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Encyclopedia > Tetrahydrocannabinol
Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(−)-(6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-trimethyl-
3-pentyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-
6H-benzo[c]chromen-1-ol
Identifiers
CAS number 1972-08-3
ATC code A04AD10
PubChem 16078
Chemical data
Formula C21H30O2 
Mol. mass 314.45
Synonyms Dronabinol
Physical data
Boiling point 200 °C (392 °F) 0.02mmHg
Solubility in water 2.8 mg/L (23 °C) mg/mL (20 °C)
Spec. rot -152° (ethanol)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 10-35% (inhalation), 6-20% (oral)[1]
Protein binding 95-99%[1]
Metabolism mostly hepatic by CYP2C[1]
Half life 1.6-59 hours [1]
Excretion 65-80% (feces), 20-35% (urine) as acid metabolites[1]
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active chemical compound in Cannabis Tenet Healthcare, an American healthcare provider. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 783 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/png) Permission (Reusing this image) See below. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A division of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System A Alimentary tract and metabolism A04A Antiemetics and antinauseants A04AA Serotonin (5-HT3) antagonists A04AA01 Ondansetron A04AA02 Granisetron A04AA03 Tropisetron A04AA04 Dolasetron A04AD Other antiemetics A04AD01 Scopolamine A04AD02 Cerium oxalate A04AD04 Chlorobutanol A04AD05 Metopimazine A04AD10 Dronabinol A04AD11 Nabilone A04AD51 Scopolamine, combinations... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... The specific rotation of a chemical compound [α] is defined as the observed angle of optical rotation α when plane-polarized light is passed through a sample with a path length of 1 decimeter and a sample concentration of 1 gram per 1 millilitre. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... A drugs efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status
Routes  ?
3D rendering of the THC molecule.

Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the Cannabis plant. It was isolated by Raphael Mechoulam, Yechiel Gaoni, and Habib Edery from the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel in 1964. In pure form, it is a glassy solid when cold, and becomes viscous and sticky if warmed. An aromatic terpenoid, THC has a very low solubility in water, but good solubility in most organic solvents such as butane or hexane. As is the case with nicotine and caffeine, the role of THC in Cannabis, it seems, is to protect the plant from herbivores or pathogens. [2] THC also possesses high UV-B (280-315 nm) absorption properties, protecting the plant from harmful radiation. The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... The Weizmann Institute of Science (מכון ויצמן למדע) is an institute of higher learning and research in Rehovot, Israel. ... Rehobot redirects here. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Chemical structure of the terpenoid isopentenyl pyrophosphate. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Pharmacology

The pharmacological actions of THC result from its binding to the cannabinoid receptor CB1, located in the brain. The presence of these specialized receptors in the brain implied to researchers that endogenous cannabinoids are manufactured by the body, so the search began for a substance normally manufactured in the brain that binds to these receptors, the so-called natural ligand or agonist, leading to the eventual discovery of anandamide, 2-arachidonyl glyceride (2-AG), and other related compounds. This story resembles the discovery of the endogenous opiates (endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphin), after the realization that morphine and other opiates bind to specific receptors in the brain. In addition, it has been shown that cannabinoids, through an unknown mechanism, activate endogenous opioid pathways via the μ1 opioid receptor, precipitating a dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The effects of the drug can be suppressed by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A) or, interesting to note, the opioid receptor antagonists (opioid blockers) naloxone and naloxonazine.[3] Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... The cannabinoid receptors are a class of receptors under the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds present in Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L). ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Anandamide, also known as arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a naturally occurring endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter found in the brain of animals, as well as other organs. ... ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Endorphins are endogenous opioid biochemical compounds. ... Endorphins are endogenous opioid biochemical compounds. ... Dynorphin (Dyn) is a popular and powerful opioid ligand. ... This article is about the drug. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... The cannabinoid receptors are a class of receptors under the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. ... Rimonabant (SR141716) is an anorectic anti-obesity drug. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opioid overdose, for example heroin and morphine overdose. ...



The mechanism of endocannabinoid synaptic transmission is understood by the following events: An excitatory transmission of the neurotransmitter glutamate causes an influx of calcium ions into the post-synaptic neuron. Through a mechanism not yet fully understood, the presence of calcium post-synaptically induces the production of endocannabinoids in the post-synaptic neuron. These endocannabinoids (such as anandamide) are released into the synaptic cleft. Once in the synaptic cleft, binding occurs at cannabinoid receptors present in pre-synaptic neurons where they can then modulate neurotransmission pre-synaptically. This form of neurotransmission is termed retrograde transmission, as the signal is carried in the opposite direction of orthodox propagation; it provides an interesting insight into neurotransmission, which previously was thought to be exclusively one way. Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... In neuroscience, retrograde signaling is a phenomenon in which a signal travels from a postsynaptic neuron to a presynaptic one. ...


THC has analgesic effects that, even at low doses, cause a high, thus leading to the fact that medical cannabis can be used to treat pain. The mechanism for analgesic effects caused directly by THC or other cannabinoid agonists is not fully elucidated. Other effects include relaxation; euphoria; altered space-time perception; alteration of visual, auditory, and olfactory senses; disorientation; fatigue; and appetite stimulation related to CB1 receptor activity in the central nervous system. The mechanism for appetite stimulation in subjects is somewhat understood and explained through a gastro-hypothalamic axis. CB1 activity in the hunger centers in the hypothalamus increases the palatability of food when levels of a hunger hormone, ghrelin, increase as food enters the stomach. After chyme is passed into the duodenum, signaling hormones such as cholecystokinin and leptin are released, causing reduction in gastric emptying and transmission of satiety signals to the hypothalamus, respectively. Cannabinoid activity is reduced through the satiety signals induced by leptin release. It also has anti-emetic properties, and also may reduce aggression in certain subjects. An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ...


THC has an active metabolite, 11-Hydroxy-THC, which may also play a role in the analgesic and recreational effects of the herb. A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... 11-hydroxy-THC is the primary active Δ9-THC metabolite. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ...


Toxicity

Main article: LD50 of THC
See also: Health issues and effects of cannabis

According to the Merck Index, 12th edition, THC has a LD50 value of 1270 mg/kg (male rats) and 730 mg/kg (female rats) administered orally dissolved in sesame oil.[4] LD50 is a value of partial fatality; IE 50% of test subjects die at said dose. ... The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... Kg redirects here. ... Chinese Sesame Oil White sesame seeds Sesame oil (also known as gingelly oil or til oil) is an organic oil derived from sesame seedss, noted to have the distinctive aroma and taste of its parent seed. ...


If this were scaled up to an adult human, the LD50 would be between approximately 86 g and 50 g for a 68-kg (150-lb) male or female person, respectively.[citation needed]This would be equivalent to 1-1.8 kg of cannabis with a 5% THC content (roughly average) taken orally. The LD50 value for rats by inhalation of THC is 42 mg/kg of body weight. It is important to note, however, that toxicity in animal models does not necessarily correlate to human toxicity. THC receptor distribution in the rat central nervous system is different from that of humans, meaning that there is the significant possibility that toxicity in humans varies from the published animal LD50 studies. There has never been a documented fatality from marijuana or THC overdose.[5] Absorption is limited by serum lipids, which can become saturated with THC, thus the inherent solubility may mitigate toxicity. In order to create a lethal overdose in a human, one would have to consume 1500 pounds in under 15 minutes,[6] KG, kg or Kg can refer to several things: Kilogram, the SI base unit of mass. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ...


Studies of the distribution of the cannabinoid receptors in the brain explain why THC's toxicity is so low (i.e., the LD50 of the compound is so large): Parts of the brain that control vital functions such as respiration do not have many receptors, so they are relatively unaffected even by doses larger than could ever be ingested under any normal conditions. An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ...


Research

A number of studies indicate that THC may provide medical benefits for cancer and AIDS patients by increasing appetite and decreasing nausea. It has been shown to assist some glaucoma patients by reducing pressure within the eye, and is used in the form of cannabis by a number of multiple sclerosis patients to relieve the spasms and pain associated with their condition. New scientific evidence is showing that THC can prevent Alzheimer's Disease in an animal model by preventing the inflammation caused by microglia cells which are activated by binding of amyloid protein.[7] Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Alzheimer redirects here. ... Animal model refers to a non-human animal with a disease that is similar to a human condition. ... Microglia cells positive for lectins Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as the immune cells of the Central nervous system (CNS). ... For other uses, see Amyloid (disambiguation). ...


Some studies also claim a variety of negative effects associated with constant, long-term use, including short-term memory loss. Other studies have refuted this by evidence of MRIs of long term users showing little or no difference to MRIs of the non-using control group. Although using positron emission tomography (PET), at least one study claims to have observed altered memory-related brain function in marijuana users. [8] The long-term effects of THC on humans have been disputed because its status as an illegal drug makes research difficult. Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ...


Preliminary research on synthetic THC has been conducted on patients with Tourette syndrome, with results suggesting that it may help in reducing nervous tics and urges by a significant degree. Animal studies suggested that Marinol and nicotine could be used as an effective adjunct to neuroleptic drugs in treating TS. Research on twelve patients showed that Marinol reduced tics with no significant adverse effects. A six-week controlled study on 24 patients showed the patients taking Marinol had a significant reduction in tic severity without serious adverse effects. Seven patients dropped out or had to be excluded from the study, one due to adverse side-effects. More significant reduction in tic severity was reported with longer treatment. No detrimental effects on cognitive functioning and a trend towards improvement in cognitive functioning were reported during and after treatment. Marinol's usefulness as a treatment for TS cannot be determined until/unless longer controlled studies on larger samples are undertaken.[9][10][11] “Tourette” redirects here. ... Marinol is also a commercial name for an ethanol-based liquid fuel sold for use in portable stoves, sold under this name at least in Finland. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ...


Recent research has shown that many adverse side-effects, generally known as the "stoner" stereotype, fail to hold up to the scientific method. Recent studies with synthetic cannabinoids show that activation of CB1 receptors can facilitate neurogeneration, as well as neuroprotection, and can even help prevent natural neural degradation from neurodegenerative diseases such as MS, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's; however, neurogeneration has occurred only in rats due to the introduction of an optical isomer of THC, and not THC itself. This, along with research into the CB2 receptor (throughout the immune system), has given the case for medical marijuana more support.[citation needed]


In in-vitro experiments, THC at extremely high concentrations, which could not be reached with commonly-consumed doses, caused inhibition of plaque formation, the cause of Alzheimer's disease, better than currently-approved drugs.[12] In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ...


THC may also be an effective anti-cancer treatment, with studies showing tumor reduction in mice, conducted in 1975[13] and 2007.[14]


On July 28, 2007, British medical journal The Lancet published a study that indicates that cannabis users have, on average, a 41% greater risk of developing psychosis than non-users. The risk was most pronounced in cases with an existing risk of psychotic disorder, and was said to grow up to 200% for the most-frequent users.[15][16][17] The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ...


Recent research has also shown a correlation between cannabis use and increased cognitive function in schizophrenic patients.[18]


A two-year study in which rats and mice were force-fed tetrahydrocannabinol dissolved in corn oil showed reduced body mass, enhanced survival rates, and decreased tumor incidences in several sites, mainly organs under hormonal control. It also caused testicular atrophy and uterine and ovarian hypoplasia, as well as hyperactivity and convulsions immediately after administration.[19] Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the male reproductive organs (the testes, which in humans are located in the scrotum) diminish in size and may be accompanied by ceasing to function. ...


A recent study has shown THC in moderate doses can lower chances of heart disease by 25%.[citation needed]


In mice low doses of Δ9-THC reduce the progression of atherosclerosis. [20] Mice may refer to: An abbreviation of Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions. ...


Biosynthesis

Biosynthesis of THC
Biosynthesis of THC

In the cannabis plant THC occurs mainly as tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH). The enzymatic condensation of geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid gives cannabigerolic acid which is cyclized by the enzyme THC acid synthase to give THC-COOH. Heating decarboxylates the acid to THC. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 786 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (924 × 705 pixels, file size: 18 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 786 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (924 × 705 pixels, file size: 18 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Chemical structure of geranyl pyrophosphate. ... Cannabigerol, also known as CBG, is a non-phychoactive Cannabinoid found in the Cannabis strain of plants. ... A Decarboxylation is any chemical reaction in which a carboxyl group (-COOH) is split off from a compound as carbon dioxide (CO2). ...


Metabolism

THC is mainly metabolized to 11-OH-THC (11-hydroxy-THC) by the human body. This metabolite is still psychoactive and is further oxidized to 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH). In humans and animals more than 100 metabolites could be identified but 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH are the dominating metabolites. Metabolism mainly occurs in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. More than 55% of THC are excreted in the feces and ~20% in the urine. The main metabolite in urine is the ester of glucuronic acid and THC-COOH and free THC-COOH. In the feces mainly 11-OH-THC was detected.[21] A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ... Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. ... Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. ... Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) (EC 1. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... The α-D form of glucuronic acid. ...


Synthetic THC

Synthetic THC, also known under the substance name dronabinol, is available as a prescription drug (under the trade name Marinol) in several countries including the U.S. and Germany. In the United States, Marinol is a Schedule III drug, available by prescription, considered to be non-narcotic and to have a low risk of physical or mental dependence. Efforts to get cannabis rescheduled as analogous to Marinol have not succeeded thus far, though a 2002 petition has been accepted by the DEA. As a result of the rescheduling of Marinol from Schedule II to Schedule III, refills are now permitted for this substance. Marinol has been approved by the FDA in the treatment of anorexia in AIDS patients, as well as for refractory nausea and vomiting of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Marinol is also a commercial name for an ethanol-based liquid fuel sold for use in portable stoves, sold under this name at least in Finland. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Schedules of Controlled Substances Schedule I The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... This article is about the symptom of decreased appetite. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Heaving redirects here. ... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ...


An analog of dronabinol, nabilone, is available commercially in Canada under the trade name Cesamet, manufactured by Valeant. Cesamet has also received FDA approval and has began marketing in the U.S. as of 2006 and is a Schedule II drug. Nabilone is a cannabinoid with therapeutic use as an antiemetic. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ...


In April 2005, Canadian authorities approved the marketing of Sativex, a mouth spray for multiple sclerosis to alleviate pain. Sativex contains tetrahydrocannabinol together with cannabidiol. It is marketed in Canada by GW Pharmaceuticals, being the first cannabis-based prescription drug in the world. Sativex is an oromucosal (mouth) spray developed by the UK company GW Pharmaceuticals for multiple sclerosis patients, who can use it to alleviate neuropathic pain and spasticity. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ...


See also

Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Cannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds present in Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L). ... HU-210 HU-210 (CAS# 112830-95-2) is a synthetic cannabinoid that was discovered around 1988 in the group of Dr Raphael Mechoulam at the Hebrew University. ... WIN 55,212-2 is a chemical agent in the Cannabinoid family. ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Massive mark-ups for drugs, areas/drugs/index. ... The THC Ministry, founded by Roger Christie from the Religion of Jesus Church, is a religion which considers cannabis to be a sacrament. ... Schedules of Controlled Substances Schedule I The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently (analogous to a chemical anagram). ... This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Grotenhermen F (2003). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids". Clin Pharmacokinet 42 (4): 327–60. PMID 12648025. 
  2. ^ Re: What does THC do in the cannabis plant?
  3. ^ Carl R Lupica et al.. Marijuana and cannabinoid regulation of brain reward circuits. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.
  4. ^ Erowid. Cannabis Chemistry. Retrieved on 2006-03-20.
  5. ^ Erowid Cannabis health effects
  6. ^ [1] What is the lethal dose of marijuana?
  7. ^ Ramírez BG, Blázquez C, Gómez del Pulgar T, Guzmán M, de Ceballos ML (2005). "Prevention of Alzheimer's disease pathology by cannabinoids: neuroprotection mediated by blockade of microglial activation". J. Neurosci. 25 (8): 1904–13. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4540-04.2005. PMID 15728830. 
  8. ^ Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 72 (2002) 237–250. www.elsevier.com/locate/pharmbiochembeh
  9. ^ Müller-Vahl,K.R. Schneider,U. Koblenz,A. Jöbges,M. Kolbe,H. Daldrup,T. Emrich,H.M.. "Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome with ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): A Randomized Crossover Trial". Pharmacopsychiatry 35 (2): 57-61. PMID 11951146. 
  10. ^ Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Prevedel H, Theloe K, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, Emrich HM. (April 2003). "Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial.". J Clin Psychiatry 64 (4): 459-65. PMID 12716250. 
  11. ^ Muller-Vahl KR, Prevedel H, Theloe K, Kolbe H, Emrich HM, Schneider U. (February 2003). "Treatment of Tourette syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC): no influence on neuropsychological performance.". Neuropsychopharmacology 28 (2): 384-388. PMID 12589392. 
  12. ^ Eubanks LM, Rogers CJ, Beuscher AE, et al (2006). "A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and Alzheimer's disease pathology". Mol. Pharm. 3 (6): 773–7. doi:10.1021/mp060066m. PMID 17140265. 
  13. ^ Anticancer activity of cannabinoids (Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 55, No. 3, September 1975, pp.597-602). Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
  14. ^ THC helps cure cancer. Retrieved on 2008-02-11.
  15. ^ "Cannabis could increase risk of psychotic illness later in life by 40 %", The Lancet. 
  16. ^ [http://www.bmj.com/cgi/rapidpdf/bmj.38267.664086.63v1?ehom Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people]. BMJ.
  17. ^ "Marijuana may increase psychosis risk", CTV. 
  18. ^ Coulston CM, Perdices M, Tennant CC. The neuropsychological correlates of cannabis use in schizophrenia: Lifetime abuse/dependence, frequency of use, and recency of use. Schizophrenia Research (2007); 96(1-3):169-184.
  19. ^ Chan PC, Sills RC, Braun AG, Haseman JK, Bucher JR (1996). "Toxicity and carcinogenicity of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Fischer rats and B6C3F1 mice". Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology 30 (1): 109-17. PMID 8812248. 
  20. ^ Steffens S, Veillard NR, Arnaud C, et al (2005). "Low dose oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis in mice". Nature 434 (7034): 782–6. doi:10.1038/nature03389. PMID 15815632. 
  21. ^ Huestis MA (2005). "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the plant cannabinoids, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol". Handb Exp Pharmacol (168): 657–90. PMID 16596792. 

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External links

  • Scientific American Marijuana research
  • Erowid Compounds found in Cannabis sativa.
  • Machinery of the "marijuana munchies"
  • Erowid interview An interesting look into a group advocating the intentional, spiritual, and transformative use of cannabis.
Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Species See below Aconitum (known as aconite, monkshood, or wolfsbane) is a genus of flowering plant belonging to the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). ... Binomial name (Burm. ... Castoreum is the glandular secretion of the beaver. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), also known as belladonna or dwale, is a well-known perennial herbaceous plant, with leaves and berries that are highly toxic and hallucinogenic. ... Binomial name Hyoscyamus niger L. Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) is a plant of the family Solanaceae that originated in Eurasia. ... Lactucarium is the milky fluid secreted by several species of wild Lettuce, usually from the base of the stems. ... Mandrake root redirects here. ... Species Metel Category: ... This article is about the drug. ... Species Conium chaerophylloides (Thunb. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Datura inoxia Mill. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, surgeon, and scientist. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Aulus Cornelius Celsus Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC—50) was a Roman encyclopedist and possibly, although not likely, a physician. ... Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Razi. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Zhang Zhongjing or Chang Chung Ching (Wades-Giles) (張仲景, 150 - 219) , also known as Zhang Ji (張機), was one of the most eminent Chinese physicians during the later years of the Eastern Han era. ... Structure of Aconitine Aconitine is a highly poisonous alkaloid derived from the aconite plant. ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Coniine or 2-propylpiperidine is a poisonous alkaloid found in poison hemlock. ... Hyoscyamine is a chemical compound, a tropane alkaloid it is the levo-isomer to atropine. ... This article is about the drug. ... Salicylic acid (from the Latin word for the willow tree, Salix, from whose bark it can be obtained) is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ... Cannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds present in Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L). ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabidivarine, also known as cannabidivarol or CBDV, is a non_psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabinol, also known as CBN, is a non_psychoactive cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabigerol, also known as CBG, is a non-phychoactive Cannabinoid found in the Cannabis strain of plants. ... Cannabivarin, also known as cannabivarol or CBV, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabicyclol, also known as CBL, is a non-psychedelic cannabinoids found in the Cannabis species. ... 11-hydroxy-THC is the primary active Δ9-THC metabolite. ... Tetrahydrocannabivarin, also known as tetrahydrocannabivarol, THCV, or THV, is a psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Ajulemic acid (IP-751) is a synthetic cannabinoid derivative of the non-psychoactive THC metabolite 11-carboxy-THC which shows useful analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects without causing a subjective high.[1] It is being developed for the treatment of neuropathic pain and inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. ... Chemical structure of CP 55,940 CP 55,940, also written as CP55940, CP55,940, CP-55940, CP-55,940, and CP 55940, is a cannabinoid which mimics the effects of naturally occurring THC (the psychoactive compound found in marijuana). ... Dimethylheptylpyran (DMHP, 1,2-dimethylheptyl-Δ3THC) is a synthetic analogue of THC, which was invented in 1949 during attempts to elucidate the structure of Δ9-THC, the active component of cannabis. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... HU-210 HU-210 (CAS# 112830-95-2) is a synthetic cannabinoid that was discovered around 1988 in the group of Dr Raphael Mechoulam at the Hebrew University. ... JWH-133 is a potent selective CB2 receptor agonist. ... Levonantradol is a synthetic cannabinoid analog of dronabinol (Marinol). ... Methanandamide [N-(2-hydroxy-1R-methylethyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide] is a synthetically created stable chiral analog of anandamide. ... Nabilone is a cannabinoid with therapeutic use as an antiemetic. ... Nabitan (Nabutam, Benzopyranoperidine) is a synthetic cannabinoid analog of dronabinol (Marinol). ... Parahexyl (Synhexyl, n-hexyl-Δ3THC) is a synthetic analogue of THC, which was invented in the 1950s during attempts to elucidate the structure of Δ9THC, the active component of cannabis. ... THC acetate ester is a derivative of THC which has been found by the DEA as an apparent controlled substance analogue of THC. It was apparently made by extracting and purifying THC from cannabis plant material followed by reaction with acetic anhydride in an analogous manner to how heroin is... THC phosphate ester is a water soluble derivative of THC, invented in 1978 in an attempt to get around the poor water solubility of THC and make it easier to inject for the purposes of animal research into its pharmacology and mechanism of action. ... WIN 55,212-2 is a chemical agent in the Cannabinoid family. ... Anandamide, also known as arachidonoylethanolamide or AEA, is an endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter found in animal and human organs, especially in the brain. ... 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid, an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor. ... 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether (2-AGE, Noladin ether) is a putative endocannabinoid discovered by Lumír HanuÅ¡ at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. ... Virodhamine (O-arachidonoyl ethanolamine) is an endocannibinoid and a nonclassic eicosanoid, derived from arachidonic acid. ... AM404 AM404 also known as N-arachidonoylphenolamine is an active metabolite of Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) responsible for all or part of its analgesic action. ... URB597 urb597 In pre-clinical laboratory tests researchers found URB597 increased the production of endocannabinoids by blocking their degradation, resulting in measurable antidepressant effects. ... AM251 is a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist. ... Rimonabant (SR141716) is an anorectic anti-obesity drug. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tetrahydrocannabinol Summary (1900 words)
Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is a chemical found in the HEMP plant, CANNABIS SATIVA, that causes the PSYCHOACTIVE effects in MARIJUANA, BHANG, HASHISH, and GANJA.
Hashish is derived from the resin that oozes from the flowering tips of the female plant; bhang comes from the dried leaves and flowering shoots of the female plant; and ganja comes from small leaves.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (Thc) from Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior.
UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1969 Issue 3 - 006 (1687 words)
The use of this internal standard increases the precision of the tetrahydrocannabinol determination by a factor of 10 as compared with the use of an external standard.
If so, and if an average original tetrahydrocannabinol content was assumed from the appearance of the original curve and the current cannabinol content, a conversion rate of approximately 5 per cent a month would be indicated.
The conversion of tetrahydrocannabinol to cannibinol is in accordance with the hypothesis of Todd ([ 8] - [ 9]) and Adams [ (10)] that dehydrogenation takes place biogenically and Levine's observation [ (11)] that old hashish has low tetrahydrocannabinol and high cannabinol content.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Josh
22nd September 2010
That is really interesting! I haven't really studied all of the different elements that are in cannabis or other plants, but it really is interesting to learn anything you can about them. I will have to read up more on this. Thank you for posting this I really appreciate it! www.jwh018free.com

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