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The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. Marks, Venice
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The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. Marks, Venice

Tetrarchy (Greek: "leadership of four people") can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals but is rarely used. The most famous Tetrarchy is that instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293 and lasted until c. 313. The establishment of the Tetrarchy usually marks the resolution of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire. The Roman Kingdom (Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchal government for the city of Rome and its territories from its founding. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Consul (abbrev. ... // Definition According to Cicero, Praetor was a title which designated the consuls as the leaders of the armies of the state. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by several elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... The Tribuni militum consulari potestate, or Consular Tribunes were tribunes elected with consular power during the Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BCE and then continuiously from 408 BCE to 394 BCE, and again from 391 BCE to 367 BCE. According the the histories of... Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The term triumvirate is commonly used to describe an alliance between three equally powerful political or military leaders. ... Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning Ten Men which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... Dux is Latin for leader (from the verb ducere, to lead) and could refer to anyone who commanded troops, such as tribal leaders. ... Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings, including service, (sense of) duty, courtesy, ceremony and the likes. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere, to make in front, i. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Vigintisexviri (sing. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (p. ... This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... 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Statue of the Tetrarchs, St Marks Basilica, Venice (better quality image) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Statue of the Tetrarchs, St Marks Basilica, Venice (better quality image) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Porphyry is a very hard igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. ... Country Italy Region Veneto Province Venice (VE) Mayor Massimo Cacciari (since April 18, 2005) Elevation m Area 412 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 271,251  - Density 646/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Veneziani Dialing code 041 Postal code 30100 Frazioni Chirignago, Favaro Veneto, Mestre... Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... Emperor Diocletian. ... Events March 1 - Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. ... Events By Place Roman Empire February - Conference at Milan. ... Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis ) is a commonly applied name for the crumbling and near collapse of the Roman Empire between 235 and 284 caused by the three simultaneous crises of external invasion, internal civil war and economic collapse. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ...

Contents

Creation of the Tetrarchy

The first phase (sometimes referred to as the Dyarchy, 'the rule of two') involved the designation of the general Maximian as co-emperor - firstly as Caesar (junior emperor) in 285, followed by his promotion to Augustus in 286. Diocletian took care of matters in the Eastern regions of the Empire while Maximian similarly took charge of the Western regions. In 293, feeling more focus was needed on both civic and military problems, Diocletian (with Maximian's consent) expanded the imperial college by appointing two Caesares (one responsible to each Augustus) - Galerius and Constantius Chlorus. The two Caesares were intended as the future successors to the two Augusti, which should be abdicated after 20-years term of rule.[citations needed] The first Tetrarchy was therefore created. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Caesar (p. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Galerius on a coin Galerius Maximianus (c. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ...


Tetrarchic regions and capitals

Map of the Roman empire c. 395, showing the dioceses and praetorian prefectures of Gaul, Italy, Illyricum and Oriens (East), roughly analogous to the four Tetrarchs' zones of influence. However, in 395, the western part of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum (including Sirmium) was attached to the Praetorian prefecture of Italy.
Map of the Roman empire c. 395, showing the dioceses and praetorian prefectures of Gaul, Italy, Illyricum and Oriens (East), roughly analogous to the four Tetrarchs' zones of influence. However, in 395, the western part of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum (including Sirmium) was attached to the Praetorian prefecture of Italy.

The four Tetrarchs based themselves not at Rome but in other cities closer to the frontiers, mainly intended as headquarters for the defence of the empire against bordering rivals (notably Sassanian Persia) and barbarians (mainly Germanic, and an endless procession from the eastern steppe; many nomadic or elsewhere chased tribes) at the Rhine and Danube. These centres are known as the 'Tetrarchic capitals'. Although Rome ceased to be an operational capital, the 'Eternal City' continued to be nominal capital of the entire empire, not reduced to the status of a province but under its own, unique Prefect of the City (praefectus urbis, later copied in Constantinople). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1899x1543, 683 KB) Summary Description  Roman Empire about 395, with labeled provinces Author/Source  William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas (1911) via the Perry-Castañeda Library of the University of Texas Licensing  In the public domain as a work published in... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1899x1543, 683 KB) Summary Description  Roman Empire about 395, with labeled provinces Author/Source  William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas (1911) via the Perry-Castañeda Library of the University of Texas Licensing  In the public domain as a work published in... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... // The word barbarian generally refers to an uncivilized, uncultured person, either in a general reference to a member of a nation or ethnos perceived as having an inferior level of civilization, or in an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, insensitive person whose behavior is unacceptable in a civilized society. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ...


The four Tetrarchic capitals were:

  • Nicomedia in northwestern Asia Minor (modern Izmit in Turkey), a base for defence against invasion from the Balkans and Persia's Sassanids, not Constantinople (given that name at its later refounding), was the capital of Diocletian, the eastern (and most senior) Augustus; in the final reorganisation by Constantine the Great, in 318AD, the equivalent of his domain, facing the most redoubtable foreign enemy, Persia, became the pretorian prefecture Oriens 'the East', the core of later Byzantium.
  • Mediolanum (modern Milan, near the Alps), not Eternal Rome, was the capital of Maximian, the western Augustus; his domain became "Italia et Africa", with only a short exterior border.
  • Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier, in Germany) was the excentric capital of Constantius Chlorus, the western Caesar, near the strategic Rhine border, hence it had before been the capital of Gallic emperor Tetricus I; this quarter became the prefecture Galliae.

Aquileia, a port on the Adriatic coast, and Eburacum (modern York, in northern England near the Celtic tribes of modern Scotland and Ireland), were also significant centres for Maximian and Constantius respectively. Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Ä°zmit (also known as Kocaeli; previously known as Ismid or Isnikmid) is a city in the northwestern part of Anatolia, Turkey. ... Sremska Mitrovica (Сремска Митровица) is a city located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro at 44. ... New pedestrian bridge built in 1993, connecting Sremska Mitrovica and Mačvanska Mitrovica Sremska Mitrovica (Serbian: Сремска Митровица or Sremska Mitrovica, Rusin: Сримска Митровица, Croatian: Sr(ij)emska Mitrovica, Hungarian: Szávaszentdemeter, German: Syrmisch Mitrowitz, Latin: Sirmium) is a city located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro at 44. ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Formation and independence    - Formation of Serbia 814   - Formation of the Serbian Empire 1345   - Independence from the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd ) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Serbia. ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (ancient Danuvius) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... Arcadius solidus, from Mediolanum mint, 400s. ... Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Milan (MI) Mayor Letizia Moratti Elevation 120 m Area 182 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 1,308,311  - Density 6,988/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Milanesi Dialing code 02 Postal code 20100 Patron St. ... Trier (French: Trèves, Spanish: Tréveris, Italian: Treviri) is Germanys oldest city. ... The city of Trier (Latin: Augusta Treverorum; French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier; Italian: ; Spanish: ) is situated on the western bank of the Moselle River in a valley between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone. ... Tertricus Coin Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from 270/271 to 273, following the murder of Victorinus. ... Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ... York is a city in Northern England, built at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... York is a city in Northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ...


In terms of regional jurisdiction there was no precise division between the four Tetrarchs, and this period did not see the Roman state actually split up into four distinct sub-empires. Each emperor had his zone of influence within the Roman Empire, but little more, mainly high command in a 'war theatre', himself often in the field, while delegating most of the administration to the hierarchic bureaucracy headed by each Tetrarch's Pretorian Prefect, each supervising several Vicarii, the governors-general in charge of another, lasting new administrative level, the civilian diocese, of which there were originally twelve, later several were split. For a listing of the provinces, now known as eparchy, within each quarter (known as a pretorian prefecture), see Roman province. Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In the Roman Empire, an eparchy was one of the political subdivisions of the Empire. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ...


In the West, the Augustus Maximian controlled the provinces west of the Adriatic Sea and the Syrtis, and within that region his Caesar, Constantius, controlled Gaul and Britain. In the East, the arrangements between the Augustus Diocletian and his Caesar, Galerius, were much more flexible.


However, it appears that some contemporary and later writers, such as the Christian author Lactantius, and Sextus Aurelius Victor (who wrote about fifty years later and from uncertain sources), misunderstood the Tetrarchic system in this respect, believing it to have involved a stricter division of territories between the four emperors. Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ... Sextus Aurelius Victor, prefect of Pannonia about 360 ( xxi. ...


Public image

Although power was shared in the Tetrarchic system, the public image of the four emperors in the imperial college was carefully managed to give the appearance of a united empire (patrimonium indivisum). This was especially important after the civil war of the third century.


The Tetrarchs appeared identical in all official portraits. Coinage dating from the Tetrarchic period depicts every emperor with identical features - only the inscriptions on the coins indicate which one of the four emperors is being shown. The porphyry sculpture (pictured above), now embedded in the wall of St. Mark's Basilica in Venice, shows the Tetrarchs again with identical features and wearing the same military costume. San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco in Venezia) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ... Country Italy Region Veneto Province Venice (VE) Mayor Massimo Cacciari (since April 18, 2005) Elevation m Area 412 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 271,251  - Density 646/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Veneziani Dialing code 041 Postal code 30100 Frazioni Chirignago, Favaro Veneto, Mestre...


Military successes

One of the greatest problems facing emperors in the Third Century Crisis was that they were only ever able to personally command troops on one front at any one time. While Aurelian and Probus were prepared to accompany their armies thousands of miles between war regions, this was not an ideal solution. Furthermore, it was risky for an emperor to delegate power in his absence to a subordinate general, who might win a victory and then be proclaimed as a rival emperor himself by his troops (which often happened). All members of the imperial college, on the other hand, were of essentially equal rank, despite two being senior emperors and two being junior; their functions and authorities were also equal. Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (September 9, 214–275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... This antoninianus minted under Probus (c. ...


Under the Tetrarchy a number of important military victories were secured. Both the Dyarchic and the Tetrarchic system ensured that an emperor was nearby to every crisis area to personally direct and remain in control of campaigns simultaneously on more than just one front. After suffering a defeat to the Persians in 296, Galerius crushed Narses in 298 - reversing a series of Roman defeats throughout the century - capturing members of the imperial household, a substantial amount of booty and gaining a highly favourable peace treaty, which secured peace between the two powers for a generation. Similarly, Constantius defeated the British usurper Allectus, Maximian pacified the Gauls and Diocletian crushed the revolt of Domitianus in Egypt. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ... Allectus (died 296) was a Roman emperor in Britain (293–296). ... Domitianus was a Roman military commander who declared himself emperor of the secessionist Gallic Empire (the provinces of Gaul (France and the Rhineland) and Britain) for a short time in about 271. ...


Fall of the Tetrarchy

Constantine at the battle of the Milvian Bridge, fresco by Raphael, Vatican Rooms.
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Constantine at the battle of the Milvian Bridge, fresco by Raphael, Vatican Rooms.

Download high resolution version (614x793, 146 KB)Raphael, Vatican Rooms: Constatine at the battle of Milvian Bridge This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (614x793, 146 KB)Raphael, Vatican Rooms: Constatine at the battle of Milvian Bridge This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Battle of the Milvian Bridge Conflict Date October 28, 312 Place Milvian Bridge (Saxa Rubra), Rome Result Defeat of Maxentius The Battle of Milvian Bridge took place on October 28, 312 between the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Maxentius. ... Self-portrait by Raphael. ...

Confusion and collapse

When in 305 the 20-years reign term of Diocletian and Maximian ended, both abdicated. Their Caesares, Galerius and Constantius Chlorus, were both raised to the rank of Augustus, and two new Caesares were appointed: Maximinus (Caesar to Galerius) and Flavius Valerius Severus (Caesar to Constantius). These four formed the second Tetrarchy. Maximinus denarius Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus (20 November 270? - July/August, 313) Roman emperor from AD 308 to 313, was originally an Illyrian shepherd named Daia. ... Flavius Valerius Severus as caesar. ...


However, the system broke down very quickly thereafter. When Constantius died in 306, Galerius promoted Severus to Augustus while Constantine I was proclaimed Augustus to succeed his father Constantius, by his father's troops. At the same time, Maxentius, the son of Maximian, resented having been left out of the new arrangements, defeated Severus before forcing him to abdicate and then arranging his murder in 307. Maxentius and Maximian both then declared themselves Augusti. By 308 there were therefore no less than four claimants to the rank of Augustus (Galerius, Constantine, Maximian and Maxentius), and only one to that of Caesar (Maximinus). Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Maxentius as Augustus on a coin. ...


In 308 Galerius, together with the retired emperor Diocletian and the supposedly-retired Maximian, called an imperial 'conference' at Carnuntum on the River Danube, which agreed that Licinius would become Augustus in the West, with Constantine as his Caesar. In the East, Galerius remained Augustus and Maximinus remained his Caesar. Maximian was to retire, and Maxentius was declared an usurper. This agreement proved disastrous: by 308 Maxentius had become de facto ruler of Italy and Africa anyway, even if he was deprived of imperial rank; neither Constantine nor Maximinus - who had both been Caesares since 305 - were prepared to tolerate the promotion of the Augustus Licinius as their superior. Heidentor (pagan gate) Carnuntum (Kapvoiis in Ptolemy) was an important Roman fortress, originally belonging to Noricum, but after the 1st century A.D. to Pannonia. ... As of Licinius Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ...


After an abortive attempt to placate both Constantine and Maximinus with the meaningless title filius Augusti ('son of the Augustus', which could have been an alternative title for Caesar, as either implied the right to succeed), they both had to be recognised as Augusti in 309. However, four full Augusti all at odds with each other did not bode well for the Tetrarchic system.


End of the Tetrarchy

Between 309 and 313 most of the claimants to the imperial office died or were killed in various internecine wars. Constantine arranged Maximian's death by strangulation in 310. Galerius died naturally in 311. Maxentius was defeated by Constantine at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 and subsequently killed. Maximinus committed suicide at Tarsus in 313 after being defeated in battle by Licinius. Battle of the Milvian Bridge Conflict Date October 28, 312 Place Milvian Bridge (Saxa Rubra), Rome Result Defeat of Maxentius The Battle of Milvian Bridge took place on October 28, 312 between the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Maxentius. ... In tetrapods, the tarsi are the cluster of bones in the foot between the tibia and fibula and the metatarsus. ...


By 313, therefore, there remained only two emperors: Constantine in the West and Licinius in the East. The Tetrarchic system was at an end, although it took until 324 for Constantine to finally defeat Licinius, reunite the two halves of the Roman empire and declare himself sole Augustus.


Legacy

Although the Tetrarchic system as such only lasted until c. 313, many aspects survived. The four-fold regional division of the empire continued in the form of Praetorian prefectures, each of which was overseen by a praetorian prefect and subdivided into administrative dioceses, and often reappeared in the title of the military supra-provincial command assigned to a magister militum. Events By Place Roman Empire February - Conference at Milan. ... The division of the Roman Empire into four Praetorian prefectures originated in the age of the Tetrarchy yet outlived that period. ... Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ...


The pre-existing notion of consortium imperii, the sharing of imperial power, and/or the notion that an associate to the throne was the designated successor (possibly conflicting with the notion of hereditary claim by birth or adoption), was to reappear repeatedly. Consortium imperii is a Latin word dating from the Roman dominate, denoting the sharing of imperial authority between two or more emperors, hence designated as consors imperii imperium - either as equals or in subordination (the junior is then often designated heir and successor). ...


The idea of the two halves, the East and the West, re-emerged and eventually resulted in the permanent de facto division into two separate Roman empires after the death of Theodosius I (though it is important to remember that the Empire was never formally divided, Emperors of East and West legally ruling as one imperial college till the fall of Rome's western empire left Byzantium, the 'second Rome', sole direct heir). An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ...


Lesser Tetrarchies

  • Tetrarchies in the ancient world existed in both Thessaly and Galatia.
  • The unstable constellation of Jewish principalities in Roman Palestine: for instance, the kingdom of Galilee under Herod Antipas was a tetrarchy.

Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ...

See also

Roman Emperors by Epoch
see also: List of Roman Emperors · Concise list of Roman Emperors · Roman Empire
Principate Crisis of the
3rd century
Dominate Late Empire

Gallic
Emperors
Tetrarchies

Britannic
Emperors
Theodosian
dynasty

Emperors of the
Western Empire
Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... This is the short overview of Roman Emperors: for more detail and explanation, see: list of Roman Emperors and Roman Emperor. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... The office of Roman Emperor went through a complex evolution over the centuries of its existence. ... The Crisis of the Third Century marked the end of the Principate, the early phase of Imperial Roman government. ... The accession to the purple on November 20, 284, of Diocletian, the lower-class, Greek-speaking Dalmatian commander of Caruss and Numerians household cavalry (protectores domestici), marked a major departure from traditional Roman constitutional theory regarding the Emperor, who was nominally first among equals; Diocletian introduced Oriental despotism... The office of Roman Emperor underwent significant turbulence in the fourth and fifth centuries, after assuming the trappings of Eastern despotism during the Dominate. ... It has been suggested that Fall of the Julio-Claudian be merged into this article or section. ... The forced suicide of emperor Nero, in 68 AD, was followed by a brief period of civil war (the first Roman civil war since Antonys death in 31 BC) known as the Year of the four emperors. ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... The Five Good Emperors. ... The Year of the Five Emperors refers to 193, in which there were five claimants for the title of Roman Emperor. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Barraks Emperor is the way Roman Emperors who ruled during 235–268 are collectively known. ... Several emperors of the Roman Empire were of Illyrian origin. ... The Gallic Empire (in Latin, imperium Galliarum) is the modern name for the independent realm that lived a brief existence during the Roman Empires Crisis of the Third Century, from 260 to 274. ... Category: ... The Valentinian Dynasty ruled the Roman Empire from 364 to 392. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... The House of Theodosius was a Roman family that rose to eminence in the waning days of the Roman Empire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Byzantine
Emperors
This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine. ...



 → (In Italy:)
Barbarian kings

 → (Much later in Western Europe:)
The following is a list of barbarian kings of Italy: Maximinus Thrax (235-238) Odoacer (476-493) Ostrogothic Kings of Italy Theoderic (493-526) Athalaric (526-534) Theodahad (534-536) Witiges (536-540) Heldebadus (540-541) Totila (541-552) Teias (552) Teias was killed by the Byzantine general Narses, and...

Holy Roman Emperors

 → (Continuing in Eastern Europe:)
The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ...

Byzantine Emperors

This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine. ...

Sources and references

(incomplete)

  • Notitia dignitatum (a later document from the imperial chancery)
  • Pauly-Wissowa
  • Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (also in German)
  • Simon Corcoran, The Empire of the Tetrarchs, Imperial Pronouncements and Government AD 284-324, Oxford University Press Catalogue, ISBN 019815304X.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tetrarchy (602 words)
Although the young man was clearly capable (as events were to show) his accession was illegal, and the fact that he was recognized ("third tetrarchy") had a lot to do with another usurpation: Maximianus' son Maxentius felt that he should have been made caesar.
In the autumn of 306, he proceeded to Rome, was recognized by the Senate, and asked his father for help.
Maxentius, although an ally of Constantine, was not recognized as member of the fourth tetrarchy, and technically remained an usurper.
Tetrarchy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1646 words)
The establishment of the Tetrarchy usually marks the resolution of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.
The pre-existing notion of consortium imperii, the sharing of imperial power, and/or the notion that an associate to the throne was the designated successor (possibly conflicting with the notion of hereditary claim by birth or adoption), was to reappear repeatedly.
The unstable constellation of Jewish principalities in Roman Palestine: for instance, the kingdom of Galilee under Herod Antipas was a tetrarchy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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