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Encyclopedia > Tetrachloroethylene
Tetrachloroethylene
Tetrachloroethylene Tetrachloroethylene
General
Systematic name 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethene
Other names perchloroethylene (perc)
tetrachloroethylene
PCE
Molecular formula C2Cl4
SMILES C(=C(Cl)Cl)(Cl)Cl
Molar mass 165.8 g/mol
Appearance Clear, colorless liquid
CAS number [127-18-4] [1]
Properties
Density and phase 1.622 g/cm3, liquid
Solubility in water 0.015 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Solubility in ethanol,
acetone, diethyl ether,
benzene, chloroform
Miscible
Melting point −19 °C (254 K)
Boiling point 121.1 °C (394 K)
see discussion
Viscosity 0.89 cP at 25 °C
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Harmful (Xn),
Dangerous for
the environment (N)
NFPA 704 Image:nfpa_h3.png Image:nfpa_f0.png Image:nfpa_r0.png
Flash point Not flammable
R/S statement R: 40-51/53
S: 23-36/37-61
RTECS number KX3850000
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Related compounds
Related Related Haloforms tetrabromoethylene
tetraiodoethylene
Related compounds trichloroethylene
dichloroethene
tetrachloroethane
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Tetrachloroethylene Cl2C=CCl2 is a manufactured chemical compound that is widely used for the dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing. It is also used to make other chemicals and is used in some consumer products. Image File history File links Tetrachloroethylene. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x996, 228 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tetrachloroethylene ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per volume. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, mildly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear, colorless, and highly flammable liquid with a low boiling point and a characteristic smell. ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride, is a chemical compound with formula CHCl3. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... The pitch drop experiment at the University of Queensland. ... The poise (P) is the cgs unit of viscosity, 1 P = 1 g·cm-1·s-1 The SI analog is 1 pascal second (Pa·s) = 1 kg·m-1·s-1 = 10 P. It is named after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille. ... A material safety data sheet or MSDS is a form containing data regarding the properties of a particular substance. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture with air. ... Risk and Safety Statements, also known as R/S statements, R/S numbers, R/S phrases, and R/S sentences, is a system of hazard codes and phrases for labeling dangerous chemicals and compounds. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a material is the factor by which the phase velocity of electromagnetic radiation is slowed in that material, relative to its velocity in a vacuum. ... The dielectric constant εr (represented as or K in some cases) is defined as the ratio: where εs is the static permittivity of the material in question, and ε0 is the vacuum permittivity. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... IR spectrum of a thin film of liquid ethanol. ... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR Spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of nuclei. ... Basic schematic of a mass spectrometer Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or in common speech mass-spec) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... Trihalomethanes (THMs) are chemical compounds in which three of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms. ... The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ... Dichloroethene, often abbreviated as DCE, can refer to any one of several isomeric forms of the organochloride with the molecular formula C2H2Cl2: There are two isomers: 1,1-dichloroethene 1,2-dichloroethene Dichloroethene should not be confused with dichloroethane which is often abbreviated as DCA. This is a disambiguation page... An organochloride is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded chlorine atom. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using an organic solvent other than water. ...


Other names for tetrachloroethylene include perchloroethylene, perc, PCE, and tetrachloroethene. It is a nonflammable liquid at room temperature. It evaporates easily into the air and has a sharp, sweet odor. Most people can smell tetrachloroethylene when it is present in the air at a concentration of 1 part per million (1 ppm), although some can smell it at even lower levels. Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container. ... Fig. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Michael Faraday first synthesized tetrachloroethylene in 1821 by heating hexachloroethane until it decomposed into tetrachloroethylene and chlorine. Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... Hexachloroethane is a colorless solid at room temperature which is used by the US Military in contemporary base-eject smoke munitions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ...

Contents

Production

Most tetrachloroethylene is produced from ethylene via 1,2-dichloroethane. When 1,2-dichloroethane is heated to 400°C with chlorine, tetrachloroethylene is produced by the chemical reaction Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula CH2CH2. ... The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane, commonly known by its old name of ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon, mainly used to produce vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, chloroethene), the major precursor for PVC production. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride and ammonia meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride Chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances [1]. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. ...


ClCH2CH2Cl + 3 Cl2 → Cl2C=CCl2 + 4 HCl The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane, commonly known by its old name of ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon, mainly used to produce vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, chloroethene), the major precursor for PVC production. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


This reaction can be catalyzed by a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminium chloride, or by activated carbon. Trichloroethylene is a major byproduct of the reaction, and since both are salable commercial chemicals, typical industrial practice is to collect both products and then separate them by distillation. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is a compound of aluminium and chlorine. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ... Laboratory distillation set-up using, without a fractionating column 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed...


Tetrachlorethylene can also be made from a mixture of partially chlorinated light hydrocarbons that would otherwise be hazardous waste products of several chemical processes. When these compounds are heated in the presence of excess chlorine, they are converted to a mixture of tetrachloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, and hydrogen chloride. Hydrocarbons are refined at oil refineries and processed at chemical plants A hydrocarbon is a chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point non flammable RTECS number FG4900000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Uses

Most applications of tetrachloroethylene use it for its solvent properties. Most organic materials dissolve in tetrachloroethylene. It is the most widely used solvent in dry cleaning. It is also used to degrease metal parts in the automotive and other metalworking industries. It appears in a few consumer products including paint strippers and spot removers. A solvent is a fluid phase (liquid, gas, or plasma) that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within the subject of chemistry. ... Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using an organic solvent other than water. ... Karl Benzs Velo model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race An automobile (or motor car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ...


In the early 20th century, tetrachloroethylene was the most effective available treatment for hookworm. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The hookworm is a nematode parasite that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. ...


Tetrachloroethylene is also extensively used as an intermediate in the manufacture of refrigerants such as HFC-134a. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, also called simply tetrafluoroethane, R-134a or HFC-134a, is a refrigerant without an ozone depletion potential and thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane). ...


Health and safety

Like many chlorinated hydrocarbons, tetrachloroethylene is a central nervous system depressant, and inhaling its vapors (particularly in closed, poorly ventilated areas) can cause dizziness, headache, sleepiness, confusion, nausea, difficulty in speaking and walking, unconsciousness, and death. An organochlorine compound is an organic compound of chlorine. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... A headache (medically known as cephalalgia, sometimes spelled as cephalgia) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ...


After repeated or extended skin contact, tetrachloroethylene may dissolve fats from the skin, resulting in severe skin irritation in work environments where people have been exposed to high concentrations.


Tetrachloroethylene is a common soil contaminant. Such contamination most often results from spillage, overfilling, or sewer leakage at commercial dry cleaning facilities. Because of the mobility of PCE in groundwater, its toxicity at low levels, and its density (which causes it to sink below the water table), cleanup activities tend to be especially problematic compared to cleanups of oil spills. Excavation of leaking undergound storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration to the natural soil environment. ... The skull and crossbones is a common symbol for toxicity. ... Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ...


In industry, most workers are exposed to levels lower than those causing obvious nervous system effects. The health effects of tetrachloroethylene at levels typically encountered in occupational or environmental exposures have not been well established.


Results from some studies suggest that women who work in dry cleaning industries where exposures to tetrachloroethylene can be quite high may have more menstrual problems and spontaneous abortions than women who are not exposed. However, it is not known if tetrachloroethylene was responsible for these problems because other possible causes were not considered. The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ...


Results of animal studies, conducted with amounts much higher than those that most people are exposed to, show that tetrachloroethylene can cause liver and kidney damage. Exposure to very high levels of tetrachloroethylene can be toxic to the unborn pups of pregnant rats and mice. Changes in behavior were observed in the offspring of rats that breathed high levels of the chemical while they were pregnant. The liver is an organ in living beings, including humans. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


Testing for PCE

One method of testing for tetrachloroethylene exposure is to measure the amount of the chemical in the breath, much the same way breath-alcohol measurements are used to determine the amount of alcohol in the blood.


Because it is stored in the body's fat and slowly released into the bloodstream, tetrachloroethylene can be detected in the breath for weeks following a heavy exposure.


Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), a breakdown product of tetrachloroethylene, can be detected in the blood. These tests are relatively simple to perform. These tests are not available at most doctors' offices, but can be performed at laboratories with the necessary equipment. Because exposure to other chemicals can produce the same breakdown products in the urine and blood, the tests for breakdown products cannot determine if one has been exposed to tetrachloroethylene or the other chemicals. In organic chemistry, the chloroethanoic acids (trivial name chloroacetic acids) are three related chlorocarbon carboxylic acids: chloroethanoic acid (chloroacetic acid), CH2ClCOOH dichloroethanoic acid (dichloroacetic acid), CHCl2COOH trichloroethanoic acid (trichloroacetic acid), CCl3COOH As the number of chlorine atoms increases, the electronegativity of that end of the molecule increases, and the molecule... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Popular culture

Tetrachloroethylene contamination was used as a plot focus in a story arc of the TV show Ghostwriter. Its health risks are also discussed in A Civil Action, which involves a Woburn, Massachusetts, lawsuit where a cluster of leukemia developed, arguably due to high perc levels. It has been featured in an episode of Stargate SG1. Ghostwriter was a television series co-produced by the Childrens Television Workshop and the BBC, originally aired on PBS in the United States from October 1992 to February 1995. ... A Civil Action is a 1998 film, starring John Travolta (as plaintiffs attorney Jan Schlichtmann) and Robert Duvall, based on the book of the same name by Jonathan Harr. ... Woburn is the name of some places: Woburn, England Woburn, Massachusetts, United States of America Woburn, Toronto, Canada This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Leukemia (or leukaemia; see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... SGC is invaded by a race of aliens that can desguise as humans. ... Stargate SG-1 Cast Stargate SG-1 is a television series based upon the 1994 science fiction movie Stargate. ...


External links

  • Tetrachloroethylene MSDS
  • Link page to external chemical sources.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tetrachloroethylene: chemical industry, evaluation of toxicity (615 words)
Tetrachloroethylene is manufactured by chlorination or oxychlorination of raw materials such as propylene, dichloroethane, chloropropenes and chloropropanes.
For tetrachloroethylene, the evaluation of toxicity was based on eight sets of data for algae, 13 for invertebrates and 18 for fish in both marine and freshwater media.
When the environmental concentration of tetrachloroethylene in rivers and coastal waters/estuaries is compared with the predicted no-effect level to give the PEC/PNEC ratio, there is a safety margin of 20-250 between actual exposure and the level at which no effect on the environment would be expected.
Tetrachloroethylene (UK PID) (8445 words)
Tetrachloroethylene has been the solvent of choice in the dry cleaning industry since the 1950s (Blair et al, 1979) and is used extensively in textile processing as a scouring solvent to remove the oil from the fabrics (Ellenhorn and Barceloux, 1988; Sax, 1984; Torkelson, 1994; Ware, 1988).
Tetrachloroethylene is lipophilic and accumulates in the liver, brain, kidney, lung and adipose tissue, with gradual redistribution (Lukaszewski, 1979; Ware, 1988).
Tetrachloroethylene is probably transformed by oxidation to perchloroethylene oxide and subsequently by rearrangement to trichloroacetyl chloride and then by hydrolysis to trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (Lukaszewski, 1979; Yllner, 1961).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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