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Encyclopedia > Tetrachromat

A tetrachromat is an organism for which the perceptual effect of any arbitrarily chosen light from its visible spectrum can be matched by a mixture of no more than four different pure spectral lights. The condition of being a tetrachromat is called tetrachromacy. The visible spectrum (or sometimes optical spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ...


The normal explanation of tetrachromacy is that the organism's retina contains four types of higher-intensity light receptors (called cone cells in vertebrates as opposed to rod cells which are lower intensity light receptors) with different absorption spectra. In practice the number of such receptor types may be greater than four, since different types may be active at different light intensities. Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Normalised absorption spectra of human cone (S,M,L) and rod (R) cells Cone cells, or cones, are cells in the retina of the eye which only function in relatively bright light. ... Normalised absoption spectra of human rod (R) and cone (S,M,L) cells. ... Electromagnetic radiation may be characterised by its wavelength. ...


Tetrachromacy occurs in jumping spiders. It has not yet been demonstrated as a characteristic property of any mammalian species, though it is likely that it occurs in some birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles and insects. Humans and other Old World primates normally have three types of cone cells and are therefore trichromats. However, at low light intensities the rod cells may contribute to color vision, giving a small region of tetrachromacy in the color space. It has also been suggested that women who are carriers for certain kinds of color blindness (protanomaly or deuteranomaly) may be born as full tetrachromats, having four different simultaneously functioning kinds of cones. Genera Bagheera Corythalia Eris Freya Ghelna Habronattus Hentzia Lyssomanes Maevia Marpissa Messua Metacyrba Naphrys Paramarpissa Paraphidippus Phidippus Portia Salticus Sarinda Sassacus Sitticus Synemosyna Thiodina Trite Zygoballus The jumping spiders (family Salticidae) contains more than 500 genera and over 5,000 species, making it the largest family of spiders. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... Orders Many - see section below. ... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus: the most abundant species of fish in the world. ... Orders Subclass Labyrinthodontia- extinct Subclass Lepospondyli- extinct Subclass Lissamphibia   Anura   Caudata   Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia) are a taxon of animals that include all tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs. ... Orders See text. ... Classes & Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrate animals of the Class Insecta, the largest and (on land) most widely-distributed taxon within the phylum Arthropoda. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... Families 15, See classification A primate (L. prima, first) is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humans. ... Normalised absorption spectra of human cone (S,M,L) and rod (R) cells Cone cells, or cones, are cells in the retina of the eye which only function in relatively bright light. ... A trichromat is an organism for which the perceptual effect of any arbitrarily chosen light from its visible spectrum can be matched by a mixture of no more than three different pure spectral lights. ... Normalised absoption spectra of human rod (R) and cone (S,M,L) cells. ... Color blindness in humans is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish. ...


See also

A supertaster is a person who has an unusually strong sense of taste due to extra taste buds. ... Taste buds (or lingual papillae) are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ...

External links

  • Jameson, Kimberly A.; Highnote, Susan M.; and Wasserman, Linda M. "Richer color experience in observers with multiple photopigment opsin genes." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2001, 8 (2), 244-261 http://www.klab.caltech.edu/cns186/papers/Jameson01.pdf
  • Thompson, Evan (2000). "Comparative color vision: Quality space and visual ecology." In Steven Davis (Ed.), Color Perception: Philosophical, Psychological, Artistic and Computational Perspectives, pp. 163-186. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.yorku.ca/evant/ETVancouvercolour.pdf
  • Holba, Á.; Lukács, B. "On tetrachromacy." http://www.rmki.kfki.hu/~lukacs/TETRACH.htm
  • Tetrachromacy in female humans (student essay)
  • Looking for Madam Tetrachromat By Glenn Zorpette. Red Herring magazine, 1 November 2000
  • Ultraviolet vision
  • The Human is a blocked tetrachromat A review of the spectral sensitivity of the human visual system. (Claims that the human lens is mostly responsible for blocking the violet frequencies)



November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2000. ...

Color vision [Edit]
Color vision | Color blindness
Monochromat | Dichromat | Trichromat | Tetrachromat | Pentachromat

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tetrachromat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (329 words)
A tetrachromat is an organism for which the perceptual effect of any arbitrarily chosen light from its visible spectrum can be matched by a mixture of no more than four different pure spectral lights.
The normal explanation of tetrachromacy is that the organism's retina contains four types of higher-intensity light receptors (called cone cells in vertebrates as opposed to rod cells which are lower intensity light receptors) with different absorption spectra.
It has also been suggested that women who are carriers for certain kinds of color blindness (protanomaly or deuteranomaly) may be born as full tetrachromats, having four different simultaneously functioning kinds of cones.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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