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Encyclopedia > Tetanus
Tetanus
Classification and external resources
Muscular spasms in a patient suffering from tetanus. Painting by Sir Charles Bell, 1809.
ICD-10 A33.-A35.
ICD-9 037, 771.3
DiseasesDB 2829
MedlinePlus 000615
eMedicine emerg/574 

Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. The primary symptoms are caused by tetanospasmin, a neurotoxin produced by the Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani. Infection generally occurs through wound contamination, and often involves a cut or deep puncture wound. As the infection progresses, muscle spasms in the jaw develop, hence the common name, lockjaw. This is followed by difficulty swallowing and general muscle stiffness and spasms in other parts of the body.[1] Infection can be prevented by proper immunization and by post-exposure prophylaxis.[2] Image File history File links CBell1809. ... Sir Charles Bell Sir Charles Bell was a Scottish anatomist, surgeon, and physiologist, b. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... Structure of tetanospasmin Mechanism of action of tetanospasmin Tetanospasmin is the neurotoxin produced by the vegetative spore of Clostridium tetani in anaerobic conditions, causing tetanus. ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... Binomial name Flügge, 1886 Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. ... A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ... Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ...

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Tetanus affects skeletal muscle, a type of striated muscle. The other type of striated muscle, cardiac or heart muscle cannot be tetanized because of their intrinsic electrical properties. In recent years, approximately 11% of reported tetanus cases have been fatal. The highest mortality rates are in unvaccinated persons and persons over 60 years of age. C. tetani, the bacteria that causes tetanus, is recovered from the initial wound in only about 30% of cases, and can be found in patients who do not have tetanus.[2] A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... Structure of a skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, attached to the skeleton. ... Myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart. ...


The incubation period of tetanus ranges from 3 to 21 days, with an average onset of clinical presentation of symptoms in 8 days. In general, the further the injury site is from the central nervous system, the longer the incubation period. The shorter the incubation period, the higher the chance of death. In neonatal tetanus, symptoms usually appear from 4 to 14 days after birth, averaging about 7 days. On the basis of clinical findings, four different forms of tetanus have been described.[2] A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


Local tetanus is an uncommon form of the disease, in which patients have persistent contraction of muscles in the same anatomic area as the injury. The contractions may persist for many weeks before gradually subsiding. Local tetanus is generally milder; only about 1% of cases are fatal, but it may precede the onset of generalized tetanus.


Cephalic tetanus is a rare form of the disease, occasionally occurring with otitis media (ear infections) in which C. tetani is present in the flora of the middle ear, or following injuries to the head. There is involvement of the cranial nerves, especially in the facial area. Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ... Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ...


Generalized tetanus is the most common type of tetanus, representing about 80% of cases. The generalized form usually presents with a descending pattern. The first sign is trismus or lockjaw, followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, and rigidity of pectoral and calf muscles. Other symptoms include elevated temperature, sweating, elevated blood pressure, and episodic rapid heart rate. Spasms may occur frequently and last for several minutes. Spasms continue for 3–4 weeks and complete recovery may take months. Technically known as trismus (Greek τρισμος, trismos, a grinding), lockjaw is a pathological condition in which the mouth is locked shut by contractions of the jaw muscles. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ...


Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalized tetanus that occurs in newborn infants. It occurs in infants who have not acquired passive immunity because the mother has never been immunized. It usually occurs through infection of the unhealed umbilical stump, particularly when the stump is cut with a non-sterile instrument. Neonatal tetanus is common in many developing countries and is responsible for 14% (215,000) of all neonatal deaths, but is very rare in developed countries.[3] Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ...


Spatula test

The "spatula test" for tetanus involves touching the posterior pharyngeal wall with a sterile, soft-tipped instrument and observing the effect. A positive test result is the involuntary contraction of the jaw (biting down on the "spatula"), and a negative test result would normally be a gag reflex attempting to expel the foreign object. The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A short report in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene states that in a patient research study, the spatula test had a high specificity (zero false-positive test results) and a high sensitivity (94% of infected patients produced a positive test result).[4]


Treatment

The wound must be cleaned. Dead and infected tissue should be removed by surgical debridement. Metronidazole treatment decreases the number of bacteria but has no effect on the bacterial toxin. Penicillin was once used to treat tetanus, but is no longer the treatment of choice because of a theoretical risk of increased spasms. It should still be used if metronidazole is not available. Passive immunization with human anti-tetanospasmin immunoglobulin or tetanus immune globulin is crucial. If specific anti-tetanospasmin immunoglobulin is not available, then normal human immunoglobulin may be given instead. All tetanus victims should be vaccinated against the disease or offered a booster shot. Debridement is a medical term referring to the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue. ... Metronidazole (INN) (pronounced ) is a nitroimidazole anti-infective drug used mainly in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms, particularly anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Passive immunity occurs when high levels of human (or horse) antibodies specific for a pathogen or toxin are transferred to non-immune individuals. ... Structure of tetanospasmin Mechanism of action of tetanospasmin Tetanospasmin is the neurotoxin produced by the vegetative spore of Clostridium tetani in anaerobic conditions, causing tetanus. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ...

An infant suffering from neonatal tetanus.
An infant suffering from neonatal tetanus.

It takes 2-14 days for symptoms to develop after infection. Symptoms peak 17 days after infection.


Mild tetanus

Mild cases of tetanus can be treated with:

  • Tetanus immune globulin IV or IM
  • metronidazole IV for 10 days
  • diazepam
  • tetanus vaccination
  • tetanus shots
  • tetanus digestion

Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ...

Severe tetanus

Severe cases will require admission to intensive care. In addition to the measures listed above for mild tetanus: Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is concerned with providing greater than ordinary medical care and observation to people in a critical or unstable condition. ...

Lock-jaw in a patient suffering from tetanus.
Lock-jaw in a patient suffering from tetanus.

Drugs such as chlorpromazine or diazepam, or other muscle relaxants can be given to control the muscle spasms. In extreme cases it may be necessary to paralyze the patient with curare-like drugs and use a mechanical ventilator. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 403 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 1042 pixel, file size: 93 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 403 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 1042 pixel, file size: 93 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Intrathecal: Delivered into the spinal canal (intrathecal space surrounding the spinal cord), as in a spinal anaesthesia. ... Tracheotomy is a surgical procedure used to cut a hole in the trachea through which a small tube is inserted. ... mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... In medicine, hyperpyrexia is an excessive and unusual elevation of body temperature above 107. ... Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable... Labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate, fixed combination with hydrochlorothiazide: Normozyde) is an alpha-1 and beta adrenergic blocker used to treat high blood pressure. ... Clonidine is a direct-acting adrenergic agonist prescribed historically as an anti-hypertensive agent. ... Nifedipine (brand name Adalat and Procardia) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... Strychnos toxifera by Koehler 1887 This page is about the plant toxins. ...


In order to survive a tetanus infection, the maintenance of an airway and proper nutrition are required. An intake of 3500-4000 Calories, and at least 150g of protein, is often given in liquid form through a tube directly into the stomach, or through a drip into a vein. This high-caloric diet maintenance is required due to the increased metabolic strain brought on by the increased muscle activity. The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ...


Prevention

Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination.[5] The CDC recommends that adults receive a booster vaccine every ten years, and standard care in many places is to give the booster to any patient with a puncture wound who is uncertain of when he or she was last vaccinated, or if the patient has had fewer than 3 lifetime doses of the vaccine. The booster cannot prevent a potentially fatal case of tetanus from the current wound, as it can take up to two weeks for tetanus antibodies to form. In children under the age of seven, the tetanus vaccine is often administered as a combined vaccine, DPT vaccine or DTaP, which also includes vaccines against diphtheria and pertussis. For adults and children over seven, the Td vaccine (tetanus and diphtheria) or Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis) is commonly used.[5] A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... DPT, (sometimes DTP) is a mixture of three vaccines, to immunize against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into DPT vaccine. ... Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium, Bordetella pertussis; it derived its name from a characteristic severe hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like whoop; a similar, milder disease is caused by B. parapertussis. ...


Epidemiology

Tetanus cases reported worldwide (1990-2004). Ranging from strongly prevalent (in dark red) to very few cases (in light yellow) (gray, no data).
Tetanus cases reported worldwide (1990-2004). Ranging from strongly prevalent (in dark red) to very few cases (in light yellow) (gray, no data).

Tetanus is a global health problem since C. tetani spores are ubiquitous. The disease occurs almost exclusively in persons who are unvaccinated or inadequately immunized.[1] Tetanus occurs worldwide but is more common in hot, damp climates with soil rich in organic matter. This is particularly true with manure-treated soils, the spores are widely distributed in the intestines and feces of many non-human animals such as horses, sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, guinea pigs, and chickens. In agricultural areas, a significant number of human adults may harbor the organism. The spores can also be found on skin surfaces and in contaminated heroin.[2] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) ♦ Zones très fortement contaminé (very strongly prevalent) ♦ Zones fortement contaminé (strongly prevalent) ♦ Zones contaminé (prevalent) ♦ Cas présents (a few cases) ♦ Quelques rare cas (rare, very few cases) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) ♦ Zones très fortement contaminé (very strongly prevalent) ♦ Zones fortement contaminé (strongly prevalent) ♦ Zones contaminé (prevalent) ♦ Cas présents (a few cases) ♦ Quelques rare cas (rare, very few cases) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ...


Tetanus, particularly the neonatal form, remains a significant public health problem in non-industrialized countries. There are about one million cases of tetanus reported worldwide, causing an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 deaths each year.[2] A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ...


In the United States, approximately 100 people become infected with tetanus each year, and there are about five deaths from tetanus each year.[6] Nearly all of the cases in the United States occur in unimmunized individuals or individuals who have allowed their inoculations to lapse,[6] whereas most cases in developing countries are due to the neonatal form of tetanus. Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ...


Tetanus is not contagious from person to person[6] and is the only vaccine-preventable disease that is infectious but is not contagious.[2] This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...


Association with rust

Tetanus is often associated with rust, especially rusty nails, but this concept is somewhat misleading. Objects that accumulate rust are often found outdoors, or in places that harbor anaerobic bacteria, but the rust itself does not cause tetanus nor does it contain more C. tetani bacteria. The rough surface of rusty metal merely provides a prime habitat for a C. tetani endospore to reside. An endospore is a non-metabolising survival structure that begins to metabolise and cause infection once in an adequate environment. Because C. tetani is an anaerobic bacterium, it and its endospores will thrive in an environment that lacks oxygen. Hence, stepping on a nail (rusty or not) may result in a tetanus infection, as the low-oxygen (anaerobic) environment of a puncture wound provides the bacteria with an ideal breeding ground. For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ...


Famous tetanus victims

George Montagu George Montagu (1753 - June 20, 1815) was an English naturalist. ... Ornithology (from the Greek ornitha = chicken and logos = word/science) is the branch of biology concerned with the scientific study of birds. ... Joseph Joshua Joe Powell (1870 – November 30, 1896) was an English footballer, who was captain of Woolwich Arsenal in their first season of League football. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Partial hand amputation Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... John Augustus Roebling (born Johann August Röbling, June 12, 1806 in Mühlhausen - July 22, 1869) was a German-born civil engineer famous for his wire rope suspension bridge designs, in particular, the design of the Brooklyn Bridge. ... A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... For other uses, see Brooklyn Bridge (disambiguation). ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... Metung Wharf on Bancroft Bay, Gippsland Lakes, Victoria, Australia A wharf is a fixed platform, commonly on pilings, roughly parallel to and alongside navigable water, where ships are loaded and unloaded. ... George Crockett Strong (October 16, 1832 – July 30, 1863) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Animated map of secession, Civil War and re-admission:  States of the Union  Territories of the Union (including occupied territory)  States of the Confederacy  Territories claimed by Confederacy During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the twenty-three states of the United States... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Storming of Fort Wagner Fort Wagner (also called Battery Wagner) was a fortification on Morris Island, South Carolina, that covered the southern approach to Charleston harbor. ... Morris Island in South Carolina, USA, is an 840 acre uninhabited island in Charleston Harbor, accessible only by boat. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Frederick Clifton Thomson (February 26, 1890–December 25, 1928) was an American silent film cowboy. ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... Count Tilly on a portrait by van Dyck Bronze statue of Count Tilly in the Feldherrnhalle in Munich Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly (Nivelles,February 1559 - Ingolstadt, April 30, 1632) was a General (Field Marshal) who commanded the Imperial and Holy Roman Empires forces in the Thirty Years War... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... On April 15, 1632, Swedish troops (40. ... Traveller and Robert E. Lee Traveller (1857 – 1871) was Confederate General Robert E. Lees most famous horse during the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Thoreau redirects here. ... Even Soldiers of Fortune have to sing! 1958 record album An adventurer or adventuress is a term that usually takes one of three meanings: One whose travels are unusual and often exotic, though not so unique as to qualify as exploration. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Clostridia: Sporeforming Anaerobic Bacilli. In: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Tetanus. CDC Pink Book. Retrieved on 2007-01-26.
  3. ^ World Health Organization (2000-11-01). Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination by 2005. Retrieved on 2007-01-26.
  4. ^ Nitin M. Apte and Dilip R. Karnad (1995-10). Short Report: The Spatula Test: A Simple Bedside Test to Diagnose Tetanus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. pp. 386-387. Retrieved on 2007-10-11. Also, the ability to open ones mouth widely is often a sign that one does not have lockjaw.
  5. ^ a b "Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis: recommendations for vaccine use and other preventive measures. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory committee (ACIP)." (1991). MMWR Recomm Rep 40 (RR-10): 1-28. PMID 1865873. 
  6. ^ a b c Office of Public Information, Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (2005-07-14). "Tetanus Cases Prompt Advisory for Missourians to Get Vaccine, Check Booster Status". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-09-20.

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External links

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Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria is also the fictional name of a warring nation under Benzino Napaloni as dictator, in the 1940 film The Great Dictator... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ... Pseudomembranous colitis is an infection of the colon often, but not always, caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Gas gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas within tissues in gangrene. ... The group A streptococcus bacterium (Streptococcus pyogenes, or GAS) is a form of Streptococcus bacteria responsible for most cases of streptococcal illness. ... It has been suggested that Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease be merged into this article or section. ... Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin. ... This page is about the bacterial class. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Subclasses Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Species See text. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Visible cavities in later stage tuberculosis; Ghon focuses are smaller. ... Ghons complex is a pathological entity caused by the the progression of tuberculosis, an infectious respiratory disease. ... Tuberculous meningitis is also called TB meningitis. Tuberculous meningitis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the meninges. ... Tuberculosis of the spine in an Egyptian mummy Potts disease is a presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the spine, a kind of tuberculous arthritis of the intervertebral joints. ... King Henry IV of France touching a number of sufferers of scrofula who are gathered about him in a circle. ... Bazin disease is a skin ulceration on the back of the calves. ... Lupus vulgaris are cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around nose and ears. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans, from the same family of bacteria which causes tuberculosis and leprosy. ... Suborders Actinomycineae Corynebacterineae Frankineae Glycomycineae Micrococcineae Micromonosporineae Propionibacterineae Pseudonocardineae Streptomycineae Streptosporangineae Actinomycetales is an order of Actinobacteria. ... Erythrasma is a skin disease that can result in pink patches, which can turn into brown scales. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Bejel, or endemic syphilis, is a chronic skin and tissue disease caused by infection by a subspecies of the spirochete Treponema pallidum. ... Yaws (also Frambesia tropica, thymosis, polypapilloma tropicum or pian) is a tropical infection of the skin, bones and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pertenue. ... Pinta is a human skin disease endemic to Mexico, Central America, and South America. ... Noma (from Greek numein: to devour) also known as cancrum oris or gangrenous stomatitis, is a gangrenous disease leading to tissue destruction of the face, especially the mouth and cheek. ... Trench mouth is a polymicrobial infection of the gums leading to inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration and necrotic gum tissue, there may also be fever. ... Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ... Sodoku is a bacterial zoonotic disease. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Genera Chlamydia Chlamydophila Parachlamydia Simkania Waddlia The Chlamydiae are a group of bacteria, all of which are intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. ... Species See text. ... In medicine (pulmonology), psittacosis -- also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis -- is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycoplasma psittaci and contracted from parrots, macaws, cockatiels, and parakeets. ... Species Chlamydia muridarum Chlamydia suis Chlamydia trachomatis For the disease in humans, see Chlamydia infection. ... The term Chlamydia refers to an infection by any one of the species in the bacterial genus, Chlamydia—Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia suis or Chlamydia muridarum—but of these, only C. trachomatis is found in humans. ... Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), also known as lymphopathia venerea, tropical bubo, climatic bubo, strumous bubo, poradenitis inguinales, Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease and lymphogranuloma inguinale, is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... A rickettsiosis is a disease casused by Rickettsiales. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Scrub typhus is a form of typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted by chiggers, which are found in areas of heavy scrub vegetation. ... Binomial name Wolbach, 1919 Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ... Boutonneuse fever (also called Mediterranean Fever) is a fever as a result of a Rickettsial infection. ... Trench Fever is a moderately serious disease, transmitted by body lice. ... Rickettsialpox is caused by bacteria found in the Rickettsia family (Rickettsia akari) but humans contract the disease through a much less direct route. ... For other uses, see Catscratch and Cat Scratch Fever. ... Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is a bacterial infection caused by either Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Species S. bongori S. enterica This article is about the bacteria. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... Species S. enterica Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid and foodborne illness. ... Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... Tularemia (also known as rabbit fever) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. ... Glanders is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. ... Melioidosis, also known as pseudoglanders and Whitmores disease (after Capt Alfred Whitmore) is an uncommon infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water. ... Pasteurellosis is an infection with a species of the bacteria genus Pasteurella, which is found in humans and animals. ... Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium, Bordetella pertussis; it derived its name from a characteristic severe hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like whoop; a similar, milder disease is caused by B. parapertussis. ... Binomial name Neisseria meningitidis Albrecht & Ghon, 1901 Neisseria meningitidis, also simply known as meningococcus is a gram-negative bacterium best known for its role in meningitis. ... Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord. ... Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is massive, usually bilateral, hemorrhage into the adrenal glands caused by fulminant meningococcemia. ... Legionellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. ... Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) is a fulminant sceptacaemic illness of children caused by the gram negative bacteria Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius Category: ... Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. ... The clap redirects here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tetanus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (865 words)
Tetanus is a serious and often fatal disease caused by the neurotoxin tetanospasmin which is produced by the Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani.
Tetanus was first documented by Hippocrates, and records dating back to the 5th century BCE document countless distinctive clinical observations of the disease.
The first sign of tetanus is a mild jaw muscle spasm called lockjaw (trismus), followed by stiffness of the neck and back, risus sardonicus, difficulty swallowing, and muscle rigidity in the abdomen.
Tetanus - definition of Tetanus in Encyclopedia (682 words)
Tetanus is a serious and often fatal disease caused by the exotoxin tetanospasmin which is produced by the Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani.
The first sign of tetanus is lockjaw (trismus), followed by stiffness of the neck and back, risus sardonicus, difficulty swallowing, and muscle rigidity in the abdomen.
There was a shortage of tetanus vaccine in the United States in 2001 and 2002, but this supply issue was corrected in 2003.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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