image of Prussia from Spread of German settlements to the Eastward, 800-1400. (Full map. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... The fresco in the Vilnius Cathedral, dating to the Christianization of Lithuania The Christianization of Lithuania (Lithuanian: ) was the event that took place in 1387, initiated by the Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Jogaila with his cousin Vytautas, that signified the official adoption of Christianity by Lithuanians... Coat of arms Poland during the Period of Fragmentation Capital Kraków, PoznaÅ„ Language(s) Polish (spoken) Latin (written) Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1138  - Disestablished 1320 The Kingdom of Poland during period of fragmentation was the Polish state in the years between the death of BolesÅ‚aw... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince-Bishop... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ...


In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army decisively defeated the Order and broke its military power at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg). The Order steadily declined until 1525 when Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg resigned and converted to Lutheranism to become Duke of Prussia. The Grand Masters continued to preside over the Order's considerable holdings in Germany and elsewhere until 1809, when Napoleon Bonaparte ordered its dissolution and the Order lost its last secular holdings. The Order continued to exist, headed by Habsburgs through World War I, and today operates primarily with charitable aims in Central Europe. Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 14,000 captured The Battle of Grunwald... Albert of Prussia Albert (German: ; Latin: ; 16 May 1490 – 20 March 1568) was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, the first duke of the Duchy of Prussia, which was the first state to adopt the Lutheran faith. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... The Prussian Tribute, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1882, 388 x 875 cm, National Museum in Kraków. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ...


The Knights wore white surcoats with a black cross. A cross pattée was sometimes used as their coat of arms; this image was later used for military decoration and insignia by the Kingdom of Prussia and Germany as the Iron Cross. The classic knights surcoat is on the left; the knight on the right has a different style A surcoat was an outer garment commonly worn in the Middle Ages by both men and women. ... Heraldic cross pattee A cross having arms with curving edges, narrow at the inner center, and very broad at the outer end. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ...

Contents

Names

The full name of the Order in Latin is Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Ierosolimitanorum, or "Order of the German House of St. Mary in Jerusalem". Its corresponding name in German is Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus St. Mariens in Jerusalem. It is commonly known in German as the Deutscher Orden, or "German Order". For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


The Teutonic Knights have been known as Zakon Krzyżacki in Polish and as Kryžiuočių Ordinas in Lithuanian, in Latvian "Zobenbraļu ordenis" as well as various names in other languages.


History

Download high resolution version (2560x384, 357 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2560x384, 357 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... There are many fortresses, castles, and towns of this name. ... Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... Malbork Castle 2003. ...

Foundation

Tannhäuser in the habit of the Teutonic Knights, from the Codex Manesse
Tannhäuser in the habit of the Teutonic Knights, from the Codex Manesse

In 1143 Pope Celestine II ordered the Knights Hospitaller to take over management of a German Hospital in Jerusalem, which, according to the chronicler Jean d’Ypres, accommodated the countless German pilgrims and crusaders who could neither speak the local tongue (i.e. French) nor Latin (patrie linguam ignorantibus atque Latinam).[1] However, although formally an institution of the Hospitallers, the pope commanded that the prior and the brothers of the domus Teutonicorum (house of the Germans) should always be Germans themselves, so a tradition of a German-led religious institution could develop during the 12th century in Palestine.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 431 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (689 × 959 pixel, file size: 260 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Codex Manesse, Der Tannhäuser +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 431 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (689 × 959 pixel, file size: 260 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Codex Manesse, Der Tannhäuser +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... In the Venusberg by John Collier, 1901: a gilded setting that is distinctly Italian quattrocento. ... Folio 371r shows Johannes Hadlaub Folio 124r shows Walther von der Vogelweide The Manesse Codex or Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg Library, Cod. ... Celestine II, born Guido di Castello (d. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide...


After the loss of Jerusalem in 1187, some merchants from Lübeck and Bremen took up the idea and founded a field hospital for the duration of the siege of Acre in 1190, which became the nucleus of the order; Celestine III recognized it in 1192 by granting the monks Augustinian Rule. Based on the model of the Knights Templar it was, however, transformed into a military order in 1198 and the head of the order became known as the Grand Master (magister hospitalis). It received Papal orders for crusades to take and hold Jerusalem for Latin Christianity and defend the Holy Land against the Muslim Saracens. During the rule of Grand Master Hermann von Salza (1209-1239) the Order changed from being a hospice brotherhood for pilgrims to primarily a military order. The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. ... Celestine III, né Giacinto Bobone Orsini ( 1106 - January 8, 1198), was Pope from 1191 to 1198. ... Detail of St. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... Coat of Arms of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Saracens was a term used in the Middle Ages for those who professed the religion of Islam. ... Hermann of Salza (c. ... Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms, rather than providing a cure. ... Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ...

Hermann von Salza served as the fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (1209 to 1239).
Hermann von Salza served as the fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (1209 to 1239).

Originally based in Acre, the Knights purchased Montfort (Starkenberg), northeast of Acre, in 1220. This castle, which defended the route between Jerusalem and the Mediterranean Sea, was made the seat of the Grand Masters in 1229, although they returned to Acre after losing Montfort to Muslim control in 1271. The Order also had a castle near Tarsus in Armenia Minor. The Order received donations of land in the Holy Roman Empire (especially in present-day Germany and Italy), Greece, and Palestine. Image File history File links Hermann_von_Salza_Painting. ... Image File history File links Hermann_von_Salza_Painting. ... Hermann of Salza (c. ... For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... Ruins of Montfort fortress The Montfort (German: ) is a ruined crusader fortress in the Upper Galilee region in northern Israel, about 22 miles (35 km) northeast of the city of Haifa and 10 miles (16 kms) south of the border with Lebanon. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... 68. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


Emperor Frederick II elevated his close friend Hermann von Salza to the status of Reichsfürst, or "Prince of the Empire", enabling the Grand Master to negotiate with other senior princes as an equal. During Frederick's coronation as King of Jerusalem in 1225, Teutonic Knights served as his escort in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; von Salza read the emperor's proclamation in both French and German. However, the Teutonic Knights were never as influential in Outremer as the older Templars and Hospitallers. The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Fürst (plural Fürsten) is a German title of nobility, usually translated into English as Prince; however this translation can be misleading, since a Fürst usually ranks below a Duke. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... Outremer, French for overseas, was the general name given the Crusader states established after the First Crusade; County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide...


In 1211, Andrew II of Hungary accepted their services and granted them the district of Burzenland in Transylvania. Andrew had been involved in negotiations for the marriage of his daughter with the son of Hermann, Landgrave of Thuringia, whose vassals included the family of Hermann von Salza. Led by a brother called Theoderich, the Order defended Hungary against the neighbouring Cumans and settled new German colonists to among those who were known as the Transylvanian Saxons, living there before. In 1224 the Knights petitioned Pope Honorius III to be placed directly under the authority of the Papal See, rather than that of the King of Hungary. Angered and alarmed at their growing power, Andrew responded by expelling them in 1225, although he allowed the new colonists to remain. Andrew II of Hungary with queen Gertrude von Andechs-Meranien Andrew II (Hungarian: András or Endre, Slovak: Ondrej, Croatian: ) (c. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... Pope Honorius III (1148 – March 18, 1227 in Rome), born Cencio Savelli, was Pope from 1216 to 1227. ... The term Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, lit. ...


Prussia

Main article: Prussian Crusade
Frederick II allows the order to invade Prussia, by P. Janssen
Frederick II allows the order to invade Prussia, by P. Janssen

In 1226 Konrad I, Duke of Masovia in west-central Poland, appealed to the Knights to defend his borders and subdue the pagan Baltic Prussians, allowing the Teutonic Knights use of Chełmno Land (Culmerland) as a base for their campaign. This being a time of widespread crusading fervor throughout Western Europe, Hermann von Salza considered Prussia a good training ground for his knights for the wars against the Muslims in Outremer.[3] With the Golden Bull of Rimini, Emperor Frederick II bestowed on the Order a special imperial privilege for the conquest and possession of Prussia, including Chełmno Land, with nominal papal sovereignty. In 1235 the Teutonic Knights assimilated the smaller Order of Dobrzyń, which had been established earlier by Konrad.  Baltic tribes and Prussian clans ca. ... Image File history File links Peter_Janssen,_Kaiser_Friedrich_II.jpg Summary Kaiser Friedrich II. entläßt nach Preußen ziehende Deutsch-Ordensritter, 1236 Wandgemälde in der alten Aula der Philipps-Universität Marburg Bildquelle: [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Teutonic Knights ... Image File history File links Peter_Janssen,_Kaiser_Friedrich_II.jpg Summary Kaiser Friedrich II. entläßt nach Preußen ziehende Deutsch-Ordensritter, 1236 Wandgemälde in der alten Aula der Philipps-Universität Marburg Bildquelle: [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Teutonic Knights ... Peter Janssen (1844-1908) was a German historical painter. ... Konrad I of Masovia. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... The Prussians kill Adalbert The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, inhabited the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons, (in what is now northern Poland), in the region roughly occupied by the Mazurian Lakes. ... CheÅ‚mno Land or Culmland (Polish: Ziemia CheÅ‚miÅ„ska, German: Kulmerland) is a historical region in central Poland bounded by the Vistula and DrwÄ™ca rivers. ... A cropped image of Prussia from Spread of German settlements to the Eastward, 800-1400. (Full map. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Golden Bull of Rimini was issued by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in March 1226. ... Emblem of the Order The Order of DobrzyÅ„ (also known as Brothers of DobrzyÅ„, Polish Bracia DobrzyÅ„scy; German: Orden von Dobrin) was a military order created in Poland during the Northern Crusades of the 13th century to defend against Baltic Prussian raids. ...


The conquest of Prussia was accomplished with much bloodshed over more than 50 years, during which native Prussians who remained unbaptised were subjugated, killed, or exiled. Fighting between the Knights and the Prussians was ferocious; chronicles of the Order state the Prussians would "roast captured brethren alive in their armour, like chestnuts, before the shrine of a local god".[4]


The native nobility which submitted to the crusaders had many of their privileges affirmed in the Treaty of Christburg. After the Prussian uprisings of 1260-83, however, much of the Prussian nobility emigrated or were resettled, and many free Prussians lost their rights. The Prussian nobility which remained were more closely allied with the German landowners and gradually assimilated.[5] Peasants in frontier regions, such as Samland, had more privileges than those in more populated lands, such as Pomesania.[6] The crusading knights often accepted baptism as a form of submission by the natives.[7] Christianity along western lines slowly spread through Prussian culture. Bishops were reluctant to have Prussian religious practices integrated into the new faith,[8] while the ruling knights found it easier to govern the natives when they were semi-pagan and lawless.[9] Treaty of Christburg was a peace treaty signed on February 2, 1249 between the pagan Prussian clans, represented by a papal legate, and the Teutonic Knights. ... The Prussian uprisings were a number of uprisings by the Old Prussian tribes against the Teutonic Order that took place in the 13th century during and following the Northern Crusades. ... Sambia or the Sambian Peninsula (Russian: semlyandskiy poluostrov, German: Samland) is the name of a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. ... Pomesania is the former name of an area now in northern Poland, in the vicinity of the cities of Elblag (Elbing) and Malbork (Marienburg), to the east of the lower Vistula river. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...

Drawing of the Teutonic Knights' Castle Marienburg (Malbork)
Drawing of the Teutonic Knights' Castle Marienburg (Malbork)

The Order ruled Prussia under charters issued by the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor as a sovereign monastic state, comparable to the arrangement of the Knights Hospitallers in Rhodes and later in Malta. Teutonic Knights Castle in Malbork File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Teutonic Knights Castle in Malbork File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Malbork Castle 2003. ... The Golden Bull of Rimini was issued by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in March 1226. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ...


To make up for losses from the plague and to replace the partially exterminated native population, the Order encouraged the immigration of colonists from the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (mostly Germans, Flemish, and Dutch) and from Masovia (Poles), the later Masurians). The colonists included nobles, burghers, and peasants, and the surviving Old Prussians were gradually assimilated through Germanization. The settlers founded numerous towns and cities on former Prussian settlements. The Order itself built a number of castles (Ordensburgen) from which it could defeat uprisings of Old Prussians, as well as continue its attacks on the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, with which the Order was often at war during the 14th and 15th centuries. Major towns founded by the Order included Königsberg, founded in 1255 in honor of King Otakar II of Bohemia on the site of a destroyed Prussian settlement, Allenstein (Olsztyn), Elbing (Elbląg), and Memel (Klaipėda). This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The term Flemings (Dutch: ) denotes the majority population in Flanders (the northern half of Belgium). ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... Mazurs are Polish ethnic group from Mazovia (Catholics) or East Prussia (Protestant), the latter often called Masurians in English. ... Germanization (also spelled Germanisation) is either the spread of the German language and culture either by force or assimilation, or the adaptation of a foreign word to the German language in linguistics, much like the Romanization of many languages which do not use the Latin alphabet. ... Ordensburgs were schools for elite Nazi military ranks. ... The Prussian uprisings were a number of uprisings by the Old Prussian tribes against the Teutonic Order that took place in the 13th century during and following the Northern Crusades. ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... Otakar II (also spelled Ottokar or PÅ™emysl Otakar/Ottokar) (c. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Olsztyn ( ; German: ; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini) is a city in northeast Poland, on the Łyna river. ... ElblÄ…g (IPA: ; German: ) is a city in northern Poland with 127,892 inhabitants (2006). ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (Kulm) KlaipÄ—da ( (help...


In 1236 the Knights of St Thomas, an English order, adopted the rules of the Teutonic Order. The Livonian Brothers of the Sword were absorbed by the Teutonic Knights in 1237; the Livonian branch subsequently became known as the Livonian Order. The Teutonic Order's nominal territorial rule extended over Prussia, Livonia, Semigalia, and Estonia. Its next aim was to convert Orthodox Russia to Roman Catholicism, but after the knights suffered a disastrous defeat in the Battle on Lake Peipus (1242) at the hands of Prince Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod, this plan had to be abandoned. A detachment of Teutonic Knights allegedly participated in the 1241 Battle of Legnica against the Mongols. The Hospitallers of St Thomas of Canterbury at Acre, usually called the Knights of St Thomas Acon was a Christian Military order. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Map of the Livonian Confederation, showing the territories of the Order in 1260 Capital Fellin (Viljandi) Language(s) Low German Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Master of the Livonian Order  - 1204–09 Wenno von Rohrbach  - 1209–36 Volquin  - 1237–38 Hermann Balk¹  - 1559–61 Gotthard Kettler¹ Historical era Middle Ages... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince-Bishop... A cropped image of Prussia from Spread of German settlements to the Eastward, 800-1400. (Full map. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Zemgale (also historically known as Semigallia or Semigalia) is a historical region of Latvia and sometimes a part of Lithuania is also included. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Combatants Novgorod Republic Teutonic Knights, Danish knights, militia of Dorpat Commanders Prince Alexander Nevsky Master Dietrich von Grüningen, Prince-Bishop Hermann Strength 4000-5,000 1,500-2500 Casualties Light around 400 knights killed and 90 captured, a number of infantry killed A monument in Pskov Oblast marking the... For other uses, see Alexander Nevsky (disambiguation). ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Alliance Polish states Teutonic Knights[3][4] Commanders Baidar, Kadan, Orda Khan Henry II the Pious † Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen) diversionary force [5] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-25,000[5] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier than expected... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ...


Against Lithuania

Coat of arms of the Teutonic Knights
Coat of arms of the Teutonic Knights

The Teutonic Knights began to direct their campaigns against pagan Lithuania (see Lithuanian mythology), especially after the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem at Acre in 1291. The knights moved their headquarters to Venice, from which they planned the recovery of Outremer.[10] Because "Lithuania Propria" remained non-Christian until the end of the 14th century, much later than the rest of eastern Europe, many knights from western European countries, such as England and France, journeyed to Prussia to participate in the seasonal campaigns (reyse) against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Some of them campaigned against pagans to obtain remission for their sins, while others fought to gain military experience. Image File history File links Den_tyske_ordens_skjold. ... Image File history File links Den_tyske_ordens_skjold. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Lithuanian mythology is an example of pagan mythology containing archaic elements. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Outremer, French for overseas, was the general name given the Crusader states established after the First Crusade; County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Lithuania. ...


Warfare between the Order and the Lithuanians was especially brutal. Non-Christians were seen as lacking rights possessed by Christians. Because enslavement of non-Christians was seen as acceptable at the time and the subdued native Prussians demanded land or payment, the Knights often used captured pagan Lithuanians for forced labor. The contemporary Austrian poet Peter Suchenwirt described treatment he witnessed of pagans by the Knights:

"Women and children were taken captive; What a jolly medley could be seen: Many a woman could be seen, Two children tied to her body, One behind and one in front; On a horse without spurs Barefoot had they ridden here; The heathens were made to suffer: Many were captured and in every case, Were their hands tied together They were led off, all tied up — Just like hunting dogs".[11]

Against Poland

Main article: Teutonic takeover of Danzig

A dispute over the succession of the Duchy of Pomerelia embroiled the Order in further conflict in the beginning of the 14th century. The Margraves of Brandenburg had claims to the duchy which they acted upon after the death of King Wenceslaus of Poland in 1306. Duke Władysław I the Elbow-high of Poland claimed the duchy as well basing on inheritance from Przemysław II, but was opposed by some Pomeranian nobles. They requested help from Brandenburg, which subsequently occupied all of Pomerelia except for the citadel of Danzig (Gdańsk) in 1308. Because Władysław was unable to come to the defense of Danzig, the Teutonic Knights, then led by Hochmeister Siegfried von Feuchtwangen, were hired to expel the Brandenburgers. The Teutonic takeover of Danzig on 13 November 1308 refers to events that lead to the incorporation of the city of GdaÅ„sk into the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. ... Pomerelia (German: ) is a historical region in northern Poland. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Wenceslaus III Wenceslaus III Premyslid (Czech and Slovak Václav, German: Wenzel III, Hungarian Vencel, Polish WacÅ‚aw, Croatian: Vjenceslav), (October 6, 1289 – August 4, 1306, Olomouc, Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic) was the King of Hungary (1301 - 1305) and King of Bohemia (1305 - 1306). ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents Kazimierz I Kujawski, Eufrozyna Opolska Consorts Jadwiga Kaliska Children Stefan, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw, Kunegunda, Elżbieta, Jadwiga, Casimir III the Great Date of Birth 1261 Place of Birth - Date of Death 1333 Place of Death Cracow Coronation January... Pomeranians (Pomorzanie) are a group of Slavic tribes living in historical region of Pomerania along the shore of Baltic Sea between Oder and Vistula rivers. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Siegfried von Feuchtwangen, 15th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Castle of Malbork, Poland. ...


The Order, under Prussian Landmeister Heinrich von Plötzke, evicted the Brandenburgers from Danzig in September 1308. Von Plötzke presented Władysław with a bill for 10,000 marks of silver for the Order's help, but the Polish duke was only willing to offer 300 marks.[12] After this refusal, the Teutonic Knights occupied the entirety of Danzig, increasing discontent in the city. The following month the knights suppressed an uprising with a highly disputed amount of bloodshed, especially of the German merchants in the city. In the Treaty of Soldin, the Teutonic Order purchased Brandenburg's claims to the castles of Danzig, Schwetz (Świecie), and Dirschau (Tczew) and their hinterlands from the margraves for 10,000 marks on 13 September 1309.[12] Heinrich von Plötzke was an officer of the Teutonic Order during the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... The word mark (from an apparently non-Teutonic word found in all Teutonic and Romance languages, and Latinized as marca or marcus) originally expressed a measure of weight only for gold and silver, commonly used throughout western Europe and equivalent to 8 oz (ounces). ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat Tczew County Gmina Tczew Established 12th century City Rights 1260 Government  - Mayor Zenon Odya Area  - Town 22. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ...

Pomerelia (Pommerellen) while part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights.
Pomerelia (Pommerellen) while part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights.

Control of Pomerelia allowed the Order to connect their monastic state with the borders of the Holy Roman Empire. Crusading reinforcements and supplies were able to travel from the Imperial territory of Hither Pomerania through Pomerelia to Prussia, while Poland's access to the Baltic Sea, was blocked. While Poland had mostly been an ally of the knights against the pagan Prussians and Lithuanians, the capture of Pomerelia turned the kingdom into a determined enemy of the Order.[13] Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Western Pomerania. ...


The capture of Danzig marked a new phase in the history of the Teutonic Knights. The persecution and abolition of the powerful Knights Templar which began in 1307 worried the Teutonic Knights, but control of Pomerelia allowed them to move their headquarters in 1309 from Venice to Marienburg (Malbork) on the Nogat River, outside of the reach of secular powers. The position of Prussian Landmeister was merged with that of the Grand Master. The Pope began investigating misconduct by the knights, but the Order was defended by able jurists. Along with the campaigns against the Lithuanians, the knights faced a vengeful Poland and legal threats from the Papacy.[14] For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... Malbork Castle 2003. ... The Nogat is a distributary of the Vistula River in Poland. ...


The Treaty of Kalisz of 1343 ended open war between the Teutonic Knights and Poland. The Knights relinquished Kuyavia and Dobrzyń Land to Poland, but retained Culmerland and Pomerelia with Danzig. The Treaty of Kalisz (German: ; Polish: ) was signed by King Casimir III the Great of Poland and the Teutonic Knights in 1343. ... KUYAVIA (sometimes spelt Cuyavia; in German KUJAWIEN, in Polish KUJAVY) is a historical region of Poland, named after the pagan tribe of the Kujawier (name in German) still known there under that name in the tenth century AD. It is the northernmost part of Greater Poland, west of Masovia and... DobrzyÅ„ Land (Polish: ; German: ) is the territory surrounding DobrzyÅ„ nad WisÅ‚Ä… in Poland. ... CheÅ‚mno Land or Culmland (Polish: Ziemia CheÅ‚miÅ„ska, German: Kulmerland) is a historical region in central Poland bounded by the Vistula and DrwÄ™ca rivers. ...


Height of power

In 1337 Emperor Louis IV allegedly granted the Order the imperial privilege to conquer all Lithuania and Russia. During the reign of Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode (1351-1382), the Order reached the peak of its international prestige and hosted numerous European crusaders and nobility. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (823x668, 57 KB) Other versions (WP:EN) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Teutonic Knights Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (823x668, 57 KB) Other versions (WP:EN) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Teutonic Knights Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights ... Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... Emperor Louis IV Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (April 1, 1282 – October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and... Winrich von Kniprode was the 22nd Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, between 1351 and 1382. ...


King Albert of Sweden ceded Gotland to the Order as a pledge (similar to a fiefdom), with the understanding that they would eliminate the pirating Victual Brothers from this strategic island base in the Baltic Sea. An invasion force under Grand Master Konrad von Jungingen conquered the island in 1398 and drove the Victual Brothers out of Gotland and the Baltic Sea. Albert of Sweden (or Albrecht von Mecklenburg in German or Albrekt av Mecklenburg in Swedish) was born in 1338 and became king of Sweden in 1363. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... Pledge is a verb, meaning to promise solemnly, and a noun, meaning the promise or its maker or its object. ... Fief depiction in a book of hours Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord, generally to a vassal, in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means... The Victual Brothers resp. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Konrad von Jungingen (born 1355 in Swabia - died 30 March 1407 in Marienburg) was the 25th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order from 1393 to 1407. ...


In 1386 Grand Duke Jogaila of Lithuania was baptised into Roman Catholic Christianity and married Queen Jadwiga of Poland, taking the name Władysław II Jagiełło and becoming King of Poland. This created a personal union between the two countries and a potentially formidable opponent for the Teutonic Knights. The Order initially managed to play Jagiello and his cousin Vytautas against each other, but this strategy failed when Vytautas began to suspect that the Order was planning to annex parts of his territory. For other monarchs with similar names , see Ladislaus Jagiello or Ladislaus. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the 14th-century queen and saint. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ...


The baptism of Jagiello began the official conversion of Lithuania to Christianity. Although the crusading rationale for the Order's state ended when Prussia and Lithuania had become officially Christian, the Order's feuds and wars with Lithuania and Poland continued. The Lizard Union was created in 1397 by Polish[citation needed] nobles in Culmerland to oppose the Order's policy.


In 1407 the Teutonic Order had reached its greatest territorial extent and included the lands of Prussia, Pomerelia, Samogitia, Courland, Livonia, Estonia, Gotland, Dagö, Ösel, and the Neumark pawned by Brandenburg in 1402. A cropped image of Prussia from Spread of German settlements to the Eastward, 800-1400. (Full map. ... Pomerelia (German: ) is a historical region in northern Poland. ... Etnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... Tahkuna peninsula is the most northern part of Hiiumaa, Estonia Hiiumaa is the second largest island (989 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Landsat satellite photo of Saaremaa Saaremaa is the largest island (2,673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... Neumark can refer to a region in western Poland, see Neumark (region) a city in Thuringia, see Neumark, Thuringia a municipality in Saxony, see Neumark, Saxony the former German name of Nowe Miasto Lubawskie, Poland This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...


Decline

In 1410 at the Battle of Grunwald (also known as the Battle of Tannenberg), a combined Polish-Lithuanian army, led by Władysław II Jagiełło and Vytautas, decisively defeated the Order in the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War. Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and most of the Order's higher dignitaries fell on the battlefield (50 out of 60). The Polish-Lithuanian army then besieged the capital of the Order, Marienburg, but was unable to take it owing to the resistance of Heinrich von Plauen. When the First Peace of Toruń was signed in 1411, the Order managed to retain essentially all of its territories, although the Knights' reputation as invincible warriors was irreparably damaged. Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 14,000 captured The Battle of Grunwald... ST or St may stand for: Abbreviation for Street (St. ... Grunwald, painted by Wojciech Kossak. ... Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ... Malbork Castle (German: ) was built by the Teutonic Order as Ordensburg and named Marienburg (literally Marys Castle). The city which grew around it was also named Marienburg, now called Malbork. ... Heinrich V von Plauen (born circa 1370 in Lochstädt, near Königsberg - died 1429 in Lochstädt) was the 27th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. ... Peace of ToruÅ„ The Peace of ToruÅ„ of 1411 or the First Peace of ToruÅ„ or of Thorn was a peace treaty signed on 1 February 1411 in ToruÅ„ (German: ) between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Order ending the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (1409-1411) (see the Battle of Grunwald). ...


While Poland and Lithuania were growing in power, that of the Teutonic Knights dwindled through infighting. They were forced to impose high taxes in order to pay a substantial indemnity but did not give the cities sufficient requested representation in the administration of their state. The authoritarian and reforming Grand Master Heinrich von Plauen was forced from power and replaced by Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg, but the new Grand Master was unable to revive the Order's fortunes. After the Gollub War the Knights lost some small border regions and renounced all claims to Samogitia in the 1422 Treaty of Melno. Austrian and Bavarian knights feuded with those from the Rhineland, who likewise bickered with Low German-speaking Saxons, from whose ranks the Grand Master was usually chosen. The western Prussian lands of the Vistula River Valley and the Neumark were ravaged by the Hussites during the Hussite Wars.[15] Some Teutonic Knights were sent to battle the invaders, but were defeated by the Bohemian infantry. The Knights also sustained a defeat in the Polish-Teutonic War (1431-1435). Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg (born in 1370 in Schlesien, died December 15th, 1423 in Danzig) was the 28th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order between 1414 and 1422. ... The Gollub War was a two-month war of the Teutonic Knights against the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1422. ... Etnographic regions of Lithuania. ... The Treaty of Melno (German: ; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ) was a peace treaty ending the Gollub War. ... Geography Bavaria shares international borders with Austria and the Czech Republic. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... The Hussites were a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - SudomÄ•Å™ – Vítkov – VyÅ¡ehrad – Nebovidy - NÄ›mecký Brod – HoÅ™ice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Polish-Teutonic War of 1431-1435) begun with the alliance between Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Paul von Rusdorf, and Grand Duke of Lithuania, Å vitrigaila. ...


In 1454 the Prussian Confederation, consisting of the gentry and burghers of western Prussia, rose up against the Order, beginning the Thirteen Years' War. Much of Prussia was devastated in the war, during the course of which the Order returned Neumark to Brandenburg in 1455. In the Second Peace of Toruń, the defeated Order recognized the Polish crown's rights over western Prussia (subsequently Royal Prussia) while retaining eastern Prussia under nominal Polish overlordship. Because Marienburg was lost to the Order, its base was moved to Königsberg in Sambia. On February 21, 1440, a group made up of individuals from the Prussian cities, gentry and clergy, formed the Prussian Confederation (German Preussischer Bund, Polish: ZwiÄ…zek Pruski), under the leadership of the big cities Gdansk, Elblag, and Torun. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ... The Second Treaty of ToruÅ„, Zweiter Friede von Thorn, (also referred to as Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanse city of Thorn/ToruÅ„ on October 19, 1466 between the Polish king, the Prussian cities, and duke of Pomerania on one side, and the Teutonic... Poland and Lithuania in 1387 The Jagiellon Era 1385-1569, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jogaila. ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... Sambia (German: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the south-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. ...


Eastern Prussia was subsequently also lost to the Order when Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg, after another unsuccessful war with Poland, converted to Lutheranism in 1525, secularized the Order's remaining Prussian territories, and assumed from King Sigismund I the Old of Poland the hereditary rights to the Duchy of Prussia as a vassal of the Polish Crown in the Prussian Homage. The Protestant Duchy of Prussia was thus a fief of Catholic Poland. Albert of Prussia Albert I Hohenzollern of Brandenburg-Ansbach (German: ; Latin: Albertus; 16 May 1490 – 20 March 1568) was Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, the first duke of Ducal Prussia, which he made the first state to adopt the Lutheran faith. ... Combatants Teutonic Order Kingdom of Poland Commanders Albert of Hohenzollern Sigismund I the Old MikoÅ‚aj Firlej Strength tens of thousands, but likely under 50,000 tens of thousands, but likely under 50,000 Polish-Teutonic War of 1519-1521 (German: , horsemens war) was the war between the Kingdom... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Reign From December 8, 1506 until April 1, 1548 Coronation On January 24, 1507 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk Elżbieta Rakuszanka Consorts Katarzyna Telniczanka Barbara Zapolya Bona Sforza Children with Katarzyna Telniczanka Jan Regina Katarzyna with Barbara Zapolya Jadwiga Anna with Bona... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... The Prussian Homage by Jan Matejko The Prussian Homage or Prussian Tribute (Polish: hoÅ‚d pruski) was the formal investment of Albert of Prussia as duke of the Polish fief of Ducal Prussia. ...

Castle of the Teutonic Order in Bad Mergentheim.
Castle of the Teutonic Order in Bad Mergentheim.

Although it had lost control of all of its Prussian lands, the Teutonic Order retained its territories within the Holy Roman Empire and Livonia, although the Livonian branch retained considerable autonomy. Many of the Imperial possessions were ruined in the Peasants' War from 1524-1525 and subsequently confiscated by Protestant territorial princes.[16] The Livonian territory was then partitioned by neighboring powers during the Livonian War; in 1561 the Livonian Master Gotthard Kettler secularized the southern Livonian possessions of the Order to create the Duchy of Courland, also a vassal of Poland. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2726x4544, 1763 KB) Summary Photo of the Teutonic Orders former castle (now a museum) in Mergentheim, Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2726x4544, 1763 KB) Summary Photo of the Teutonic Orders former castle (now a museum) in Mergentheim, Germany. ... Bad Mergentheim (Mergentheim until 1926) is a town in the Main-Tauber district in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Peasants War map. ... The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... Gotthard Kettler Gotthard Kettler (1517 – 17 May 1587) became the last master of the Livonian Order - a branch of the Teutonic order in 1559, but when the Order came under increasing pressure from Russian tsar Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) during the Livonian war (1558 – 1582), Gotthard Kettler secularised the... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ...


After the loss of Prussia in 1525, the Teutonic Knights concentrated on their possessions in the Holy Roman Empire. Since they held no contiguous territory, they developed a three-tiered administrative system: holdings were combined into commanderies which were administered by a commander (Komtur). Several commanderies were combined to form a bailiwick headed by a Landkomtur. All of the Teutonic Knights' possessions were subordinate to the Grand Master whose seat was in Bad Mergentheim. Altogether there were twelve German bailiwicks: Thuringia, Alden Biesen (in present-day Belgium), Hesse, Saxony, Westphalia, Franconia, Koblenz, Alsace-Burgundy, An der Etsch und im Gebirge (Tyrol), Utrecht, Lorraine, and Austria. Outside of German areas were the bailiwicks of Sicily, Apulia, Lombardy, Bohemia, "Romania" (Greece), and Armenia-Cyprus. The Order gradually lost control of these holdings until, by 1810, only the bailiwicks in Tyrol and Austria remained. Commandry (British English), or commandery (American English), was the smallest division of the European landed estate or manor under the control of a commendator, or commander, of an order of knights. ... Komtur was a rank within the Teutonic Knights. ... A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... Bad Mergentheim (Mergentheim until 1926) is a town in the Main-Tauber district in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Franconia (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Koblenz (disambiguation) Koblenz (also Coblenz in pre-1926 German spellings; French Coblence) is a city situated on both banks of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck (German Corner) and its monument (Emperor William I on horseback... Elsaß redirects here. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... The origin of the Diocese dates back to 695 when St. ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... This article is bad because of the Italian region. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ...


Following the abdication of Albert of Brandenburg, Walter von Cronberg became Deutschmeister in 1527 and Grand Master in 1530. Emperor Charles V combined the two positions in 1531, creating the title Hoch- und Deutschmeister, which also had the rank of Prince of the Empire.[17] A new Grand Magistery was established in Mergentheim in Württemberg, which was attacked during the Peasants' War. The Order also helped Charles V against the Schmalkaldic League. After the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, membership in the Order was open to Protestants, although the majority of brothers remained Catholic.[18] The Teutonic Knights now were tri-denominational, and there were Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed bailiwicks. Grand Master Walter von Cronberg Walter von Cronberg (1477 at Castle Kronberg near Frankfurt am Main- 4 April 1545) was the 38th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order between 1527 and 1543. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Fürst (plural Fürsten) is a German title of nobility, usually translated into English as Prince; however this translation can be misleading, since a Fürst usually ranks below a Duke. ... Bad Mergentheim (Mergentheim until 1926) is a town in the Main-Tauber district in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Peasants War map. ... The Schmalkaldic League was a defensive league of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire in the mid-16th century. ... The front page of the document. ...


The Grand Masters, often members of the great German families (and, after 1761, members of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine), continued to preside over the Order's considerable holdings in Germany. Teutonic Knights from Germany, Austria, and Bohemia were used as battlefield commanders leading mercenaries for the Habsburg Monarchy during the Ottoman wars in Europe. The military history of the Teutonic Knights ended in 1809, when Napoleon Bonaparte ordered their dissolution and the Order lost its remaining secular holdings to Napoleon's vassals and allies. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lorraine (province). ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


Modern Teutonic Order

The Order continued to exist in Austria, out of Napoleon's reach. It was only in 1834 that it was again officially called the Deutscher Ritterorden ("German Knightly Order"), although most of its possessions were worldly by then. Beginning in 1804 it was headed by members of the Habsburg dynasty until the 1923 resignation of the Grand Master, Archduke Eugen of Austria. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Eugen, Archduke of Austria HI & RH Eugen Ferdinand Pius Bernhard Felix Maria, Archduke of Austria, Prince of Hungary and Bohemia (21 May 1863 - 30 December 1954) Born at Gross-Sellowitz, he was the son of Karl Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (1818-1874) and his wife Elisabeth of Austria (1831-1903). ...


In 1929 the Teutonic Knights were converted to a purely spiritual Roman Catholic religious order and were renamed Deutscher Orden ("German Order"). After Austria's annexation by Nazi Germany, the Teutonic Order was abolished throughout the Großdeutsches Reich from 1938-1945, although the Nazis used imagery of the medieval Teutonic Knights for propaganda purposes. The Order survived in Italy, however, and was reconstituted in Germany and Austria in 1945. Catholic Church redirects here. ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ...


By the end of the 1990s, the Order had developed into a charitable organization and incorporated numerous clinics. It sponsors excavation and tourism projects in Israel and the Palestinian territories. In 2000 the German chapter of the Teutonic Order declared insolvency, and its upper management was dismissed. A 2002-03 investigation by a special committee of the Bavarian parliament was inconclusive. This article is about charitable organizations. ... A clinic or outpatient clinic is a small medical facility that provides health care for ambulatory patients - as opposed to inpatients treated in a hospital. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... The Landtag of Bavaria is Bavarias unicameral legislature. ...

The Coat of Arms of the Teutonic Order
The Coat of Arms of the Teutonic Order

The Order currently consists of approximately 1,000 members, including 100 Roman Catholic priests, 200 nuns, and 700 associates. While the priests are organized into six provinces (Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Slovakia, and Slovenia) and predominantly provide spiritual guidance, the nuns primarily care for the ill and the aged. Associates are active in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Italy. Many of the priests care for German-speaking communities outside of Germany and Austria, especially in Italy and Slovenia; in this sense the Teutonic Order has returned to its 12th century roots — the spiritual and physical care of Germans in foreign lands.[19] The current General Abbot of the Order, who also holds the title of Grand Master, is Bruno Platter. The current seat of the Grand Master is the Deutschordenskirche[20] in Vienna. Near the Stephansdom in the Austrian capital is the Treasury of the Teutonic Order which is open to the public, and the order's Central Archive. Since 1996 there has also been a museum dedicated to the Teutonic Knights at their former castle in Bad Mergentheim in Germany, which was the seat of the Grand Master from 1525-1809. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x908, 176 KB) Piotr Jaworski; PioM EN DE PL 01:36, 26 July 2005 (UTC); POLAND/PoznaÅ„; Coat of Arms of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order of Our Lady of Jerusalem (DE: Deutscher Orden, PL: Krzyżacy). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x908, 176 KB) Piotr Jaworski; PioM EN DE PL 01:36, 26 July 2005 (UTC); POLAND/PoznaÅ„; Coat of Arms of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order of Our Lady of Jerusalem (DE: Deutscher Orden, PL: Krzyżacy). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about religious workers. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... Bruno Platter, Th. ... The Deutschordenskirche is a church, belonging to the charitable organisation Teutonic Order, in Vienna, Austria. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... // The Stephansdom (Cathedral of Saint Stephen), in Vienna, Austria, is the seat of a Roman Catholic Archbishop, a beloved symbol of Vienna, and the site of many important events in Austrias national life. ... Bad Mergentheim (Mergentheim until 1926) is a town in the Main-Tauber district in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ...


Influence on German nationalism

German nationalism often invoked the imagery of the Teutonic Knights, especially in the context of territorial conquest from eastern neighbours of Germany and conflict with nations of Slavic origins, who were considered by German nationalists to be of lower development and of inferior culture. The German historian Heinrich von Treitschke used imagery of the Teutonic Knights to promote pro-German and anti-Polish rhetoric. Such imagery and symbols were adopted by many middle-class Germans who supported German nationalism. During the Weimar Republic, associations and organisations of this nature contributed to laying the groundwork for the formation of Nazi Germany.[21] Emperor William II of Germany posed for a photo in 1902 in the garb of a monk from the Teutonic Order, climbing up the stairs in the reconstructed Marienburg Castle as a symbol of the German Empire's policy.[21] During World War II, Nazi propaganda and ideology made frequent use of the Teutonic Knights' imagery, as the Nazis sought to depict the Knights' actions as a forerunner of the Nazi conquests for Lebensraum. Heinrich Himmler tried to idealize the SS as a 20th century incarnation of the medieval knights.[22] Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Heinrich von Treitschke (September 15, 1834 - April 28, 1896), German historian and political writer, was born at Dresden. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia; German: ) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and Prussia from 15 June 1888 to... Malbork Castle (German: ) was built by the Teutonic Order as Ordensburg and named Marienburg (literally Marys Castle). The city which grew around it was also named Marienburg, now called Malbork. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi Germany was noted for its psychologically powerful propaganda, much of which was centered around Jews, who were consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal           (German for habitat or literally living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... Himmler redirects here. ... SS redirects here. ...




Timeline of events

Field altar of the commendator Johann von Lorich.
Field altar of the commendator Johann von Lorich.
see also Polish-Teutonic War

Field altar of the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order picture from the 1888 Meyers Konversations-Lexikon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Field altar of the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order picture from the 1888 Meyers Konversations-Lexikon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Polish-Teutonic War can refer to: Polish-Teutonic War (1308–1309), actually the Teutonic takeover of Danzig Polish-Teutonic War (1326–1332) (various sources differ giving either 1326 or 1327 as the starting date of this war) Polish-Teutonic War (1409–1411) known as Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War or Great... Combatants Mongol Empire Alliance Polish states Teutonic Knights[3][4] Commanders Baidar, Kadan, Orda Khan Henry II the Pious † Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen) diversionary force [5] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-25,000[5] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier than expected... Baltic tribes and Prussian clans ca. ... Treaty of Christburg was a peace treaty signed on February 2, 1249 between the pagan Prussian clans, represented by a papal legate, and the Teutonic Knights. ... Combatants Prussians (Natangians) Teutonic Knights Commanders Unknown Marshal Heinrich Botel Casualties None 54 knights massacred The Battle of Krücken was a medieval battle between the Teutonic Knights and Prussians, one of the Baltic tribes, fought in 1249 during the Northern Crusades. ... The Prussian uprisings were a number of uprisings by the Old Prussian tribes against the Teutonic Order that took place in the 13th century during and following the Northern Crusades. ... The Teutonic takeover of Danzig on 13 November 1308 refers to events that lead to the incorporation of the city of GdaÅ„sk into the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. ... Polish-Teutonic Wars 1308–1309 (GdaÅ„sk-Danzig) â€“ 1326–1332 â€“ 1409–1411 (Great) â€“ 1414 (Hunger) â€“ 1422 (Gollub) â€“ 1431–1435 â€“ 1454–1466 (Thirteen Years) â€“ 1467-1479 (Priests) â€“ 1519–1521 Polish-Teutonic War (1326[1]–1332) was the war between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights, fought from 1326 to... KUYAVIA (sometimes spelt Cuyavia; in German KUJAWIEN, in Polish KUJAVY) is a historical region of Poland, named after the pagan tribe of the Kujawier (name in German) still known there under that name in the tenth century AD. It is the northernmost part of Greater Poland, west of Masovia and... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Teutonic Order Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high Casimir III of Poland Dietrich von Altenburg Reuss von Plauen Otto von Lutterberg Otto von Bonsdorf Strength 5,000 7,000 Casualties About 4,000 The Battle of PÅ‚owce took place on 27 September 1331... The Treaty of Kalisz (German: ; Polish: ) was signed by King Casimir III the Great of Poland and the Teutonic Knights in 1343. ... Grunwald, painted by Wojciech Kossak. ... For the 1914 battle at the same location, refer to Battle of Tannenberg (1914) Battle of Grunwald Conflict 1409-1411 war Date July 15, 1410 Place Grunwald/Tannenberg Result Decisive Polish and Lithuanian victory The Battle of Grunwald took place on July 15, 1410 between the Kingdom of Poland and... Peace of ToruÅ„ 1411 or the First Peace of ToruÅ„ was a peace treaty signed on 1 February 1411 in ToruÅ„ between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Order ending the so called Great War of 1409-1410 (see the Battle of Grunwald). ... The Hunger War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights in 1414. ... The Gollub War was a two-month war of the Teutonic Knights against the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1422. ... The Treaty of Melno (German: ; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ) was a peace treaty ending the Gollub War. ... Polish-Teutonic War of 1431-1435) begun with the alliance between Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Paul von Rusdorf, and Grand Duke of Lithuania, Å vitrigaila. ... The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Second Peace of ToruÅ„. (Discuss) Peace of Thorn 1466 (also Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466 or the Second Peace of Thorn) was a peace treaty signed on 19 October 1466 in Thorn (ToruÅ„) between Poland and the Teutonic Order... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Teutonic Order Kingdom of Poland Commanders Albert of Hohenzollern Sigismund I the Old MikoÅ‚aj Firlej Strength tens of thousands, but likely under 50,000 tens of thousands, but likely under 50,000 Polish-Teutonic War of 1519–1521 (German: , horsemens war) was the war between the Kingdom... The Prussian Homage by Jan Matejko The Prussian Homage or Prussian Tribute (Polish: hoÅ‚d pruski) was the formal investment of Albert of Prussia as duke of the Polish fief of Ducal Prussia. ...

See also

The Deutschhaus in Mainz, view from the city The Deutschhaus or Deutschordenskommende (German for Commandry of the Teutonic Knights) is the seat of the Rhineland-Palatinate Landtag in Mainz, Germany. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... Malbork Castle 2003. ...

Coats of arms

Image File history File links Teutonic_order_COA_drawing. ... Image File history File links Den_tyske_ordens_skjold. ... Image File history File links Crux_Ordis_Teutonicorum. ...

Seals and coins

Notes

  1. ^ Monumenta Germaniae Historica, SS Bd. 25, S. 796.
  2. ^ Kurt Forstreuter. "Der Deutsche Orden am Mittelmeer". Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens, Bd II. Bonn 1967, S. 12f.
  3. ^ Seward, p. 100
  4. ^ Seward, p. 104
  5. ^ Christiansen, pp. 208-09
  6. ^ Christiansen, pp. 210-11
  7. ^ Barraclough, p. 268
  8. ^ Urban, p. 106
  9. ^ Christiansen, p. 211
  10. ^ Christiansen, p. 150
  11. ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. The Teutonic Order of Holy Mary in Jerusalem. Accessed June 6, 2006.
  12. ^ a b (German) Geschichte-Feuchtwangen.de. "Die Expansion des Ordens von Preußen nach Westen." Accessed 8 June 2006.
  13. ^ Urban, p. 116
  14. ^ Christiansen, p. 151
  15. ^ Westermann, p. 93
  16. ^ Christiansen, p. 248
  17. ^ Seward, p. 137
  18. ^ Urban, p. 276
  19. ^ Urban, p. 277
  20. ^ Deutschordenskirche, Wien 1 - an explanatory pamphlet (in German) of the Order available in the Deutschordenskirche, by Franz R. Vorderwinkler, 1996, published by Kirche & Kultur Verlag mediapress, A-4400, Steyr.
  21. ^ a b (Polish) Mówią wieki. "Biała leganda czernago krzyża". Accessed June 6, 2006.
  22. ^ Christiansen, p. 5

The Monumenta Germaniae Historica (frequently abbreviated MGH in bibliographies and lists of sources) is a comprehensive series of carefully edited and published sources for the study of German history (broadly conceived) from the end of the Roman Empire to 1500. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Guy Stair Sainty is an art dealer and author on royal genealogy and heraldry. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding German Wikipedia article as of June 6, 2006.
  • Christiansen, Erik (1997). The Northern Crusades. London: Penguin Books, 287. ISBN 0-14-026653-4. 
  • Seward, Desmond (1995). The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders. London: Penguin Books, 416. ISBN 0-14-019501-7. 
  • Urban, William (2003). The Teutonic Knights: A Military History. London: Greenhill Books, 290. ISBN 1-85367-535-0. 
  • Westermann Verlag (1963). Westermanns Atlas zur Weltgeschichte: Vorzeit / Altertum, Mittelalter, Neuzeit. Braunschweig: Georg Westermann Verlag, 170.  (German)

is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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