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In promotion and advertising, a testimonial or endorsement consists of a written or spoken statement, sometimes from a public figure, sometimes from a private citizen, extolling the virtue of some product. The term "testimonial" most commonly applies to the sales-pitches attributed to ordinary citizens, whereas "endorsement" usually applies to pitches by celebrities. See also Testify, Testimony, for historical context and etymology. Promotion is one of the four aspects of marketing. ... Billboards and street advertising in Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan, (2005) Advertising is the commercial promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas, usually performed by an identified sponsor, and performed through a variety of media. ... Celebrities often have a symbiotic relationship with photographers. ... In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ... In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ...

Pope Leo XIII endorses "Vin Mariani", a cocaine-laden patent medicine.
Pope Leo XIII endorses "Vin Mariani", a cocaine-laden patent medicine.


Pope Leo XIII endorses Vin Mariani, a cocaine laden patent medicine File links The following pages link to this file: Testimonial Categories: Images with unknown source ... This article is about the drug cocaine. ... Patent medicine is the term given to various medical compounds sold under a variety of names and labels, though they were for the most part actually trademarked medicines, not patented. ...

Written testimonials in the history of advertising

Testimonials in the form of letters and ad copy featured very commonly in the advertising of patent medicines in the 19th and 20th centuries. The pages of almanacs and other promotional literature filled up with multiple testimonials, some with accompanying photographs, that tell of the healing powers of the products in question. Dr. R. V. Pierce, marketer of Pierce's Golden Medical Discovery, published The People's Common Sense Medical Adviser in 1875; its publication continued for forty years. In addition to a fair explanation of medical knowledge at the time it appeared, this book contained literally hundreds of testimonials extolling Pierce's nostrums, or talking up the virtues of Pierce's Buffalo, New York clinic. Stern photographs of women who owe the cure of their "female weakness" to Pierce's medicines accompany many of the letters. A Denver, Colorado man's testimonial affirms that they put an end to his "self-abuse:" Patent medicine is the term given to various medical compounds sold under a variety of names and labels, though they were for the most part actually trademarked medicines, not patented. ... An almanac (also spelled almanack, especially in Commonwealth English) is an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar. ... Magic/magick and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical or paranormal means. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: City of Good Neighbors Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Mayor Byron Brown Area    - City 136. ... A photograph (often shortened to photo) is an image created by focusing light onto material having a light-sensitive coating. ... Nickname: The Mile-High City Location of Denver in Colorado Coordinates: City-County Denver (coextensive) Founded November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area    - City 401. ...

Case 461,306. Onanism. Melancholia; contemplated suicide.
Gentlemen — Having waited several weeks after finishing the last medicine, to see if there would be any relapse, I now send you a report of treatment. I believe I am thoroughly cured, not only of poor health, but of all desire to abuse myself. I have regained health, spirits, and confidence. Am married, something I have long desired, but never before dared to attempt. Please accept my sincere thanks, gentlemen. Your medicine has saved me from a suicide's grave. Á
--- H., Denver, Col.

ž Not only anonymous persons, but occasionally politicians, entertainers, and other celebrities offered their endorsements to the vendors of patent medicine. The makers of Vin Mariani, a cocaine-laced patent medicine, secured one of the most valuable testimonials ever by receiving the recommendation of Pope Leo XIII. Queen Victoria also endorsed a number of patent medicines and other products, and the frequently-seen notices touting a manufacturer or a product "by appointment to" a monarch or his family continue the practice of royal endorsement in a somewhat more low-key manner. Mulher sentada de coxas abertas, Drawing 1916 by Gustav Klimt Masturbation is the manual excitation of the sexual organs, most often to the point of orgasm. ... Melancholia (Greek μελανχολια) is a mood of non-specific depression. ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending ones own life. ... This article is about the drug cocaine. ... Pope Leo XIII, born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 January 1877, until her death in 1901. ...

Such coups came towards the end of the era of written testimonials. Later advertisers found that no one bothered to read the testimonials anymore; the sheer bulk of their numbers made them no more convincing or appealing. A warier public wondered whether these anecdotes really proved anything, and often doubted their genuineness. An anecdote is a brief tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident. ...

Celebrity endorsements remain with us. Occasionally the makers of a consumer product do in fact use a consumer's letter in its praise in an advertising campaign. But for the most part, the bulk presentation of written testimonials as an advertising technique has fallen by the wayside.

Modern testimonials and endorsements

Today testimonials and endorsements appear most commonly in television advertising, particularly in infomercials. For example, a smiling upper-middle class mother may demonstrate her excitement about a laundry soap and describe the benefits that she receives from using it. Marketers feel that the use of testimonials adds a personal touch to their appeal and also portrays a populist image. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Infomercials are television commercials that run as long as a typical television program (roughly thirty minutes or an hour). ... Populism is a political philosophy or rhetorical style that holds that the common persons interests are oppressed or hindered by the elite in society, and that the instruments of the state need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and used for the benefit and advancement of the...

For maximum effectiveness, the non-celebrity testimony should come from a person with a similar demographic profile to the people in the target market. In the case of celebrity endorsements advertisers aim to use the recognition-factor to draw on the halo effect. In theory, this source credibility transfers from the celebrity to the advertised product, brand, and manufacturer. A problem with using celebrity endorsements involves any negative publicity that the celebrity might get: it will also transfer back to the product, thereby reducing brand equity. Demographics is a shorthand term for population characteristics. Demographics include race, age, income, mobility (in terms of travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership, employment status, and even location. ... A target market is the market segment which a particular product is marketed to. ... Halo effect refers to the cognitive bias in which the assessment of an individual quality serves to influence and bias the judgement of other qualities. ... Credibility is the believability of a statement, action, or source, and the ability of the observer to believe that statement. ... A brand is a collection of images and ideas representing an economic producer; more specifically, it refers to the concrete symbols such as a name, slogan, and design scheme. ... Brand equity is the value built-up in a brand. ...

An established cartoon character utilised to endorse a product can become a spokestoon. A fictional character is any person who appears in a work of fiction. ... An established cartoon character who is hired to endorse a product, a spokestoon should not be equated with a cartoon character invented specifically to give identity to a product, such as the Michelin Man, Speedy Alka-Seltzer or the Pillsbury Doughboy. ...

The value of testimonials

Testimonials appeal via the emotions rather than directly to logic. Testimonials provide in general very weak justifications for purchasing or for taking some action. Even if the writers of testimonials genuinely and spontaneously advocate a product or a service, their statements may mislead. An American study found:

[E]valuations [...] based on testimony [...] are easier to manipulate for self-interested ends [...] While testimony can be regarded as a form of confirmatory evidence, it does not provide any of the disconfirming evidence needed to reduce uncertainty. [...] People are typically weak at identifying the range of [...] alternatives [...] and at distinguishing the different ways in which the causal forces might operate. How can people know how they would have matured over time in the absence of an intervention (technique) that is being assessed? How can people disentangle effects due to a pleasant experience, a dynamic leader, or a sense of doing something important from effects due to the critical components of the treatment per se? Much research has shown that individuals are poor intuitive scientists and that they recreate a set of known cognitive biases (Nisbett and Ross, 1980, Griffin). These include belief perseverance, selective memory, errors of attribution, and over-confidence. These biases influence experts and non-experts alike, usually without one's awareness of them. - Daniel Druckman and John Swets (editors): Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and Techniques . Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1988, pages 33 - 35. Online version.

The specific case of using celebrity endorsement can raise questions of appropriateness: the image of the endorser may have no evident connection with the image of the endorsed product or service. An actress may act superbly, but know little or nothing of the power-tools she endorses. A Nobel-prize winner may have a reputation for intellect and insight without having much of a background in gadgets outside his/her field. Queen Victoria allegedly endorsed a product that claimed to cure mental illness — presumably without any specific implication that Her Late Majesty ever suffered from mental afflictions. Evidence has several meanings as indicated below. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... A bias is a prejudice in a general or specific sense, usually in the sense for having a preference to one particular point of view or ideological perspective. ... Belief Perseverance is the persistence of ones held beliefs despite evidence to the contrary. ... Memory is the ability of an organism to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... In copyright law, attribution is the requirement that authors be given credit for their work in any context in which it is used. ... The overconfidence effect refers to the human tendency to be more confident in ones behaviours, attributes and physical characteristics than one ought to be. ... For images in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Images. ...

Preferred fields for marketing via testimonials

Health products remain one of the more prominent marketing segments in which testimonials retain some effectiveness. Due to the placebo effect and to people's reluctance to expose their frailties to apparently remote and opaque medical doctors, cures for frailties both physical and mental, both real and imagined, continue to sell. A popular generic name for such quack nostrums has come about: "snake oil". It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Placebo. ... Clark Stanleys Snake Oil Liniment. ...

Related afflictions of a spiritual or sexual nature also attract testimonial-marketing. Personal shyness continues to provide a factor here, and word-of-mouth advertising may utilize brief written or verbal testimonials to spread the memes of personal growth and release from inhibitions. Word of mouth (WOM) is the passing of information by verbal means, especially recommendations, but also general information, in an informal, person-to-person manner, rather than by mass media, advertising, organized publication, or traditional marketing. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Statement of John Kerry (2119 words)
The full testimony heard by the committee, including that of Kerry, is in Legislative Proposals Relating to the War in Southeast Asia, Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session (April-May 1971), Washington: Government Printing Office, 1971.
Subject breaks in Kerry's testimony were provided by the Senate staff in the form of subtitles, which in some cases are retained below.
Following his formal testimony, the committee members questioned him during their discussion of some of the legislative proposals under consideration.
Testimony - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (508 words)
In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter.
Testimony may be oral or written, and it is usually made by oath or affirmation under penalty of perjury.
Unless a witness is testifying as an expert witness, testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is generally limited to those opinions or inferences that are rationally based on the perceptions of the witness and are helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony.
  More results at FactBites »



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