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Encyclopedia > Tetragrammaton
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The Tetragrammaton (Greek: τετραγράμματον; "word with four letters") is the usual reference to the Hebrew name for God, which is spelled (in the Hebrew alphabet): י (yodh) ה (heh) ו (vav) ה (heh) or יהוה (reading right to left = YHVH, or with the Biblical Hebrew pronunciation, YHWH). It is the distinctive personal name of the God of Israel. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Phoenician silver drachm from ca. ... Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Many Jewish denominations exist within the religion of Judaism; the Jewish community is divided into a number of religious denominations as well as branches or movements. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Haredi or Charedi Judaism (alternatively Hareidi or Chareidi - this spelling being usually preferred by Haredim themselves) is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy; sometimes abbreviated as MO or Modox) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance and values with the secular, modern world. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement marked by views and practices including: Personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus Modern culture is accepted The view that Judaism is an evolving religious civilization Traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well... The term Jewish Renewal refers to a set of practices within Judaism that attempt to reinvigorate Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (Hebrew: Hashmonai) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BCE to 37 BCE was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BCE. // The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is recorded in the books... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Jewish-Roman War can refer to several revolts by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire: The First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the First Jewish Revolt. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ... Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... In Judaism, chosenness is the belief that the Jews are a chosen people: chosen to be in a covenant with God. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kabbalah (Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian: , Qabbālāh, Israeli: Kabala) literally means receiving, in the sense of a received tradition, and is sometimes transliterated as Cabala, Kabbala, Qabalah, or other permutations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Mussar movement refers to an Jewish ethics educational and cultural movement (a Jewish Moralist Movement) that developed in 19th century Orthodox Eastern Europe, particularly among the Lithuanian Jews. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tzniut or Tznius (also Tzeniut) (Hebrew: צניעות modesty) is a term used within Judaism and has its greatest influence as a notion within Orthodox Judaism. ... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). In Arabic, charity is sadakah (صدقه) and an obligatory type of it, the Arabic term zakat, is considered to be one of the five pillars of Islam. ... Tora redirects here. ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kuzari is the most famous work by the medieval Spanish Jewish writer Yehuda Halevi. ... Humash or Chumash (Hebrew: חומש) is one name given to the Pentateuch in Judaism. ... The siddur (plural siddurim) is the prayerbook used by Jews over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Arbaah Turim (ארבעה טורים, Hebrew: Four columns - on the High Priests breastplate), also abbreviated as Tur, is an important work of Jewish law, composed by Rabbi Yaakov ben Asher (Spain, 1270 -c. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... Mishnah Berurah (Hebrew: Clarified Teaching) is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan, better known as The Chofetz Chaim (Poland, 1838 - 1933). ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Likkutei Amarim ( ליקוטי אמרים תניא, Hebrew, collection of statements), more commonly known as the Tanya, is an early work of Hasidic Judaism, written by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the founder of the Chabad Lubavitch Hasidic dynasty, in 1797 CE. The name Tanya derives from the books first word, which is Aramaic... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA [pijút] and [pijutím]) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. ... Nineteenth century plaque, with Jerusalem occupying the upper right quadrant, Hebron beneath it, the Jordan River running top to bottom, Safed in the top left quadrant, and Tiberias beneath it. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... The mostly deserted market in the old city. ... Tiberias in 1862, the ruins reminiscent of its ancient heritage. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sabbath. ... Rosh Chodesh (Hebrew: Head/Beginning [of the Hebrew] Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the [[Hebrew calendar]]. Although Rosh Chodesh is not considered a religious holiday, it is observed with additional [[Jewish prayer]]s, including the Psalms of Hallel (praise) in all Orthodox and... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... The Fast of Gedalia (or Gedaliah) is a Jewish fast from dawn till dusk to commemorate the death of a Jew of that name. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (early- to late-October). ... In Judaism, Hoshanah Rabbah (הושענא רבא in Aramaic, Great Hoshanah) is the seventh day of Sukkot. ... Shemini Atzeret (שמיני עצרת - the Eighth [day] of Assembly) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the 22nd day of the Hebrew month of Tishri. ... Simchat Torah (שמחת תורה) is a Hebrew term which means rejoicing with/of the Torah. It is a festivity that takes place on the Jewish holiday of Shemini Atzeret, or Eighth (day) of Assembly, which falls immediately after the 7-day holiday of Sukkot in the autumn (mid- to late-October). ... Hanukkah (Hebrew: ‎), the Festival of Rededication (also known incorrectly as the Festival of Lights) is an eight-day Jewish holiday beginning on the 25th day of Kislev, which can occur in very late November, or throughout December. ... Tenth of Tevet, in Hebrew asarah btevet, the tenth day of the Hebrew calendar month of Tevet, a minor fast day in Judaism. ... Tu Bishvat (or Tu BiShevat) (טו בשבט) is a minor Jewish holiday (meaning there are no restrictions on working) and one of the four Rosh Hashanahs (New Years) mentioned in the Mishnah, the basis of the Talmud. ... The Fast of Esther known as Taanit Ester is a Jewish fast from dusk until dawn, commemorating the three day fast observed by the Jewish people in the story of Purim. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, from Akkadian pÅ«ru) is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of all the Jews at the time who were living under the authority of the Persian Empire, resulting from the Babylonian captivity (after Persia had conquered Babylonia), from Hamans plot... Fast of the Firstborn (תענית בכורים (Taanit Bchorim) or תענית בכורות (Taanit Bchorot) in Hebrew); is a unique fast day in Judaism which usually falls on the day before Passover (i. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Counting of the Omer (or Sefirat Haomer, Hebrew: ספירת העומר) within Judaism, is a verbal counting with a blessing during the 49 days between Pesach (Passover) and Shavuot (Pentecost) which are counted ceremoniously as a commemoration of the Omer ceremony which was celebrated in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... setting fire, one of the symbols of the holiday Lag Baomer (Ashkenazi) or Lag laomer (Sephardi) is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the thirty-third day of the counting of the Omer which is on the 18th of Iyar. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Seventeenth of Tammuz (שבעה עשר בתמוז Hebrew: Shiva Assar BeTammuz) is the seventeenth day on the Hebrew month of Tammuz. ... The Three Weeks are days of mourning commemorating the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem within Judaism. ... The Nine Days are the first nine days of the Jewish month of Av. ... Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bÉ™-āḇ) is a major annual fast day in Judaism. ... Tu BAv (Hebrew: טו באב, the fifteenth of the month Av) is a celebratory day in the Jewish calendar. ... Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ... Yom Hazikaron - Memorial Day (Hebrew: יום הזכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ונפגעי פעולות האיבה, Israel Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day) is an Israeli national holiday. ... Yom Haatzmaut (Hebrew: ‎ yom hā-‘aá¹£mā’ūṯ), Israeli Independence Day, commemorates the declaration of independence of Israel in 1948. ... Yom Yerushalayim - Jerusalem Day - Yom Yerushalayim - Iyar 28 יום ירושלים - כח באייר Yom Yerushalayim 2004 at the Western_Wall Jerusalem was divided during the War of Independence and nineteen years later was reunited as a result of the... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lost Ten Tribes, also referenced as the Ten Lost Tribes or the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, usually refers to the tribes of the ancient Kingdom of Israel that disappear from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Rebekah (Rebecca or Rivkah) (רִבְקָה Captivating, Enchantingly Beautiful, Noose or Snare, Standard Hebrew Rivqa, Tiberian Hebrew Riḇqāh) is the wife of Isaac. ... Look up Rachel, רחל in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Leah, לֵאָה in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: ‎ Bee, Standard Hebrew DÉ™vora, Tiberian Hebrew Dəḇôrāh) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... King Solomon Latin name (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה, (Shelomo) (Shlomo pronounced with Yiddish accent)Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: سليمان, Sulayman; all essentially meaning peace) is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel. ... Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (Hebrew: אליהו Eliyahu) was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE. He appears in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Mishnah, Christian Bible, and the Quran. ... Hillel (הלל) was a famous Jewish religious leader who lived in Jerusalem during the time of King Herod, Augustus, and probably Jesus; he is one of the most important figures in Jewish history, associated with the Mishnah and the Talmud. ... Shammai (50 BCE–30 CE) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaisms core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Nahmanides is the common name for Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi; the name is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Ben Nahman, meaning Son of Nahman. He is also commomly known as Ramban, being an acronym of his Hebrew name and title, Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman, and by his Catalan name... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... Portrait of Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745-1812) founder of Chabad Lubavitch and author of Tanya and Shulchan Aruch HaRav. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... Joseph Albo was a Spanish rabbi, and theologian of the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of the work on the Jewish principles of faith, Ikkarim. ... Rabbi Yosef (Joseph) Karo is one of the most important leaders in the history of halakha (Jewish law). ... Rabbi M.M. Schneerson The third Rebbe of the Chabad Lubavitch dynasty was also named Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (with a h) Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902-June 12, 1994), referred to by Lubavitchers as The Rebbe, was a prominent Orthodox Jewish rabbi who was the seventh and last Rebbe... Asher ben Jehiel (or Rabeinu Osher ben Yechiel) (1250? 1259?-1328), an eminent rabbi and Talmudist often known by his Hebrew acronym the ROSH (literally Head), was born in western Germany and died in Toledo, Spain. ... Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (Hebrew: עובדיה יוסף) (b. ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein (1895-1986) Moshe Feinstein (1895 - 1986) was a Lithuanian Orthodox rabbi and scholar, who was world renowned for his expertise in halakha and was the de facto supreme rabbinic authority for Orthodox Jewry of North America. ... Rabbi Shach Elazar Menachem Man Shach (אלעזר מנחם מן שך) (or Rav Leizer Shach, at times his name is written as Eliezer Schach in English publications) (January 22, 1898 - November 2, 2001), was a leading Eastern European-born and educated Haredi rabbi who settled and lived in modern Israel. ... Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: בְרִית מִילָה [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism that welcomes infant Jewish... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Shidduch (or shiduch) (Hebrew: שידוך, pl. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew), in Judaism, is technically a state of marital separation when a woman is menstruating and seven subsequent days until she immerses in a ritual bath known as a mikvah. ... Zeved habat (also written Zebed habat) (Hebrew זֶבֶד הַבָּת) is the mainly Sephardic naming ceremony for girls, corresponding in part to the non-circumcision part of the Brit milah ceremony for boys. ... Redemption of First-born (pidyon ha-ben in Hebrew), is an important ritual in Judaism. ... Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in knowledge). 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The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth is an 8-day Biblical pilgrimage festival, also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, or Tabernacles. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Havdalah (הבדלה) (or Habdalah or Havdala), is a Jewish religious ceremony that symbolically formally concludes the Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath) and many Jewish holidays. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are either of two boxes containing Biblical verses and black, leather straps attached to them which are used in orthodox Jewish prayer. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... Tzitzit (Ashkenazi Hebrew: tzitzis) are fringes or tassels (Hebrew: ציצת (Biblical), ציצית (Mishnaic)) found on a tallit worn by observant Jews as part of practicing Judaism. ... Mezuzah (IPA: ) (Heb. ... A coin issued by Mattathias Antigonus, c. ... A shofar in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... A kittel (Yiddish: קיתל, robe) is a white robe worn on special occasions by religious Jews. ... The Hasidic Gartel The Gartel is a belt used by Hasidic Jews during prayer. ... The word yad may also refer to the Yad ha-Chazaka, another name for Maimonides Mishneh Torah. ... Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esrei (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Aleinu (Hebrew: ‎, our duty) is a Jewish prayer found in the siddur, the classical Jewish prayerbook. ... () Kol Nidre (ashk. ... Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: holy) refers to an important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... 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Contents

YHWH

The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to AD 300), Aramaic (10th century BC to 1 BC) and modern Hebrew scripts.
The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to AD 300), Aramaic (10th century BC to 1 BC) and modern Hebrew scripts.

Of all the names of God, the one which occurs most frequently in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton, appearing 6,823 times, according to the Jewish Encyclopedia. The Biblia Hebraica and Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia texts of the Hebrew Scriptures each contain the Tetragrammaton 6,828 times. Image File history File links Tetragrammaton_scripts. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... (Redirected from 1100 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites... Franks penetrate into northern Belgium (approximate date). ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Overview Events Partition of ancient Israel into the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 // Events Births December 25 - Jesus (died about... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... Biblia Hebraica is a Latin phrase meaning the Hebrew Bible. ... The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, or BHS, is an edition of the Hebrew Bible published by the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (German Bible Society) in Stuttgart. ...


In Judaism, the Tetragrammaton is the ineffable Name of God, and is therefore not to be spoken, except by the High Priest within the Holy of Holies in the Tabernacle and Temple in Jerusalem on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). In the reading aloud of the scripture or in prayer, it is replaced with Adonai ("My Lords", commonly rendered as "The LORD" in most modern English translations), though occasionally replaced with "Elohim" (GOD). Other written forms such as י (yod) ה (heh) (YH or Yah) are in fact pronounced during prayer. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To say that something is ineffable means that it cannot or should not, for overwhelming reasons, be expressed in spoken words. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Holy of Holies. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


Outside of direct prayer, the word "’ǎdônây" (אֲדֹנָי) is not spoken by some Jews, because it risks violating the third of the Ten Commandments not to improperly or casually use any name of the Lord (Exodus 20:6). Therefore, the word is often read as HaShêm (הַשֵּׁם) (literally, "The Name") or in some cases ’ǎdô-Shêm, a composite of ’ǎdônây and HaShêm. A similar rule applies to the word ’ělôhîym ("God"), which some Jews intentionally mispronounce as ’ělôkîym for the same reason. (In a process analogous to the "euphemism treadmill", a prosaic substitute for the Tetragrammaton during one historical period may acquire sanctity and thus itself be considered too holy for ordinary use in subsequent periods.) Also, but for different halakhic (Jewish legal) reasons, many Jews do not dispose of anything containing the Tetragrammaton in writing in any normal fashion. Such items must be placed in a genizah, where they are stored and later buried in a cemetery. (See Deuteronomy 12:3-4, the basis for never destroying or defacing any holy object.) At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... Elohim (אֱלוֹהִים , אלהים) is a Hebrew word which expresses concepts of divinity. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... A Genizah or Geniza (Hebrew burial; according to S.D. Goitein, from the Persian word ganj storehouse, treasure; plural: genizot) is the storeroom or depository in a synagogue, usually specifically for worn-out Hebrew-language books and papers on religious topics that were stored there before they could receive a...


The J in Jehovah

The "J" in "Jehovah" is a result of Martin Luther's[citation needed] rendering of the Biblical Hebrew name יְהֹוָה in his German translation of the Masoretic Text first published in 1534. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ...


Due to the fluid position of the letters J and I in English before the 17th century, Luther's convention fit with earlier English transcriptions and was thus retained in early English translations. The Encyclopedia Americana states:

The form of J was unknown in any alphabet until the 14th century. Either symbol (J,I) used initially generally had the consonantal sound of Y as in year. Gradually, the two symbols (J,I) were differentiated, the J usually acquiring consonantal force and thus becoming regarded as a consonant, and the I becoming a vowel. It was not until 1630 that the differentiation became general in England.

The editors of the Brown-Driver-Briggs Lexicon state that יְהֹוָה occurs 6518 times in the Masoretic Text. Although that text underlies all editions of the King James Bible, JEHOVAH only occurs 4 times in current editions of the King James Bible: Exodus 6:3, Psalm 83:18, Isaiah 12:2 and Isaiah 26:4 (all in capital letters; it also occurs three times in place-names). Instead of YHWH or Jehovah, the expression "The Lord" (with the word "Lord" all in capital letters) has commonly been used in most English-language Bible translations. The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...


Although there is scholarly debate on the relevance of "Yehovah", "Y'hovah", "Yehowah", "Yahweh" or similar pronunciations, most modern scholars believe that the English transcription "Jehovah" does not accurately represent God's name in the English language.[1] Nevertheless the transcription "Jehovah" continues to be used by some English-speaking Protestant Christians and by Jehovah's Witnesses.[2] Phoenician silver drachm from ca. ...


Some modern scholars believe that the original pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton may have been lost somewhere in the first millennium, when the Jewish people stopped saying the Name, out of fear of violating the commandment "You shall not take the name of YHWH your God in vain" (Exodus 20:7)


Parts of the Talmud, particularly those dealing with Yom Kippur, seem to imply that the tetragrammaton should be pronounced in multiple different ways, with only one (not explicated in the text, and apparently kept by oral tradition by the Kohen Gadol) being the personal name of God. The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Even in death, many Kohanim choose to have this symbol, the special positioning of their fingers and hands during the Priestly Blessing, placed as a crest or symbol on their gravestones to indicate their status. ...


The Tetragrammaton transcribed as Jehovah

The following works, either always or sometimes, transcribe the Tetragrammaton as Jehovah:

  • The King James (Authorised) Version, 1611: i.e. four times as the personal name of God, and three times in combination names: Gen 22:14; Exodus 17:15; Judges 6:24
  • The American Standard Version, 1901 edition, consistently renders the Tetragrammaton as Je-ho’vah in all 6,823 places where it occurs in the Old Testament.
  • The New English Bible, published by Oxford University Press, 1970, e.g. Gen 22:14; Exodus 3:15,16; 6:3; 17:15; Judges 6:24
  • The Living Bible, published by Tyndale House Publishers, IIlinois 1971, e.g. Gen 22:14, Exodus 4:1-27; 17:15; Lev 19:1-36; Deut 4: 29, 39; 5:5, 6; Judges 6:16, 24; Ps 83:18; 110:1; Isaiah 45:1, 18; Amos 5:8; 6:8; 9:6

King James can refer to a number of monarchs in British history: James I of Scotland James II of Scotland James III of Scotland James IV of Scotland James V of Scotland James VI of Scotland and I of England James II of England and VII of Scotland King James... The Standard American Edition, Revised Version, more commonly known as the American Standard Version (ASV), is a version of the Bible that was released in 1901. ... The New English Bible (NEB) was a fresh translation of the Bible into modern English directly from the original Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic texts (with some Latin in the Apocrypha); with the New Testament being published in 1961, and the Old Testament, along with the Apocrypha, being published in 1970. ... The Living Bible (TLB) is a English version of the Bible by Kenneth Taylor released in 1971. ...

The first English Transcriptions of "יְהֹוָה"

The first English translators to transcribe God's name into English had no reason to believe that the vowel points of "יְהֹוָה" might be incorrect, so they transcribed "יְהֹוָה" into English just as it was written [i.e. Iehouah [AD 1530] and Iehovah [1611] and Jehovah [1769]


Iehouah[3] is the first English transcription of God's name and is found a small number of times in Tyndale's Pentateuch, which was written in 1530.

In the year 1530 the English letter "u", when being used as a consonant, was pronounced like the English letter "v" is pronounced today.

IEHOVAH [in all capital letters] is the 1611 English transcription of the Biblical Hebrew name יְהֹוָה.[4]


"IEHOVAH" [in all capital letters]. In the King James bible of 1611, the tetragrammaton is predominantly translated (over 6,500 times) as LORD or GOD, all in capital letters e.g. Exodus 6:2, Psalm 110:1, Psalm 113:1, Proverbs 18:10, et al. Four times it is transcribed as JEHOVAH: Exodus 6:3, Psalm 83:18, Isaiah 12:2, and Isaiah 26:4.


Modern scholars believe that Jehovah is an implausible rendering, based on their scholarly belief that the written form "יְהֹוָה" (read normally, "Yehovah") was only intended to indicate to the reader of the Bible in Hebrew to pronounce it "Adonai" ( אֲדֹנָי )

Note: due to a rule of Hebrew grammar, the beginning E of the first transliteration is analogous to the beginning A of the second, although they are pronounced differently.

In the 19th century many scholars (particularly Christians), who believed that "יְהֹוָה" did not have the actual vowel points of God's name, sought to reconstruct its original pronunciation from early Greek transcriptions. Hebrew grammar is partly analytical, expressing such forms as dative, ablative, and accusative using prepositional particles rather than morphological cases. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ...


Basically, what happened was that when Jewish scribes were copying the Old Testament text they would come across the word Yahweh and because it was so sacred they put the vowels of the word Adonai on the word. This way when people were reading the Old Testament they would see the vowels and know not to say the sacred name Yahweh, but instead the name Adonai. However, people would read this word for Yahweh, with the vowel points of Adonai on it, and mistakenly sound out the new word Jehovah.


Yehovah / Y'hovah

While most modern scholars believe the Masoretes added the vowel points of ’ǎdônây to the consonantal Hebrew text of the divine name so that the reader would say "Adonai" aloud (see Q're Perpetuum), so that the vowel points of the Masoretic text were simply not intended to indicate anything about the pronunciation of YHWH itself, some believe the situation to be more complex. The Masoretes (baalei masorah) were scribes based primarily in at least three places, Tiberias (the best known); Eretz Yisrael, or the land of Israel; and Babylonia. ... A Qre perpetuum or standing Qre is a technical orthographic device to indicate the pronunciation of certain words in the masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh). ...


For instance, The Analytical Hebrew & Chaldee Lexicon[5] says in the article הוה:

The punctators seem to intimate the originality of the vowels of יְהֹוָה by not pointing Yod with Hhateph-Pattah יֲהֹוָה to indicate the reading of אֲדֹנָי just as they point it with Hhateph-Segol to indicate the reading of אֱלֹהִים. We could, moreover, not account for the abbreviated forms יוֹ, יְהוֹ prefixed to so many proper names unless we consider the vowels of יְהֹוָה original.

Gerard Gertoux writes that in the Leningrad Codex of 1008-1010, the Masoretes used 7 different vowel pointings [i.e. 7 different Q're's] for YHWH.[6]Gerard Gertoux believes that the Q're "e,o,a" [7]had become standardized in 1278 when the Spanish monk Raymundus Martini, in his book Pugio Fidei, transliterated the Biblical Hebrew name "יְהֹוָה" into Latin as yohoua [with a small 1278 Latin initial letter "y"][8] Ramón Martí was a 13th century Catalan Dominican monk and theologian. ... Ramón Martí was a 13th century Catalan Dominican monk and theologian. ...


In 1518 Petrus Galatinus was using the Latin transcription "Iehoua" [without a final "h"]. 1 Pietro Colonna Galatino (Petrus Galatinus) ( b. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ...


Meaning

Tetragrammaton at the Roman Catholic Church of Saint Germain in Paris, France.
Tetragrammaton at the Roman Catholic Church of Saint Germain in Paris, France.

When Moses asks, in response to the calling of God, "Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, 'The God of your forefathers has sent me to you,' and they ask me, 'What is his name?' Then what shall I tell them?" (Exodus 3:13) God responds, "I AM who AM" or "I Shall Be That Which I Shall Be" (אהיה אשר אהיה).(Exodus 3:13) This phrase reveals the meaning of the Tetragrammaton when "I AM (אהיה)" is replaced by the Tetragrammaton: "So shall you say to the Children of Israel, 'I AM has sent me to you'" (Exodus 3:14). "So shall you say to the Children of Israel, 'YHWH, the God of your forefathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob has sent me to you.' This is MY NAME forever, the name by which I am to be remembered from generation to generation"(Exodus 3:15). Image File history File linksMetadata Tetragrammaton_at_RomanCatholic_Church_Saint-Germain_Paris_France. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tetragrammaton_at_RomanCatholic_Church_Saint-Germain_Paris_France. ... Saint-Germain may refer to various French phenomena: the 6th century bishop of Paris, canonized as Saint Germain of Paris, who founded an abbey in the fields near Paris, now the church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés which gave its name to the neighborhood and to the Boulevard Saint... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ...


According to one Jewish tradition, the Tetragrammaton is related to the causative form, the imperfect state, of the Hebrew verb הוה (ha·wah, "to be, to become"), meaning "He will cause to become" (usually understood as "He causes to become"). Compare the many Hebrew and Arabic personal names which are 3rd person singular imperfective verb forms starting with "y", e.g. Hebrew Yôsêph = Arabic Yazîd = "He [who] adds"; Hebrew Yiḥyeh = Arabic Yahyâ = "He [who] lives". It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The imperfective aspect, sometimes known as the continuous or progressive aspect, is a grammatical aspect. ...


Using the vowels of YHWH

Josephus wrote that the sacred name consisted of four vowels. Many sacred name ministries who believe that YHWH consists of four vowels pronounce these four vowels as "ee-ah-oo-eh" and believe that indicates God's name was either "Yahweh" or "Yahuweh". It is claimed that the Greek transcription "ιαουε" would have been pronounced "Yah-oo-eh". (Iota is used as both a vowel and a semi-vowel.) "Clement of Alexandria spelled the Tetragrammaton (Ya-oo-ai),(Ya-oo-eh)and (Ya-oh). In none of these is the central oo or oh vowel omitted", which is 'omitted in the name Yahweh.' [9] However, since there was no letter in the Classical Greek alphabet for a [w] sound, the letter combination ου was sometimes used to transcribe a [w] sound in words borrowed from foreign languages into ancient Greek. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Sacred Name Movement (SNM) is a movement out of Christianity that seeks to conform said faith to its roots in Judaism in practice, belief, and worship. ...

The Tetragrammaton at the church of St. Marri at Paris, near the Centre Pompidou.
The Tetragrammaton at the church of St. Marri at Paris, near the Centre Pompidou.

Of course, early Hebrew had no written "vowels" as such — every letter of the Hebrew alphabet was primarily consonantal in function (see Matres lectionis). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 435 KB) Summary Crusified Jesus and the Tetragrammaton (JHWH) on the top at the church of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 435 KB) Summary Crusified Jesus and the Tetragrammaton (JHWH) on the top at the church of St. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Floating not submerging) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The Pompidou Centres famous external skeleton of service pipes. ... Matres lectionis (singular form: mater lectionis) are an early manner of indicating vowels in the Hebrew alphabet. ...


Another tradition regards the name as coming from three different verb forms sharing the same root YWH, the words HYH haya היה: "He was"; HWH howê הוה: "He is"; and YHYH yihiyê יהיה: "He will be". This is supposed to show that God is timeless, as some have translated the name as "The Eternal One". Other interpretations include the name as meaning "I am the One Who Is." This can be seen in the traditional Jewish account of the "burning bush" commanding Moses to tell the sons of Israel that "I AM (אהיה) has sent you." (Exodus 3:13-14) Some suggest: "I AM the One I AM" אהיה אשר אהיה, or "I AM whatever I need to become". This may also fit the interpretation as "He Causes to Become." Many scholars believe that the most proper meaning may be "He Brings Into Existence Whatever Exists" or "He who causes to exist". Young's Analytical Concordance to the Bible, which is based on the King James Version, says that the term "Jehovah" means "The Existing One." The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...


Transcription

Using consonants as semi-vowels

In ancient Hebrew, the letter ו, known to modern Hebrew speakers as vav, was a semivowel /w/ (as in English, not as in German) rather than a letter v. The letter is referred to as waw in the academic world. Because the ancient pronunciation differs from the modern pronunciation, it is common today to represent יהוה as YHWH rather than YHVH. This article describes the Biblical dialects of Hebrew. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ...


In Biblical Hebrew, most vowels are not written and the rest are written only ambiguously, as the vowel letters double as consonants (similar to the Latin use of V to indicate both U and V). See Matres lectionis for details. For similar reasons, an appearance of the Tetragrammaton in ancient Egyptian records of the 13th century BC sheds no light on the original pronunciation. 2. Therefore it is, in general, difficult to deduce how a word is pronounced from its spelling only, and the Tetragrammaton is a particular example: two of its letters can serve as vowels, and two are vocalic place-holders, which are not pronounced. Not surprisingly then, Josephus in Jewish Wars, chapter V, wrote, "…in which was engraven the sacred name: it consists of four vowels". In Greek, they are Ιαου, which comes out to Yau, since iota is used to represent semi-vocalic 'y' (and omicron+ypsilon="oo"). Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Matres lectionis (singular form: mater lectionis) are an early manner of indicating vowels in the Hebrew alphabet. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (years 37 – shortly after 100 AD)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Jewish War is a book written by the historian Josephus as a description of Jewish history up to the events of the Destruction of Jerusalem. ...


Further, Josephus's four vowels are confirmed by theophoric stems in personal names, always: Yaho/Yahu/Y:ho/Y:hu.[2] These yield in English Yau and Yao, which are pronounced the same. Once again, the heh is not pronounced here in Hebrew, but is used instead as a place holder. Moreover, Gnostic texts, such as those Marcion wrote, discuss the Judaic god extensively, and spell the Tetragrammaton in Greek, Ιαω, that is "Yao." Lastly, Levantine texts (including those from ancient Ugarit) render the Tetragrammaton Yaw, pronounced "Yau."[3] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... Yam, Yamm, or Yaw (jaÊŠ) is the name of the Levantine god of chaos and mass-destruction, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Els) or sons of El. ...


Vowel marks

The spelling of the Tetragrammaton and connected forms in the Hebrew Masoretic text of the Bible, with vowel points shown in red. (Click on image to enlarge.)
The spelling of the Tetragrammaton and connected forms in the Hebrew Masoretic text of the Bible, with vowel points shown in red. (Click on image to enlarge.)

To make the reading of Hebrew easier, marks or points above and below the letters were added to the text by the Masoretes, to function as vowels. See Niqqud for details. Several manuscripts from the 7th century and on contain vowel marks over the Tetragrammaton. Unfortunately, these do not shed much light on the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton. For example, the Leningrad codex contains six different variations on the vowel marks of the Tetragrammaton. Image File history File links Tetragrammaton-related-Masoretic-vowel-points. ... Image File history File links Tetragrammaton-related-Masoretic-vowel-points. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִיקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Masoretes (baalei masorah) were scribes based primarily in at least three places, Tiberias (the best known); Eretz Yisrael, or the land of Israel; and Babylonia. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִיקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Leningrad codex is the oldest surviving complete copy of the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible, dated 1008. ...


An added problem is that the diacritical vowel marks on the Tetragrammaton may have served a purpose other than indicating the pronunciation. When the text is read out loud by Jews, the Tetragrammaton is replaced by the word Adonai ("my Lord(s)"), Elohim ("God(s)"), Hashem ("the name"), or Elokim (no meaning), depending on circumstances (see Jewish use of the word below). Since someone reading the text aloud might inadvertently pronounce the name, the diacritical vowels of Adonai or Elohim are normally printed with the consonant letters of the Tetragrammaton, to remind the reader to make the change, so the text contains the letters YHWH interlaced with the vowel marks of Adonai/Elohim (a masoretic device known as Q're perpetuum which was also applied in a number of other cases, such as giving the spelling הוא in the Pentateuch an "i" vowel diacritic to indicate that sometimes it should be pronounced as a feminine pronoun hi, rather than a masculine pronoun hu). This is the case in modern editions of the Hebrew Bible, and also explains a number of medieval codices. In other words, these marks do not and were never intended to explain how to pronounce the Tetragrammaton. Diacritical is a Washington DC based experimental rock band offically formed in 2004. ... A Qre perpetuum or standing Qre is a technical orthographic device to indicate the pronunciation of certain words in the masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh). ...


In particular, there is a possible explanation of the vowel marks on the Tetragrammaton in the Ben Chayim codex of 1525 (see its importance below). It is worth noting that the aleph in Adonai has a hataf-patah (pronounced "ah" in Modern Hebrew) under it while the yod in the Tetragrammaton has a sheva (pronounced as a very short "eh" in Modern Hebrew). In other words, the Masoretes did not point YHWH with the precise vowel points of Adonai. Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִיקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ...

Note that in the image above and to the right, "YHWH intended to be pronounced as Adonai" [i.e. "יְהֹוָה"] and "Adonai with its slightly different vowel points" [i.e. "אֲדֹנָי"] do not have the precise same vowel points.
This difference is explained by the rules of Hebrew morphology and phonetics. The Hebrew word Adonai, grammatically a plural form of the word Adon with the possessive suffix, uses the pattern "shva-holam-kamatz", but, because of glottal nature of aleph, the shva in Adonai is replaced by hataf-patah. Since yod is not a glottal consonant, it uses the vowel shva required by the pattern.
It should be noted that at Psalms 144:15 in the BHS text, the Masoretes chose to place a hatef-patah ( ֲ )under the yod in YHWH where YHWH was prefixed with a Shin.[e.g. שֶׁיֲהוָה] , but in the 6518 occurrences of יְהֹוָה in the Ben Chayyim Hebrew Text of 1525, they placed a simple shewa ( ְ ) not a ( ֲ ) under the yod.

Sir Godfry Driver wrote: "The Reformers preferred Jehovah, which first appeared as Iehouah in 1530 in Tyndale's translation of the Pentateuch (Exodus 6.3), from which it passed into other Protestant Bibles." The English transcription "Iehovah", is found in the 1611 edition of the King James Bible, and during the 1762-1769 edit of the KJV, the spelling "Iehovah" was changed to "Jehovah" (in accordance with the general differentiation of I/J and U/V into separate letters which developed over the course of the 17th century in English). Thus began a period where the word was rendered: "Jehovah". The Jerusalem Bible (1966) uses Yahweh exclusively. For other uses, see Morphology. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Jehovah is an English transcription of יְהֹוָה, a specific vocalized spelling of יהוה which is found in the Masoretic Text. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ...


Transcription in other languages

Table of different language transcriptions of the tetragrammaton. (If the native language uses non-European characters or pictographic symbols, the table shows the common English/European transliteration of the target language script, together with the tetragrammaton in the native font if available):

Afrikaans Jehóva
Arabic يهوه
Awabakal Yehóa
Bosnian Jehova
Bugotu Jihova
Bulgarian Йехова
Croatian Jahve / Jehova
Czech Jehova / Jahve
Danish Jahve (/ Jehova)
Dutch Jahwe(h) / Jehovah
Efik Jehovah
Ewe (Ʋegbe) Yehowah
English Jehovah / Yahweh
Fijian Jiova
Finnish Jahve / Jehova
French Yahvé / Jéhovah
Futuna Ihovah
Galician Xeova
German Jahwe / Jehova
Greek Iehova / Yiahve Ιεχωβά / Γιαχβέ
Hungarian Jahve / Jehova
Igbo Jehova
Indonesian Yehuwa
Inuktitut Ayaaya / Ajaaja / YAHYAH
Isoko eJehova
Italian Geova / Jahve
Japanese EHOBA/YAHAWE エホバ / ヤハウェ
Korean Yeohowa 여호와 / Yahwe 야훼
Lithuanian Jahveh,Jahvė
Mandarin in Traditional Chinese Yéhéhuá / Yǎwēi / Yǎwēi 耶和華/雅威/雅巍
Cantonese Yewowha 耶和華
Min Dong Ià-huò-huà 耶和華
Mandarin in Simplified Chinese Yéhéhuá / Yǎwēi / Yǎwēi 耶和华/雅威/雅巍
Maori Ihowa
Motu Iehova
Macedonian Јахве
Narrinyeri Jehovah
Nembe Jihova
Norwegian Jahve / Jehova
Petats Jihouva
Polish Jehowa / Jahwe
Persian يهوه
Punjabi yahova / ਯਾਹੋਵਾ
Lithuanian Jahveh,Jahvė
Romanian Iahve / Iehova
Russian Иегова / Яхве
Samoan Ieova
Serbian Јахве / Jahve / Јехова / Jehova
Sotho Jehova
Spanish Yavé Yahveh /Jehová
Swahili Yehova
Slovak Jahve,Jehova
Slovenian Jahve,Jehova
Swedish Jehova / Jahve
Tagalog Jehova/Yahweh
Tahitian Jehovah
Tongan Jihova
Turkish Yehova
Venda Yehova
Xhosa u Yehova
Yoruba Jehofah
Zulu u Jehova

Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Awabakal (also Awabagal) is an extinct Australian Aboriginal language that was spoken around Lake Macquarie in New South Wales. ... Ibibio is a Cross River language spoken by 1,5 to 2 million Ibibio in the Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. ... Ewe is a Kwa language spoken in Ghana and Togo by approximately three million people (Capo 1991). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Futunan (Fakafutuna in the vernacular) is the Polynesian language spoken on Futuna (and Alofi). ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Igbo is a language spoken in Nigeria by around 18 million people (1999 WA), the Igbo, especially in the southeastern region once identified as Biafra. ... Eskimo-Aleut (also called Inuit-Aleut, but both names are considered offensive by some) is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... Min Dong Language (or Eastern Min Language, Chinese: 閩東語, SLC: Mỉng Tòyng ngỹ) is the language mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province (Chinese: 福建, SLC: Huk Kyŏng). ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refer to one of two standard Chinese character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language, officially simplified by the government of the Peoples Republic of China in an attempt to promote literacy. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... Motu is one of many Central Papuan languages spoken by the Motuans, native habitants of Papua New Guinea. ... Petats is an Austronesian language spoken by a few thousand persons in Papua New Guinea. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in Gurmukhī, in Shāhmukhī, in transliteration) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Punjabi people in India, Pakistan and other parts of the world. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Sotho language group is a group of three closely related Bantu languages spoken in Southern Africa including Setswana, Sesotho, and Sesotho sa Leboa. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see below for derivation) is a Bantu language. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Tahitian, a Tahitic language, is one of the two official languages of French Polynesia (along with French). ... Venda, also known as Tshivenda, or Luvenda, is a Bantu language. ... Xhosa (IPA: ) is one of the official languages of South Africa. ... Yoruba (native name ede Yorùbá, the Yoruba language) is a dialect continuum of West Africa with over 22 million speakers. ... Zulu (isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ...

Yahweh

Main article: Yahweh
Ancient Southwest Asian deities
Levantine deities

Adonis | Anat | Asherah | Ashima | Astarte | Atargatis | Ba'al | Berith | Dagon | Derceto | El | Elyon | Eshmun | Hadad | Kothar | Mot | Qetesh | Resheph | Shalim | Yarikh | Yam Phoenician silver drachm from ca. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... Adonis is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity in Greek mythology, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (transliterated Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... In the Hebrew Bible, Ashima is one of several deities protecting the individual cities of Samaria who are mentioned specifically by name in 2 Kings 17:30. ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Other deities worshipped at Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El Berith. ... // The ancient god Dagon Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, the god of grain and agriculture according to the few sources to speak of the matter, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla, by the people of Ugarit and a chief god (perhaps the chief god... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... Ä’l (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyôn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Ely... Eshmun (or Eshmoun, less accurately Esmun or Esmoun) was a northwestern Semitic god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Kothar-wa-Khasis Kothar-wa-Khasis means Skillful-and-Wise or Adroit-and-Perceptive or Deft-and-Clever. Another of his names means Deft-with-both-hands. Kothar is smith, craftsman, engineer, architect, and inventor. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... In Egyptian mythology, Qetesh (also Qadesh, Kadesh) was a goddess of love and fertility who was perhaps Syrian in origin. ... Resheph was a Semitic god of plague and war. ... Shalim is the god of dusk in the pantheon of Ugarit, the counterpart of Shahar the god of dawn. ... Yarikh, in Canaanite mythology, is a god of the moon whose epithets are Illuminator of the Heavens, Illuminator of the Myriads of Stars, and Lord of the Sickle (the latter may come from the appearance of the crescent moon). ... Yam is the name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Elohim) or sons of El, the name given to the Levantine pantheon. ...

Mesopotamian deities

Adad | Amurru | An/Anu | Anshar | Asshur | Abzu/Apsu | Enki/Ea | Enlil | Ereshkigal | Inanna/Ishtar | Kingu | Kishar | Lahmu & Lahamu | Marduk | Mummu | Nabu | Nammu | Nanna/Sin | Nergal | Ningizzida | Ninhursag | Ninlil | Tiamat | Utu/Shamash Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... This article is about the Sumerian god Adad also known as Ishkur. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anu is the same as Anubis or bisanu. ... In Akkadian mythology and Sumerian mythology, Anshar (also Anshur, Ashur, Asshur) (which means sky pivot or sky axle) is a sky god. ... The word Asshur can mean: Asshur (אַשּׁוּר), son of Shem, the son of Noah. ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief God of the city of Eridu. ... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... Introduction In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology, Ereshkigal, wife of Nergal, was the goddess of Irkalla, the land of the dead. ... Inanna was one of the most revered of goddesses among later Sumerian mythology. ... Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... Kingu, also spelled Qingu, was a demon in Babylonian mythology, and the consort of the goddess Tiamat before she was slain by Marduk. ... In Akkadian mythology, Kishar is the daughter of Lahmu and Lahamu, two serpent-gods who were in turn the first children of Tiamat and Apsu. ... Lahmu is a deity from Akkadian mythology, first-born son of Apsu and Tiamat. ... Lahamu was the first-born daughter of Tiamat and Apsu in Akkadian mythology. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... For other uses, see Mummu (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Nebo (god) be merged into this article or section. ... In Sumerian mythology, Nammu is probably the first of the ancient deities of Sumer — at least in the process of creation, if not in actual chronology. ... Nanna is a god in Sumerian mythology, god of the moon, son of Enlil and Ninlil. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... The Sumerian god Ningizzida accompanied by two gryphons. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... Ninlil, first called Sud, is the daughter of Nammu and An in Sumerian mythology. ... Tiamat is a mother goddess in Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, and a central figure in the Enûma Elish creation epic. ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ...

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19th Century scholars disputed the vowel points of "יְהֹוָה"

Wilhelm Gesenius [1786-1842], who is noted for being one of the greatest Hebrew and biblical scholars, 3 wrote a Hebrew Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament which was first translated into English in 1824. 4 In the first half of the 19th century, Wilhelm Gesenius, as well as many other scholars, believed that the Medieval vowel points of "יְהֹוָה" were not the actual vowel points of God’s name. Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (February 3, 1786 - October 23, 1842), was a German orientalist and Biblical critic. ...


Wilhelm Gesenius Punctuated YHWH as "יַהְוֶה" (i.e. Yahweh)

William Gesenius's Hebrew punctuation (i.e. Yahweh).
William Gesenius's Hebrew punctuation (i.e. Yahweh).

In Smith's " A Dictionary of the Bible" [published in 1863] William Smith notes 5 that Wilhelm Gesenius punctuated YHWH as "יַהְוֶה" (see image to the right) Image File history File links YHWH.png Scholars have reconstructed the niqqud for the tetragrammaton to yield the pronunciation Yahweh. (See Iaoue. ...


This vocalized Hebrew spelling of the Tetragrammaton "יַהְוֶה" (i.e., Yahweh), is sometimes referred to as a "Scholarly Reconstruction" and is believed to have been based in large part on various Greek transcriptions, such as (ιαουε—iaoue and ιαουαι—iaouai and ιαβε—Iabe) dating from the first centuries AD. Iaoue or is the transliteration in Roman letters of koine Greek , which in turn is a transcription of the ancient Hebrew . ... Iabe is an English transliteration of the Greek name ιαβε. The Jewish Encyclopedia of 1901-1906 states that ιαβε was used in the writings of the Church Fathers to represent the Hebrew Tetragrammaton, יהוה. Under the Article Heading, Church Fathers and Magic Papyri, it says: It was in connection with magic that the...


"יַהְוֶה" [i.e. Yahweh] may have represented Epiphanius's "Iαβε"

In Smith's 1863 " A Dictionary of the Bible", William Smith supposes that "יַהְוֶה" was represented by the "Iαβε" of Epiphanius. 8


The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1910 says: Inserting the vowels of Jabe [i.e. Latin form of Iabe] into the Hebrew consonant text, we obtain the form Jahveh (Yahweh), which has been generally accepted by modern scholars as the true pronunciation of the Divine name;9.


Scholarly sources in which "יַהְוֶה" is found

Smith's 1863 A Dictionary of the Bible

In Smith's 1863 "A Dictionary of the Bible", William Smith does not consider "יַהְוֶה" to be the best scholarly reconstructed vocalized Hebrew spelling of the Tetragrammaton which he is aware of.


However, although "יַהְוֶה" was not the only scholarly reconstructed vocalized Hebrew spelling of the Tetragrammaton that appeared in scholarly sources in the 19th century, it gradually became accepted as the best scholarly reconstructed vocalized Hebrew spelling of the Tetragrammaton.


The Jewish Encyclopedia of 1901-1906

The editors of the Jewish Encyclopedia of 1901-1906 recognize that "יַהְוֶה" is spelled "Yahweh" in English, but "יַהְוֶה" is only one of two vocalized Hebrew spellings, that they believe might have been the original pronunciation of YHWH. In the Article:Names of God, and under the article sub heading: "YHWH", the editors write:

If the explanation of the form above given be the true one, the original pronunciation must have been Yahweh (יַהְוֶה) or Yahaweh (יַהֲוֶה). From this the contracted form Jah or Yah (יהּ ) is most readily explained, and also the forms Jeho or Yeho ( יַהְוְ = יְהַו = יְהוֹ ), and Jo or Yo ( יוֹ contracted from יְהוֹ ), which the word assumes in combination in the first part of compound proper names, and Yahu or Yah ( יָהוּ = (image) in the second part of such names.

The early 1900's Brown-Driver-Briggs Lexicon

The editors of the Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament write "יַהְוֶה" under the heading "יהוה", and describes "יַהְוֶה" as:

"n.pr.dei Yahweh, the proper name of the God of Israel."

Criticism of the form "Yahweh"

Image of the divine name as it is written on the wall of a Norwegian church. (Source: The Divine Name in Norway)
Image of the divine name as it is written on the wall of a Norwegian church. (Source: The Divine Name in Norway)

In Biblical Archaeology Review, reference is made to the fact that a two-syllable pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton as "Yahweh" would not allow for the o vowel sound to exist as part of God's name. Thus the article stated: Image File history File links Sorfron_iehova. ... Image File history File links Sorfron_iehova. ...

"When the Tetragrammaton was pronounced in one syllable it was ‘Yah’ or ‘Yo.’ When it was pronounced in three syllables it would have been ‘Yahowah’ or ‘Yahoowah.’ If it was ever abbreviated to two syllables it would have been ‘Yaho.’"[10]

The name "Yahweh" is not clearly found in the Hebrew Scriptures

The main criticism of the name "Yahweh" is that the vocalized Hebrew spelling "Yahweh" is found in no extant Hebrew Text.


See some links below.


Relevance of the word YHWH to the "I Am" in the New Testament

The New Testament does not use the Tetragrammaton. The two Greek words that are consistently used to speak in reference to God are κυριος (‘lord,’ ‘master’) and θεος (‘God’). However, in the past, some scholars endeavored to make a connection between Jesus’ use of the first person singular personal pronoun εγω in conjunction with the first person singular form of ειμι (‘to be’) as an allusion to the tetragrammaton. Today, few scholars would say that there is a connection between the “I am” and the divine name. Edwin Freed explains, “the meaning of the sentence in the mind of the writer was: 'Before Abraham was, I, the Christ, the Son of God, existed.” [11] William Loader notes that the “text need mean no more than I am and was in existence before Abraham, still a majestic unique claim but not an allusion to the divine name.” [12] The Simple English Bible translates it as, “I am the Messiah.” K.L. McKay notes, “The emphatic words used by Jesus in the passages referred to above [including John 8:58] are perfectly natural in their contexts, and they do not echo the words of Exodus 3:14 in the normally quoted Greek version.” [13] John 9:9 is but one example that Margaret Davies uses to show that it “allow[s] the speaker to identify himself ... thus the man born blind identifies himself as the man born blind.” [14]


Jewish use of the word

In Judaism, pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton is a taboo; it is widely considered forbidden to utter it and the pronunciation of the name is generally avoided. Usually, Adonai is used as a substitute in prayers or readings from the Torah. When used in everyday speaking or, according to many, in learning, the Tetragrammaton is replaced by HaShem. The difference is marked by the vowelization in printed Bibles—the Tetragrammaton takes on the vowels of the word whose pronunciation it takes. Torah scrolls have no diacritical vowel marks, and therefore the reader must memorize the correct pronunciation for each instance of the Tetragrammaton (as for every word he reads). At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... . ... Tora redirects here. ... Sefer Torah (in Hebrew: Book [of] Torah) (plural: sifrei Torah) is a specially hand-written copy of the Torah or Pentateuch being the holiest book within Judaism and venerated by Jews. ...


According to rabbinic tradition, the name was pronounced by the high priest on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement as well as the only day when the Holy of Holies of the Temple would be entered. With the destruction of the Second Temple in the year 70, this use also vanished, also explaining the loss of the correct pronunciation. (In one midrashic tradition, only seven Cohanim, or individuals of priestly lineage, know the true name of God, and it is passed down throughout the generations to be ready for invocation during the building of the Third Jewish Temple.) Rabbi, in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in knowledge). Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbī; the modern Israeli pronunciation רַבִּי rabbī is derived from a recent (18th... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... It has been suggested that Kadosh Kadoshim be merged into this article or section. ... A stone (2. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). ...

The letters of the Tetragrammaton in a tetractys
The letters of the Tetragrammaton in a tetractys

There is a Jewish tradition that the actual name of God, only known to and stated by the high priest, was actually 72 letters long. The name was written out on a long strip of parchment, then folded and slipped inside the fold of the high priest's bejeweled breastplate. When someone would ask the high priest a question of Torah, or Jewish law, the high priest could invoke the Name, wherein the 12 jewels, representing the 12 tribes of the Israelites, would light up in a certain order whose meaning was, too, only known to the high priest. Through the power of the 72-letter name of God, the high priest communed, as it were, with the Almighty. Image File history File links Tetragrammaton-Tetractys. ... Image File history File links Tetragrammaton-Tetractys. ... The Tetractys, also known as the decad, is a triangular figure consisting of ten points arranged in four rows: one, two, three, and four points in each row. ... It has been suggested that Shemhamforash be merged into this article or section. ...


Why 72 letters? The answer may be found in the medieval rabbinic use of Gematria, which is assigning a number to each letter of the Hebrew alphabet, allowing scholars to attribute numeric sums to words, find equivalences in certain words, and even use sums to try to predict a year and date for the coming of the Messiah. Even today, Jews often attribute mystical significance to the number 18, which has a possible Hebrew letter equivalent in the word "Chai", meaning "Life". Using Gematria, we find that "Chai" equals 18: it's composed of the letter "chet", which equals 8, and the letter "yod", which equals 10, i.e. 8+10=18; as 18x4=72. Each letter of the 4-letter form of the Name represents a metaphoric symbol of the living power of God. When the letters of the Tetragrammaton are arranged in the mystical formation of the tetractys, the sum of all the letters is 72 by Gematria (as shown in the diagram). Keeping along these lines, the Tetragrammaton, since it's only an abbreviation of the actual name, is not as powerful by nature (or supernature) as the original full name of God, though it's still not something to use in vain. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Hebrew Chai symbol of Judaism. ... The Tetractys, also known as the decad, is a triangular figure consisting of ten points arranged in four rows: one, two, three, and four points in each row. ...


When most religious Jews refer to the name of God in conversation or in a non-textual context such as in a book, newspaper or letter, they call the name HaShem, which means "the Name." Similarly, the word Elohim is pronounced "Elokim" outside of certain religious contexts when it refers to God, and likewise for a few other names of God. When any such word is used to refer to anything but God (e.g., HaShem), it is pronounced as normal by even the most traditionalist Jews.


A number of modern translations of the Hebrew Bible and of Jewish liturgy render the Tetragrammaton as "the ETERNAL" (emphasized or all caps), because it is gender-neutral (unlike "The Lord"). The Hebrew letters of the Tetragrammaton are the only ones required to write the Hebrew sentence "haya, hove, ve-yiheyeh" (He was, He is, and He shall be), hence "Eternal." 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish term) or Old Testament (Christian term). ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ...


Rosicrucian use of the word

In Rosicrucianism, it is told by the Ancient and Mystic Order Rosæ Crucis (AMORC) that the term "tetragrammaton" describes a symbol of a triangle within a circle. This symbol is shown as being formed by 12 steps, each step described in a way similar to that of a symbolic representation of Genesis. When the symbol is fully formed, the text reads "And in this wise was the TRIANGLE of 3 equal sides, called the TETRAGRAMMATON, produced by Law." Later in their text, the image is referred to as "the symbol of creation."[15] The Temple of the Rosy Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618 The Rosicrucians are a legendary and secretive order dating from the 15th or 17th century, generally associated with the symbol of the Rose Cross, which is also used in certain rituals of the Freemasons. ... The Rosicrucian Order, Ancient Mystical Order Rosæ Crucis (AMORC) is a worldwide mystical, Rosicrucian, educational, humanitarian and fraternal organisation founded by Harvey Spencer Lewis in 1915. ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ...


Alternative names

In an analogue to the euphemism HaShem for God, the euphemism HaShem HaMeforash (literally, the explicit name) is sometimes used to refer to the Tetragrammaton.


Another name, four-letter word, has lost its popularity because of association with expletives. Some people refer to the Tetragrammaton as Hebrew word #3068 after the numbering in James Strong's concordance. See also names of God in Judaism. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Strongs Concordance is a concordance of the King James Bible (KJV) that was constructed under the direction of Dr. James Strong (1822-1894). ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Other articles relating to the Tetragrammaton: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Other: I am that I am (Hebrew: אהיה אשר אהיה, pronounced Ehyeh asher ehyeh) is one English translation of the response God used in the Bible when Moses asked for his name (Exodus 3:14). ... Phoenician silver drachm from ca. ... Iaoue or is the transliteration in Roman letters of koine Greek , which in turn is a transcription of the ancient Hebrew . ...

At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Ēl (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Elohim (אֱלוֹהִים , אלהים) is a Hebrew word which expresses concepts of divinity. ... Jah (IPA: ) is the name commonly used for God in the Rastafari movement. ... Yam, Yamm, or Yaw (jaʊ) is the name of the Levantine god of chaos and mass-destruction, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Els) or sons of El. ... The suffix -ihah or -hah is used in several names in the Book of Mormon and in other works written or purportedly translated by Joseph Smith. ... A Crucifix with the INRI plaque attached, the Holy Spirit Church in Košice, Slovakia A Crucifix with the stylized INRI plaque attached, the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria INRI is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM, which translates to English as: Jesus the...

References

  1. ^ E.g. Gerard Gertoux's thesis on the pronounciation of the Name, University Press of America, 2002. [1] ISBN 978-0761822042.
  2. ^ Research and doctrine of Jehovah's Witnesses on the Divine Name
  3. ^ In the 7th paragraph of "Introduction to the Old Testament of the New English Bible",
    Sir Godfry Driver wrote:
    "The Reformers preferred Jehovah, which first appeared as Iehouah in 1530, in Tyndale's translation of the Pentateuch (Exodus 6.3), from which it passed into other Protestant Bibles."
  4. ^ In a chart labeled "The Bible Compared: Exodus", Exodus 6:3 shows "IEHOVAH" [in all capital letters] in the KJV [1611].
  5. ^ The Analytical Hebrew & Chaldee Lexicon by Benjamin Davidson (1848) ISBN 0-913573-03-5
  6. ^ refer to the table on page 144 of Gerard Gertoux's book: The Name of God Y.EH.OW.Ah which is pronounced as it is written I_EH_OU_AH.
  7. ^ refer to page 152-153 of Gerard Gertoux's book: The Name of God Y.EH.OW.Ah which is pronounced as it is written I_EH_OU_AH.
  8. ^ On page 152 of Gerard Gertoux's book: "The name of God Y.EH.OW.AH which is pronounced as it is written I_EH_OU_AH" is a photo of Latin and Hebrew text [side by side] written by Raynond Martini in 1278 In the last sentence of the Hebrew text, "יְהֹוָה" can be clearly seen. In the last sentence of the Latin Text, Raymond Martini's Latin Transcription "yohoua" [with a small Latin initial letter "y"] can be clearly seen.
  9. ^ Biblical Archaeology Review March/April 1995 p.30, 31
  10. ^ BAR 21.2 (March-April 1995),31 George W. Buchanan, "How God’s Name Was Pronounced"
  11. ^ Who or what was before Abraham in John 8:58? Journal for the study of New Testament 17 p. 52-59. 1983.
  12. ^ The Christology of the Fourth Gospel p. 48.
  13. ^ 'I am' in John's Gospel p.303.
  14. ^ Rhetoric and Reference in the Fourth Gospel p. 85 1992.
  15. ^ Spencer Lewis, Ph.D., F.R.C., H.; Ralph M. Lewis, F.R.C. (1990). Rosicrucian Manual AMORC, p. 66.  - Manual of the Ancient and Mystic Order Rosæ Crucis (AMORC)

The Rosicrucian Order, Ancient Mystical Order Rosæ Crucis (AMORC) is a worldwide mystical, Rosicrucian, educational, humanitarian and fraternal organisation founded by Harvey Spencer Lewis in 1915. ...

Footnotes

1. Galatin, Peter - De Arcanis Catholicæ Veritatis, 1518, folio xliii
2. See pages 128 and 236 of the book "Who Were the Early Israelites?" by archeologist William G. Dever, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI, 2003.
3.Wilhelm Gesenius is noted for being one of the greatest Hebrew and biblical scholars.
4. Wilhelm Gesenius' Hebrew Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament was first translated into English in 1824,
5. Smith's "A Dictionary of the Bible"
6. Encyclopedia Britannica of 1910-1911 Page 312
7.Smith's "A Dictionary of the Bible": Clement of Alexandria wrote "Iaou" not "Iaoue" at Stromata Book V.
8. Smith's "A Dictionary of the Bible": Yahweh supposed to have been derived from Samaritan "IaBe"
9. The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1910 under the sub-heading: To take up the ancient writers
10. The online Jewish Encyclopedia of 1901-1906

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tetragrammaton - definition of Tetragrammaton in Encyclopedia (2181 words)
The Tetragrammaton (Greek: τετραγράμματον word with four letters) is the Hebrew name for God, which is spelled (in Hebrew); yod י heh ה; vav ו; heh ה or יהוה; (YHVH), it is the distinctive personal name of the God of Israel.
According to one Jewish tradition, the Tetragrammaton is related to the causative form, the imperfect state, of the Hebrew verb ha·wah [הוה] (become); meaning "He will cause to become" usually understood as "He causes to become".
In Judaism, pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton is a taboo; it is widely considered forbidden to utter it and the pronunciation of the name is generally avoided.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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