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Encyclopedia > Terrorist
Terrorism
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Terrorism is the systematic use, or threatened use, of violence to intimidate a population or government and thereby effect political, religious or ideological change.[1][2] Acts of terrorism are not intended to merely victimize or eliminate those who are killed, injured or taken hostage but rather to intimidate and influence the societies to which they belong. The word terrorist can mean: Generally, a native martyr of an occupied nation, engaged in a hit and run attack against an overwhelming and terrifying colonial, and/or impirial power. ... Few words are as politically or emotionally charged as terrorism. ... International conventions on terrorism set out obligations of states in respect to defining international counter terrorist offences, prosecuting individuals suspected of such offences, extraditing such persons upon request, and providing mutual legal assistance upon request. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Pakistan Canada Israel South Korea Australia Italy Denmark Germany Philippines Jordan Saudi Arabia New Iraqi Army NATO and others some of these forces may be allies Taliban Baathist Iraq Baath Loyalists Hezbollah al-Qaeda Waziristan tribesmen Iraqi insurgency Jemaah Islamiyah, Abu Sayyaf some... The list is of organizations , many (not all) of whom have been proscribed as terrorist organizations by approporiate authorities, including the United Nations and national governments. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Religious violence. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... State-sponsored terrorism (SST) is a political term used to refer to finance and bounties given across international boundaries to terrorist organizations and the families of deceased militants for the purpose of conducting or rewarding attacks on civilians. ... Ethnic violence or ethnic terrorism refers to violence that is dominantly motivated by causes and issues related to ethnicity. ... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Belaunde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ... The heyday of anarchist terrorism was from the 1870s to the 1920s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Terrorism. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The term Agro-terrorism is a controversial neologism used to describe threats by a terrorist act on the food chain. ... Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Assassination is the deliberate killing of an important person, usually a political figure or other strategically important individual. ... IED is also an abbreviation for Intelligent Electronic Device IED is also an abbreviation for Intermittent explosive disorder A large cache of munitions found in Afghanistan in 2004. ... A car bomb is an improvised explosive device that is placed in a car or other vehicle and then exploded. ... It has been suggested that Female suicide bomber be merged into this article or section. ... Bioterrorism is terrorism using germ warfare, an intentional human release of a naturally-occurring or human-modified toxin or biological agent. ... Nuclear terrorism can be used to describe any of the following terrorist assaults: Use of nuclear weapons against a civilian target Use of a radiological weapon or dirty bomb against a civilian target An attack against a nuclear power plant Some believe that no such act has ever taken place. ... Cyber-terrorism is the use of computers and information technology, particularly the Internet, to cause harm or severe disruption with the aim of advancing the attackers own political or religious goals. ... A terrorist front organization is created to conceal activities or provide logistical or financial support to the illegal activities. ... For the role-playing game books, please see Lone Wolf. ... Violence refers to acts of aggression and abuse which causes or intends to cause criminal injury or harm to persons, and (to a lesser extent) animals and property. ... Politics is a process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Various religious symbols Religion is a system of social coherence based on a common group of beliefs or attitudes concerning an object, person, unseen being, or system of thought considered to be supernatural, sacred, divine or highest truth, and the moral codes, practices, values, institutions, and rituals associated with such... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... A hostage is a person (sometimes another entity) which is held by a captor (often a criminal abductor) in order to compel another party (relative, employer, government. ...


Modern terrorism has come to be defined in part by the influential power of the mass media that terrorists co-opt in their efforts to amplify and broadcast feelings of intense fear and anger. As a type of unconventional warfare, terrorism is designed to weaken or supplant existing political landscapes through capitulation or acquiescence as opposed to subversion or direct military action. Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ... Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ... Acquiescence is, most generally, permission given by silence or passiveness. ... Subversion is an open source application used for revision control. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ...


"Terrorist attacks" are usually characterized as "indiscriminate", "targeting of civilians" or executed "with disregard for human life". The term "terrorism" is often used to assert that the political violence of an enemy is immoral, wanton and unjustified. According to the definition of terrorism—typically used by states, academics, counter-terrorism experts and non-governmental organizations—"terrorists" are actors who don't belong to any recognized armed forces or who don't adhere to the laws of war and who are, therefore, regarded as "rogue actors". Few words are as politically or emotionally charged as terrorism. ... The two parts of the laws of war: Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called Jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called Jus ad bellum. ...


Those who are accused of being "terrorists" rarely identify themselves as such and, instead, typically use terms that refer to their ideological or ethnic struggle, such as: separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel, jihadi or mujaheddin, or fedayeen or any one of similar-meaning words in a number of languages. Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established government that is held to be oppressive and illegitimate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A vigilante is someone who takes enforcement of law or moral code into his or her own hands. ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organised in a military fashion. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Olivia Amador ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad or Djehad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Fedayeen (from Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyÄ«n فدائيون, one who is ready to sacrifice his life for the cause) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ...


Terrorism has been used by a broad array of organizations to further their objectives. They including both right-wing and left-wing political parties, nationalistic and religious groups, revolutionaries and ruling governments.[1] Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ...

Contents


Definition

Few words are as politically or emotionally charged as terrorism. One 1988 study by the US Army [3] found that over 100 definitions of the word "terrorism" have been used. For this reason, many news sources avoid using this term, opting instead for less accusatory words like "bombers", "militants" and so on. Few words are as politically or emotionally charged as terrorism. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Terrorism is a crime in many countries and is defined by statute—see the wikipedia article definition of terrorism for particular definitions. Common principles among legal definitions of terrorism provide an emerging consensus as to meaning and also foster cooperation between law enforcement personnel in different countries. Among these definitions there are several that do not recognize the possibility of legitimate use of violence by civilians against an invader in an occupied country and would, thus, label all resistance movements as terrorist groups. Others make a distinction between lawful and unlawful use of violence. For example, the actions of the United States in Iraq and other Middle East countries are acts of terrorism. Ultimately, the distinction is a political judgment. [4] Few words are as politically or emotionally charged as terrorism. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... An occupied territory is a region that has been taken over by a sovereign power after a military conquest (see military occupation). ... A resistance movement is a non-military group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... Politics is a process by which decisions are made within groups. ...


In November 2004, a UN panel described terrorism as any act: "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act."[5] 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Pejorative use

This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details.

In his book "Inside Terrorism" Bruce Hoffman wrote in Chapter One: Defining Terrorism that Image File history File links Circle-question. ...

On one point, at least, everyone agrees: terrorism is a pejorative term. It is a word with intrinsically negative connotations that is generally applied to one's enemies and opponents, or to those with whom one disagrees and would otherwise prefer to ignore. `What is called terrorism', Brian Jenkins has written, `thus seems to depend on one's point of view. Use of the term implies a moral judgement; and if one party can successfully attach the label terrorist to its opponent, then it has indirectly persuaded others to adopt its moral viewpoint.' Hence the decision to call someone or label some organization `terrorist' becomes almost unavoidably subjective, depending largely on whether one sympathizes with or opposes the person/group/cause concerned. If one identifies with the victim of the violence, for example, then the act is terrorism. If, however, one identifies with the perpetrator, the violent act is regarded in a more sympathetic, if not positive (or, at the worst, an ambivalent) light; and it is not terrorism.[6]

Groups called "terrorist" often prefer terms that reflect ideological or ethnic struggle.[7][8][9] Examples include: separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla (Spanish for "small war"), rebel, jihadi or mujaheddin ("one engaged in holy war"), or fedayeen ("prepared for martyrdom"). Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established government that is held to be oppressive and illegitimate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A vigilante is someone who takes enforcement of law or moral code into his or her own hands. ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organised in a military fashion. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Olivia Amador ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad or Djehad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Fedayeen (from Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyÄ«n فدائيون, one who is ready to sacrifice his life for the cause) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ...


The difference between the words "terrorist" or "terrorism" and the terms above can be summed up by the aphorism, "One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter." This is exemplified when a group that uses irregular military methods is an ally of a State against a mutual enemy, but later falls out with the State and starts to use the same methods against its former ally. During World War II the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army was allied with the British, but during the Malayan Emergency, members of its successor, the Malayan Races Liberation Army, were branded terrorists by the British.[10][11] More recently, President Reagan and others in the American administration frequently called the Afghan Mujahideen freedom fighters during their war against the Soviet Union[12], yet twenty years later when a new generation of Afghan men are fighting against what they perceive to be a regime installed by foreign powers, their attacks are labelled terrorism by President Bush[13]. Aphorism (From the Greek αφοριζειν, to define), literally a distinction or a definition (See the Online Etymology Dictionary entry), is a term used to describe a principle expressed tersely in a few telling words or any general truth conveyed in a short and pithy sentence, in such a way that when... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century Irregular military refers to any non-standard military. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern a society, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... The Malayan Peoples Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) originated from among ethnic Chinese cadres of the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) who became increasingly opposed to Japan due to its invasion of China in 1937. ... The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... The Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) was a combatant in the Malayan Emergency, an insurrection and guerrilla war against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Order: 40th President Term of Office: January 20, 1981–January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles, California First Lady: Nancy Reagan Political... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American businessman and politician, was elected in 2000 as the 43rd President of the United States of America, re-elected in 2004, and is currently serving his second term in that office. ...


Some groups, when involved in a "liberation" struggle, have been called terrorist by the Western goverments or media. Later, these same persons, as leaders of the liberated nations, are called statesmen by similar organisations. Two examples are Nobel Peace Prize laureates Menachem Begin and Nelson Mandela.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] The Nobel Peace Prize Medal featuring a portrait of Alfred Nobel Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בּגִין) head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first right-wing Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela OM, CC, AC, QC (IPA: ) (born July 18, 1918) was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections. ...


Sometimes states that are close allies, for reasons of history, culture and politics, can disagree over whether members of a certain organization are terrorists. For example for many years some branches of the United States government refused to label members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as terrorists, while it was using methods against one of United States closest allies, that, that ally (Britain), branded as terrorist attacks. This was highlighted by the Quinn v. Robinson case[21][22] A Republican mural in Belfast depicting the hunger strikes of 1981. ...


For these and other reasons, media outlets wishing to preserve a reputation for impartiality are extremely careful in their use of the term.[23][24]


Contrast with associated terms

Armed military conflict is sometimes associated with terrorism when its objectives are to produce shock and awe for the purpose of forcing capitulation. For the purpose of weakening or destroying the opponent's military force, however, armed military conflict is a form of conventional warfare. NASA Landsat 7 image of Baghdad, April 2, 2003. ... Capitulation (Lat. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ...


Guerrilla warfare is sometimes associated with terrorism in that a relatively small force attempts to achieve large goals by using organized acts of directed violence. Against military targets, these acts can be a form of conventional warfare designed to negate the opponent's military ability. However, guerrilla tactics are more often associated with forms of unconventional warfare designed to be either coercive or subversive to a political body. In its subversive context, a guerrilla unit provides clandestine support for one side of an existing conflict. In its coercive context, a guerrilla unit seeks to augment pronounced states of fear and overwhelming feelings of imminent danger. Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of harm (usually physical force, sometimes other forms of harm). ... Subversion is an open source application used for revision control. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ...


Hate Crimes – An attack against an individual because of hatred toward their ethnic, national, or religious background does not qualify as terrorism because it lacks the complex political and psychological intent behind terrorist attacks. For example, the attack by a Muslim man of Israeli airline employees in Los Angeles in 2002 may seem terrorist because it fits into the larger milieu of Israeli/Islamic violence, but in reality, the attack was just a disgruntled supremacist lashing out violently.[25] However, hatred toward a specific group of people may motivate violence intended to either suppress the political will of the group or to cause the group to leave a region, in which case the violence qualifies as terrorism. Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


Mentally Ill Criminals – Studies suggest that, compared with the general public, terrorists do not exhibit unusually high rates of clinical psychopathology, irrationality, or personality disorders. Because terrorist cells require secrecy, terror organizations frequently screen out unstable individuals who might compromise their security [26]


"Lone Wolves"– Some political groups do not allow for the possibility of a "lone wolf" being a terrorist. For instance, the FBI asserts that for an act to be considered terrorist, it must be perpetrated by a like-minded group, and not a single individual acting alone. Donatella Della Porta writes that a single individual committing a violent act is not a terrorist because his/her attack is not against an enemy that is legitimized and sedimented in a larger social context.[27] Eric Boehlert notes that social construction theory describes "lone wolves" as having different motivations, committing different types of attacks, and being prevented from carrying out attacks by different methods. [28] The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Key criteria

Official definitions determine counter-terrorism policy and are often developed to serve it. Most official definitions outline the following key criteria: target, objective, motive, perpetrator, and legitimacy or legality of the act. Terrorism is also often recognizable by a following statement from the perpetrators.


Violence – According to Walter Laqueur of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, "the only general characteristic [of terrorism] generally agreed upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence". However, the criterion of violence alone does not produce a useful definition, as it includes many acts not usually considered terrorism: war, riot, organized crime, or even a simple assault. Property destruction, that does not endanger life, is not usually considered a violent crime, but some have described property destruction by the Earth Liberation Front and Animal Liberation Front as terrorism. The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a Washington, D.C.-based foreign policy think tank. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... Riots occur when crowds of people have gathered and are committing crimes or acts of violence usually due to a perceived grievance or out of dissent. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which the offender uses or threatens violent force upon the victim. ... The Earth Liberation Front (ELF) is the collective name for anonymous and autonomous cells that, according to the now defunct Earth Liberation Front Press Office (ELFPO), use direct action in the form of economic sabotage to stop the exploitation and destruction of the natural environment. ... Beagles removed by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by the Boots Group. ...


Psychological impact and fear – The attack was carried out in such a way as to maximize the severity and length of the psychological impact. Each act of terrorism is a “performance,” a product of internal logic, devised to have an impact on many large audiences. Terrorists also attack national symbols to show their power and to shake the foundation of the country or society they are opposed to. This may negatively affect a government's legitimacy, while increasing the legitimacy of the given terrorist organization and/or ideology behind a terrorist act. [29] The September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon are examples of this. Attacking the World Trade Center symbolizes that the terrorists can threaten the economic foundation of America and its capitalist ideals, and attacking the Pentagon symbolizes that America's great and prided military strength is yet vulnerable at its very core to the terrorists power. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The explosion resulting from the crashing of United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower. ... WTC redirects here. ... A regular pentagon A pentagram enclosed in a pentagon In geometry, a pentagon is any five-sided polygon. ...


Perpetrated for a Political Goal – Something all terrorist attacks have in common is their perpetration for a political purpose. This is often the key difference between an act of terrorism and a hate crime or lone-wolf "madman" attack. Terrorism is a political tactic, not unlike letter writing or protesting, that is used by activists when they believe no other means will effect the kind of change they desire. The change is desired so badly that failure is seen as a worse outcome than the deaths of civilians. This is often where the interrelationship between terrorism and religion occurs. When a political struggle is integrated into the framework of a religious or "cosmic" [30] struggle, such as over the control of an ancestral homeland or holy site such as Palestine/Israel and Jerusalem, failing in the political goal (nationalism) becomes equated with spiritual failure, which, for the highly committed, is worse than their own death or the deaths of innocent civilians.


Deliberate targeting of non-combatants – It is commonly held that the distinctive nature of terrorism lies in its intentional and specific selection of civilians as direct targets. Much of the time, the victims of terrorism are targeted not because they are threats, but because they are specific "symbols, tools, animals or corrupt beings" that tie into a specific view of the world that the terrorist possess. Their suffering accomplishes the terrorists' goals of instilling fear, getting a message out to an audience, or otherwise accomplishing their political end.[31] A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ...


Democracy

The relationship of terrorism and democracy is complex. Research shows that terrorism is most common in nations with intermediate political freedom and that the nations with the least terrorism are the most democratic nations.[2] [3] [4] However, one study suggests that suicide terrorism may be an exception to this general rule. Evidence regarding this particular method of terrorism reveals that every modern suicide campaign has targeted a democracy- a state with a considerable degree of political freedom. The study suggests that concessions awarded to terrorists during the 80s and 90s for suicide attacks increased their frequency.[32]


Some consider examples of "terrorism" in nondemocracies to include ETA under Francisco Franco, the Shining Path under Alberto Fujimori, the Armed Islamic Group in Algeria, and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad. Another the Kurdistan Workers Party when Turkey was ruled by military leaders.[citation needed] Euskadi Ta Askatasuna or ETA (Basque for Basque Homeland and Freedom; IPA pronunciation: [) is an armed Basque nationalist organization that seeks to create an independent socialist state for the Basque people in the Basque Country, separate from Spain and France. ... Francisco El Caudillo Franco. ... Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso in Spanish) is a Maoist guerrilla insurgent organization in Peru; followers are generally called Senderistas. ... Alberto Kenya Fujimori, (born in Peru[1] on July 28, 1938), also known as Kenya Fujimori (藤森 謙也 Fujimori Kenya), was President of Peru from July 28, 1990 to November 17, 2000. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallah) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ... The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), also called the Islamic Jihad and the Jihad Group, is an Egyptian Islamic group active since the late 1970s with origins in the Muslim Brotherhood. ... This article could benefit from improvement in writing style to reach the quality described in the guide to writing the perfect article. ...


While a nation espousing democratic ideology may claim a sense of legitimacy or higher moral ground than regimes that promote terrorism, any act of terrorism within the former creates a dilemma for the democratic state. On one hand, a state that prides itself in its tolerance of peaceful demonstration may choose to approach the problem of terrorism in ways outlined by its constitution; this may render that state ineffective in dealing with the problem, which could reflect upon its citizens a sense of impotency in a time of crisis. On the other hand, should that same terrorized state go above its constitution to deal with the problem, the very notion of democracy itself pales in meaning. This, some social theorists would conclude, may very well play into the initial plans of the acting terrorist(s); namely, to delegitimize democracy. [33]


Perpetrators

Acts of terrorism can be carried out by individuals, groups, or states. According to some definitions, clandestine or semi-clandestine state actors may also carry out terrorist acts outside the framework of a state of war. The most common image of terrorism is that it is carried out by small and secretive cells, highly motivated to serve a particular cause. However, many of the most successful operations in recent time, such as 9/11, the London underground bombing, and the 2002 Bali bombing were planned and carried out by a close clique, comprised of close friends, family members and other strong social networks. These groups benefited from the free flow of information, and were able overcome the obstacles they encountered where others failed due to lack of information and communication. [34] Over the years, many people have attempted to come up with a terrorist profile to attempt to explain these individuals' actions through their psychology and social circumstances. Others, like Roderick Hindery, have sought to discern profiles in the propaganda tactics used by terrorists. A covert cell structure is a method for organizing undercover or unconventional fighters against a large and well-established organization. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Terrorism. ...


Terrorist groups

Main article: Terrorist groups

...

State sponsors

Main article: State terrorism
See also: False flag

A state can sponsor terrorism by funding a terrorist organization, harboring terrorism, and also using state resources, such as the military, to directly perform acts of terrorism. State-sponsored terrorism is widely denounced by the international community. When states do provide funding for groups considered by some to be terrorist, they rarely acknowledge them as such. For example, United States has been linked to a number of organizations [35], but maintains that where funds have been transferred, these have been legitimate. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Tactics

Methods of attack

Terrorists seek to demoralize and paralyze their enemy with fear, and also to pressure governments into conceding to the terrorist's agenda.


While they act according to different motivations and goals, all terrorist groups have one tactic in common: to achieve maximum publicity in order to intimidate and generate a message as a means to attain its objectives. Terrorism uses violence on one part of society to instill fear in the larger part of society to make a change. Terrorism employs propaganda as a tactic to ensure the attention of the public through the attention from the media. The term Propaganda of the Deed, coined by Malatesta, Cafiero, and Covelli, states that the message is most strongly conveyed through violence. [36] Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promotes the decisive action of individuals to inspire further action by others. ... Errico Malatesta Errico Malatesta (December 14, 1853 – July 22, 1932) was an anarchist with an unshakable belief, which he shared with his friend Peter Kropotkin, that the anarchist revolution would occur soon. ...


Often damage is done with an improvised explosive device, sometimes by chemical or biological weapons. A source of concern is also a possible use of a nuclear weapon. In the September 11, 2001 attacks, planes were used as guided incendiary devices. IED is also an abbreviation for Intelligent Electronic Device IED is also an abbreviation for Intermittent explosive disorder A large cache of munitions found in Afghanistan in 2004. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... The explosion resulting from the crashing of United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower. ... A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ... An incendiary device is a device or weapon designed to create a fire. ...


Terrorist groups may arrange for secondary devices to detonate at a slightly later time in order to kill emergency-response personnel attempting to attend to the dead and wounded. Repeated or suspected use of secondary devices can also delay emergency response out of concern that such devices may exist. Examples include a (failed) device that was meant to release cyanide-gas during the February 26, 1993 World Trade Center bombing; and a second car bomb that detonated 20 minutes after the December 1, 2001 Ben Yehuda Street Bombing by Hamas in Jerusalem. February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The World Trade Center bombing was the February 26, 1993 terrorist attack in the garage of the New York City World Trade Center. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... On February 4, 1948, as the conflict over the coming partition of Palestine grew, three car bombs arranged by Arab irregulars exploded on Ben Yehuda Street, a main avenue in Jewish Jerusalem, killing 52 Jewish civilians and leaving 123 injured. ... Hamas (Arabic: ‎; acronym: Arabic: ‎, or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization that currently forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is Israels capital, most populous, [1] and largest city, with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006 [2]) contained in 123 km². An ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed...


Training

There are and have been training camps for terrorists. For the September 11, 2001 attacks, the pilots also took flying courses. The range of training depends greatly on the level of support the terrorist organization receives from various organizations and states. In nearly every case the training incorporates the philosophy and agenda of the groups leadership as justification for the training as well as the potential acts of terror which may be committed. State sanctioned training is by far the most extensive and thorough, often employing professional soldiers and covert operatives of the supporting state. The training generally includes physical fitness, combat or martial arts, firearms, explosives, intelligence/counterintelligence, and field craft. More specialized training may include mission specific subjects such as, language, cultural familiarization, communications, and surveillance techniques. In every instance the quality of training is extremely high and well organized. The explosion resulting from the crashing of United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower. ...


Preparation

Preparation of a major attack such as the September 11, 2001 attacks may take years, wheras a simpler attack, depending on the availability of arms, may be almost spontaneous. The explosion resulting from the crashing of United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower. ...


Cover

Where terrorism occurs in the context of open warfare or insurgency, its perpetrators may shelter behind a section of the local population. Examples include the Intifada on Israeli-occupied territory, and insurgency in Iraq. This population, which may be ethnically distinct from the counter-terrorist forces, is either sympathetic to their cause, indifferent, or acts under duress. Intifada (also Intefadah or Intifadah; from shaking off) is an Arabic term for uprising. It came into common usage in English as the popularised name for two recent Palestinian campaigns directed at ending the Israeli military occupation. ...


Terrorists preparing for the September 11, 2001 attacks changed their appearance to avoid looking radical. The explosion resulting from the crashing of United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower. ...


Funding

Main article: Terrorist Financing

Terrorist organizations do not usually have only one means of funding, but many.[citation needed] Funding can be raised in both legal and illegal ways. Some of the most common ways to raise funds are through charities, well funded organizations, or a non violent organization with similar ideologies. In the absence of state funding, terrorists may rely on organized crime to fund their activities. This has included kidnapping, drug trafficking, or robbery. Additionally, terrorists have also found many more sources of revenue. Osama bin Laden, for example, invested millions in terrorism that his family made in the construction industry building luxury mansions for Saudi Arabia's oil-millionaires. [citation needed] The neutrality of this section may be compromised by weasel words. Please see discussion on the talk page. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957 [1]), most commonly known as Osama bin Laden is a militant Islamist and also the founder of al-Qaeda. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a black, dark brown or greenish liquid found in porous rock formations in the earth. ...


Communication

The revolution in communication technology over the past 10-15 years has dramatically changed how terrorist organizations communicate. E-mails, fax transmissions, websites, cell phones, and satellite telephones have made it possible for organizations to contemplate a global strategy. However, too great a reliance on this new technology leaves organizations vulnerable to sophisticated monitoring of communication and triangulation of its source. When the media published the information that the U.S. government was tracking Osama bin Laden by monitoring his phone calls, he ceased using this method to communicate [37].


Responses to terrorism

Responses to terrorism are broad in scope. They can include re-alignments of the political spectrum and reassessments of fundamental values. The term counter-terrorism has a narrower connotation, implying that it is directed at terrorist actors. A political spectrum is a way of comparing or visualizing different political positions. ... A value system refers to the order and priority an individual or society grants to ethical and ideological values. ...


Terrorism and immigration in Europe

Recent developments have seen a divergence in social and political responses to terrorism between the United States and Western Europe.


Much of Europe has not experienced a domestic religious threat since the Wars of Religion. As a result, in Europe, some now see the issues of Islam, immigration, and terrorism as linked. Aggression against sections of the population regarded as associated with the perpetrators is an increasingly important issue in these communities. Defusing potential backlash is now a standard item of European counter-terrorism policy. The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between the Catholic League and the Huguenots from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598. ...


The direction of European responses to terrorism is indicated by new policies, proposed by Tony Blair in August 2005: Anthony Charles Lynton Blair PC, MP (born 6 May 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the UK Civil Service, Leader of the UK Labour Party, and Member of the UK Parliament for the constituency of Sedgefield in North East...

  • deportation and exclusion on grounds of fostering hatred, advocating violence to further a person's beliefs or justifying or validating such violence;
  • a criminal offence of condoning or glorifying terrorism;
  • refusal of asylum to anyone with a connection to terrorism;
  • new pre-trial procedures and extending detention pre-charge of terrorist suspects;
  • extended use of control orders for those who are British nationals and who cannot be deported, with imprisonment for any breach of the order;
  • new power to order closure of a place of worship which is used as a "centre for fomenting extremism". [5]

Target-hardening

Whatever the target of terrorists, there are multiple ways of hardening the targets to prevent the terrorists from hitting their mark. One method is to place concrete barriers sufficiently distanced outside buildings to prevent truck bombing. Aircraft cockpits are kept locked during flights, and have reinforced doors, which only the pilots in the cabin are capable of opening. English train stations removed their waste bins in response to the Provisional IRA threat, as convenient locations for depositing bombs. Scottish stations removed theirs after the 7th of July bombing of London as a precautionary measure. A car bomb is a bomb that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street Station in 1865. ... A waste container (known more commonly in British English as a dustbin and American English as a trash can) is a container, which can be made out of metal or plastic,[1] used to store refuse. ... A Republican mural in Belfast depicting the hunger strikes of 1981. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


Preemptive neutralization

Some countries see pre-emptive attacks as a legitimate strategy. This includes capturing, killing, or disabling suspected terrorists before they can mount an attack. Israel, the United States, and Russia have taken this approach, while Western European states generally do not.


Another major method of pre-emptive neutralization is interrogation of known or suspected terrorists to obtain information about specific plots, targets, the identity of other terrorists, and whether the interrogation subjects himself is guilty of terrorist involvement. Sometimes more extreme methods are used to increase suggestibility, such as sleep deprivation or drugs. Such methods may lead captives to offer false information in an attempt to stop the treatment, or due to the confusion brought on by it. Interrogation is the method of interviewing a source used by police and military personnel to obtain information that the source would not otherwise willingly disclose. ... A person is deemed to be suggestible if they accept and act on suggestions by others. ... Sleep deprivation is an overall lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ...


Domestic intelligence and surveillance

Most counter-terrorism strategies involve an increase in standard police and domestic intelligence. The central activities are traditional: interception of communications, and the tracing of persons. New technology has, however, expanded the range of such operations. Domestic intelligence is often directed at specific groups, defined on the basis of origin or religion, which is a source of political controversy. Mass surveillance of an entire population raises objections on civil liberties grounds. Telephone tapping (or wire tapping/wiretapping in the US) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... Mass surveillance is the pervasive surveillance of an entire population, or a substantial fraction thereof. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Military intervention

Terrorism has often been used to justify military intervention in countries where terrorists are said to be based. That was the main stated justification for the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. It was also a stated justification for the second Russian invasion of Chechnya. Combatants al-Qaeda, Taliban Northern Alliance, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, France, New Zealand, Italy, Germany Commanders Mohammed Omar Osama bin Laden Tommy Franks Mohammed Fahim Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The United States invasion of Afghanistan occurred in October 2001, in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks on... This article is becoming very long. ...


History has shown that military intervention has rarely been successful in stopping or preventing terrorism. Although military action can disrupt a terrorist group's operations temporarily, it rarely ends the threat. [38] Provoking repression is actually a key goal of terrorism, as most of the time it increases the popularity of the terrorist cause (source?). Repression by a state military in itself usually leads to short term victories, but tend to be unsuccessful in the long run (e.g. French and the FLN). However, new methods such as those taken in Iraq have yet to be seen as beneficial or ineffectual. The National Liberation Front (French: Front de libération nationale, Arabic: Jabhah al-Taḩrīr al-Waţanī) is a socialist political party in Algeria. ...


Non-military Intervention

The human security paradigm outlines a non-military approach which aims to address the enduring underlying inequalities which fuel terrorist activity. Causal factors need to be delineated and measures implemented which allow equal access to resources and sustainability for all peoples. Such activities empower citizens providing 'freedom from fear' and 'freedom from want'. This can take many forms including the provision of clean drinking water, education, vaccination programs, provision of food and shelter and protection from violence, military or otherwise. Successful human security campaigns have been characterised by the participation of a diverse group of actors including governments, NGOs, and citizens. Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents believe that the world requires a more comprehensive notion of security, one that marries the traditionally separate fields of development studies and strategic studies and links the traditionally opposing principles of human rights and sovereignty. ... Sustainability is a systemic concept, relating to the continuity of economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human society, as well as the non-human environment. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is not part of a government and was not founded by states. ...


Terrorism and human rights

One of the primary difficulties of implementing effective counter-terrorist measures is the waning of civil liberties and individual privacy that such measures often entail, both for citizens of, and for those detained by states attempting to combat terror. At times, measures designed to tighten security have been seen as abuses of power or even violations of human rights. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Examples of these problems can include prolonged, incommunicado detention without judicial review; risk of subjecting to torture during the transfer, return and extradition of people between or within countries; and the adoption of security measures that restrain the rights or freedoms of citizens and breach principles of non-discrimination. [39] Examples include:

  • In November 2003, Malaysia passed new counter-terror laws that were widely criticized by local human rights groups for being vague and overbroad. Critics claim that the laws put the basic rights of free expression, association, and assembly at risk. Malaysia persisted in holding around 100 alleged militants without trial, including five Malaysian students detained for alleged terrorist activity while studying in Karachi, Pakistan. [39]
  • In November 2003, a Canadian-Syrian national, Maher Arar, alleged publicly that he had been tortured in a Syrian prison after being handed over to the Syrian authorities by U.S. [39]
  • In December 2003, Colombia's congress approved legislation that would give the military the power to arrest, tap telephones and carry out searches without warrants or any previous judicial order. [39]
  • Images of torture and ill-treatment of detainees in US custody in Iraq and other locations have jeopardized the legitimacy of the US war on terror and brought on international scrutiny. [40]
  • Hundreds of foreign nationals remain in prolonged indefinite detention without charge or trial in Guantánamo Bay, despite international and US constitutional standards outlawing such practices. [40]
  • Hundreds of people suspected of connections with the Taliban or al Qa'eda remain in long-term arbitrary detention in Pakistan or in US-controlled centres in Afghanistan. [40]
  • China has used the "war on terror" to justify its repression policies in the predominantly Muslim Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region to stifle Uighur identity. [40]
  • In Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Yemen and other countries, scores of people have been arrested and arbitrarily detained in connection with suspected terrorist acts or links to opposition armed groups. [40]
  • Until 2005, 11 men remained in high security detention in the UK under the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001. [40]

Many would argue that such violations exacerbate rather than counter the terrorist threat. [39] Human rights advocates argue for the crucial role of human rights protection as an intrinsic part to fight against terrorism. [40] This suggests, as proponents of human security have long argued, that respecting human rights may indeed help us to incur security. Amnesty International included a section on confronting terrorism in the recommendations in the Madrid Agenda arising from the Madrid Summit on Democracy and Terrorism (Madrid 8-11 March 2005): Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents believe that the world requires a more comprehensive notion of security, one that marries the traditionally separate fields of development studies and strategic studies and links the traditionally opposing principles of human rights and sovereignty. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ...

"Democratic principles and values are essential tools in the fight against terrorism. Any successful strategy for dealing with terrorism requires terrorists to be isolated. Consequently, the preference must be to treat terrorism as criminal acts to be handled through existing systems of law enforcement and with full respect for human rights and the rule of law. We recommend: (1) taking effective measures to make impunity impossible either for acts of terrorism or for the abuse of human rights in counter-terrorism measures. (2) the incorporation of human rights laws in all anti-terrorism programmes and policies of national governments as well as international bodies.". [40]

While international efforts to combat terrorism have focused on the need to enhance cooperation between states, proponents of human rights (as well as human security) have suggested that more effort needs to be given to the effective inclusion of human rights protection as a crucial element in that cooperation. They argue that international human rights obligations do not stop at borders and a failure to respect human rights in one state may undermine its effectiveness in the international effort to cooperate to combat terrorism. [39] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents believe that the world requires a more comprehensive notion of security, one that marries the traditionally separate fields of development studies and strategic studies and links the traditionally opposing principles of human rights and sovereignty. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


History

Although there are earlier related examples, terrorism in the modern sense seems to have emerged around the mid 19th-century.


Origin

The term "terrorism" comes from the French word terrorisme, which is based on the Latin verb terrere (to cause to tremble), [41] It dates back to 1795 when it was used to describe the actions of the Jacobin Club in their rule of post-Revolutionary France, the so-called "Reign of Terror". Jacobins are rumored to have coined the term "terrorists" to refer to themselves. The English word "terrorism" was popularized in English when it was used by the conservative Edmund Burke, an outspoken opponent of the French Revolution and the Terror. Acts described as Jacobin Club "terrorism" were mostly cases of arrest or execution of opponents as a means of coercing compliance in the general public. According to Juegensmeyer, they were public acts of destruction which inflicted a public sense of fear due to the lack of military objectives. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Jacobin Club was the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution. ... The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ... The Jacobin Club was the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution. ... Edmund Burke The Right Honourable Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729 – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator and political philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... The Jacobin Club was the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution. ... The Jacobin Club was the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution. ...


Precursors

In the 1st century, Zealots conducted a fierce and unrelenting terror campaign against the Roman Empire in the eastern Mediterranean. The Zealots enlisted sicarii to strike down rich Jewish collaborators and others who were friendly to the Romans. These terrorists were eventually defeated by the Romans in a series of conflicts (First Jewish-Roman War - Kitos War - Bar Kokhba's revolt), culminating in Hadrian edicts against Judaism and the reestablishment of Jerusalem as the Roman pagan polis of Aelia Capitolina. [citation needed] The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Zealotry. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Sicarii (Latin plural of Sicarius, dagger- or later contract- killer) is a term applied, in the decades immediately preceding the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, to the Jewish Zealots, (or insurgents) who attempted to expel the Romans and their partisans from Judea: —Josephus, Jewish Antiquities (xx. ... The first Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the Great Jewish Revolt, was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews of Iudaea Province against the Roman Empire (the second was the Kitos War in 115–117, the third was Bar Kokhbas revolt, 132–135). ... The Kitos War (115—117) is the name given to the second of the Jewish-Roman wars. ... Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt (out of three Jewish-Roman Wars), was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76–July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117–138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ...


In the 11th century, the radical Islamic sect known as the Hashshashin (this word, derived from the word "Hashish," which the Hash-Ishiim reputedly used to drug their victims, translates directly to the word "assassin" in the English language) employed systematic murder for a cause they believed to be righteous. For two centuries, they resisted efforts to suppress their religious beliefs and developed ritualized murder into a fine art taught through generations. Political aims were achieved through the power of intimidation. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) had a militant basis as a religious sect (often referred to as a cult) of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


French Revolution

During the French Revolution (1789 - 1799), the most severe period of the rule of the Committee of Public Safety (1793 - 1795) was labelled "The Reign of Terror" (1793 - 1794) to describe rule through a systematic use of terror exemplified especially by extensive use of the guillotine. Historic references to the term "terrorism" first appeared during the Reign of Terror. The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793 - 1794) of the French Revolution. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ... The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ...


Nineteenth century

The current use of the term "terrorism" is broader and relies more on the example of the 19th-century revolutionaries who used the technique of assassination, particularly the anarchists and Narodniks in Tsarist Russia, whose most notable action was the assassination of Alexander II. An early example of its use in the current sense is in Joseph Conrad's 1907 story "The Secret Agent", where it is used to describe anarchists attempting to cause terror and forment social disruption by blowing up Greenwich Observatory: "The venomous spluttering of the old terrorist without teeth was heard." Ch.3: Anarchists can refer to several things, among which: The movie Anarchists Supporters of the principles of anarchism The Anarchists (Les Anarchistes), a famous song from Léo Ferré A List of anarchists This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... This article or section should be merged with Narodism Narodniks was the name for Russian revolutionaries of the 1860s and 1870s. ... Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposition of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start of the Russian Revolution... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevitch (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born April 17, 1818 in Moscow; died March 13, 1881 in St. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... Royal Observatory, Greenwich The original site of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), which was built as a workplace for the Astronomer Royal, was on a hill in Greenwich Park in Greenwich, London, overlooking the River Thames. ...

"What is one to say to an act of destructive ferocity so absurd as to be incomprehensible, inexplicable, almost unthinkable; in fact, mad? Madness alone is truly terrifying, inasmuch as you cannot placate it either by threats, persuasion, or bribes." (Ch.2)

In 1867 the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a revolutionary nationalist group with support from Irish-Americans, carried out attacks in England. These were the first acts of "republican terrorism", which became a recurrent feature of British history, and these Fenians were the precursor of the Irish Republican Army. The ideology of the group was Irish nationalism. The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) played an important role in the history of Ireland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Irish Republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a united independent republic. ... Fenian is a term used since the 1850s for Irish nationalists (who oppose British rule in Ireland). ... The West Cork Flying Column during the War of Independence. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ...


In Russia, by the mid-19th century, the intelligentsia grew impatient with the slow pace of Tsarist reforms, and sought instead to transform peasant discontent into open revolution. Anarchists like Mikhail Bakunin maintained that progress was impossible without destruction. Their objective was nothing less than complete destruction of the state. Anything that contributed to this goal was regarded as moral. With the development of sufficiently powerful, stable, and affordable explosives, the gap closed between the firepower of the state and the means available to dissidents. Organized into secret societies like the People's Will, Russian terrorists launched a campaign of terror against the state that climaxed in 1881 when Tsar Alexander II of Russia was assassinated. The word intelligentsia came into the modern global vocabulary from Russia. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is the official Slavonic title designating Emperor in the following states: Bulgaria in 913–1422 (for later usage in 1908–1946, see below) Serbia in... This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Trolo) (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin — on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814–June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well known Russian revolutionary. ... Narodnaya Volya (Народная воля in Russian, known as People’s Will in English) was a Russian revolutionary organization in the early 1880s. ... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevitch (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born April 17, 1818 in Moscow; died March 13, 1881 in St. ...


At about the same time, Anarchists in Europe and the United States also resorted to the use of dynamite, as did Catalan nationalists such as La Reixa and Bandera Negra. This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... Capital Barcelona Official languages Catalan, Spanish, Aranese Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 6th in Spain  32 114 km²  6,3% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 2nd in Spain  6 995 206  15,9%  217,82/km² GDP Total (2004) GDP: €157,124 billion GDP per /capita: $26,550...


Two groups within the Ottoman Empire also resorted to techniques considered by some historians to be in the same category as those used by the People's Will and the Anarchists. One group was those fighting for an independent Armenia, divided into two parties, the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party and the Dashnaks or Armenian Revolutionary Federation. The other group was those fighting for an independent Macedonia, divided into two organizations, the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) and the External Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (EMRO). Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... The Social Democrat Hunchakian Party is the oldest political party in Armenia. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Excerpt from the statute of BMARC, 1896 (in Bulgarian) Statute of the Bulgarian Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Committees Chapter I. - Goal Chapter II. - Structure and Organization Excerpt from the statute of IMARO, 1906 (in Bulgarian) Statute of Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (amended at the general congress in 1906) Chapter I...


The IMRO was founded in 1893 in Thessaloniki, now in Greece but then part of the Ottoman Empire. The organisation was driven by Slavic nationalism, and later acquired a reputation for ferocious attacks, including the 1934 assassination of Alexander I of Yugoslavia during a state visit to France. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Aleksandar I Karađorđević King Alexander I of Yugoslavia also called King Alexander Unificator (Serbian Kralj Aleksandar I Karađorđević, in Cyrillic Краљ Александар I Карађорђевић) (Cetinje, Montenegro, 16 December 1888 – Marseille, France, 9 October 1934) of the Royal House of Karađorđević was the first king of the Kingdom...


The Fenians/IRA, the Hunchaks and Dashnaks, and the IMRO may be considered the prototype of all 'nationalist terrorism', and equally illustrate the (itself controversial) expression that "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter". At least one of these groups achieved its goals: an independent Ireland came into being. So did an independent Macedonia, but the original IMRO probably contributed little to this outcome. The territories of today's Armenia, however, are all in the former Russian empire. Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ...


Twentieth century

Today, modern weapons technology has made it possible for a "super-empowered angry man" (Thomas Friedman) to cause a large amount of destruction by himself or with only a few conspirators. It can be, and has been, conducted by small as well as large organizations. Thomas L. Friedman Thomas L. Friedman (born July 20, 1953) is an American journalist, columnist and author, currently working as an Op-Ed contributor to the New York Times. ...


Some people considered at some point in their lives to be terrorists, or supporters of terrorism, have gone on to become dedicated peace activists (Uri Avnery), respected statesmen (Yitzhak Shamir) or even Nobel Peace Prize laureates (Nelson Mandela, Yasser Arafat). Though in some instances, the label of terrorist may not follow the standard sense which requires the targeting of non-combatants. Uri Avnery (Hebrew: אורי אבנרי), born September 10, 1923 in Beckum (Westphalia, Germany) as Helmut Ostermann, is an Israeli journalist and controversial peace activist. ... (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... The Nobel Peace Prize Medal featuring a portrait of Alfred Nobel Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela OM, CC, AC, QC (IPA: ) (born July 18, 1918) was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections. ... Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات‎) August 24 or August 4, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born in Cairo, Egypt or Jerusalem (sources vary), Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني) and also known by the kunya Abu `Ammar (أبو عمّار), was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004); President of the Palestinian...


Since 1968, the U.S. State Department has tallied deaths due to terrorism. In 1985, it counted 816 deaths, the highest annual toll until then. The deaths decreased since the late 1980s, then rose to 3,295 in 2001, mainly as a result of the September 11, 2001 attacks, which took about 3 thousand lives. In 2003, more than 1,000 people died as a result of terrorist acts. Many of these deaths resulted from suicide bombings in Chechnya, Iraq, India and Israel. It does not tally victims of state terrorism. The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The explosion resulting from the crashing of United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water Ranked 80th - 15,300 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 49th - est. ...


Terrorists date back to 1930's when the Ku Klux Klan were around. Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...


Data from the MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base showed a similar decline since the 1980s, especially in Western Europe. On the other hand, Asia experienced an increase in international terrorist attacks. Other regions experienced less consistent patterns over time. From 1991 to 2003, there was a consistent increase in the number of casualties from international terrorist attacks in Asia, but few other consistent trends in casualties from international terrorist attacks. Three different regions had, in three different years, a few attacks with a large number of casualties. Statistically, distribution of the severity of terrorist attacks follows a power law ([6]), much like that for wars and also natural disasters like earthquakes, floods and forest fires. The National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) is a non-profit organization founded in response to the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. ... See Also: Watt In physics, a power law relationship between two scalar quantities x and y is any such that the relationship can be written as where a (the constant of proportionality) and k (the exponent of the power law) are constants. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from and is powered by the sudden release of stored energy that radiates seismic waves. ... Look up flood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ...


Examples of major incidents

For more details on this topic, see List of terrorist incidents.
"International Terrorist Incidents, 2000" by the US Department of State
"International Terrorist Incidents, 2000" by the US Department of State

The U.S. State Department describes the following incidents as domestic and international terrorism: the Munich Massacre of Israeli Olympic athletes in 1972; the October 1984 bombing in Brighton, England, by the PIRA in an unsuccessful but lethal attempt to kill then-Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher; the June 1985 bombing of Air India Flight 182 originating from Canada; the destruction of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland on December 21, 1988; the 1993 Mumbai bombings; the Oklahoma City bombing by Timothy McVeigh on April 19, 1995; the Centennial Olympic Park bombing in 1996; the US embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania on August 7, 1998; the Omagh bombing in Northern Ireland (August 15, 1998); the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York, and Washington D.C.[42] [43]  ; the 2001 Indian Parliament attack on December 13, 2001; the Passover Massacre on March 27, 2002 in Netanya, Israel; the Moscow theatre siege and the Beslan school siege in Russia; the Bali bombing in October 2002; the March 11, 2004 attacks in Madrid; the July 7, 2005 bombings in London; the second Bali bombing on October 1, 2005; and the Mumbai train bombings on 11 July 2006. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Download high resolution version (1151x720, 59 KB)Appendix F: International Terrorist Incidents, 2000 Patterns of Global Terrorism - 2000 Released by the Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism found at http://www. ... Download high resolution version (1151x720, 59 KB)Appendix F: International Terrorist Incidents, 2000 Patterns of Global Terrorism - 2000 Released by the Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism found at http://www. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... One of the Black September terrorists on the balcony of the Israeli team quarters at the Olympic village The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist organization Black September, a group... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Grand Hotel, Brighton, 2004 The Brighton hotel bombing was the bombing by the Provisional IRA of the Grand Hotel in Brighton in the early morning of October 12, 1984. ... This article is about the English city; for other places called Brighton, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... Air India Flight 182 was a Boeing 747 that exploded on June 23, 1985 while at an altitude of 31,000 feet (9500 m) above the Atlantic Ocean, south of Ireland; all 329 on board were killed, of whom eighty two were children and 280 were Canadian citizens. ... Pan Am Flight 103 was Pan American World Airways third daily scheduled transatlantic flight from Londons Heathrow International Airport to New Yorks John F. Kennedy International Airport. ... Lockerbie (Gd: Logarbaidh) is a town located in the Dumfries and Galloway region of south-western Scotland. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1993 Mumbai bombings were a series of 13 bomb explosions that took place in Mumbai (Bombay), India on March 12, 1993. ... Damage to the Murrah building before cleanup began. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shrapnel mark on Olympic Park sculpture. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The Omagh bombing was a car bomb attack carried out by the Real IRA on August 15, 1998, against civilians in Omagh, Northern Ireland. ... Motto: (French for God and my right)2 Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (De facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (De facto), Irish, Ulster Scots 3 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Office suspended... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The explosion resulting from the crashing of United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The 2001 Indian Parliament attack was a high-profile attack by Kashmiri terrorists against the building housing the Parliament of India in New Delhi. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The Netanya suicide attack (also known as the Netanya bombing and the Passover massacre) was a Palestinian suicide bombing in Park Hotel at Netanya on March 27, 2002. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Netanya (Hebrew: נתניה) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Moscow theater hostage takers The Moscow theatre hostage crisis was the seizure on October 23, 2002 of a crowded Moscow theatre by armed Chechen men and women who claimed allegiance to the separatist movement in Chechnya. ... The Republic of North Ossetia in Russia The Beslan school hostage crisis (also referred to by the media as the Beslan school siege) began when armed multinational terrorists took hundreds of schoolchildren and adults hostage on September 1, 2004 at School Number One in the Russian town of Beslan in... The Bali Bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the town of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali, killing 202 people and injuring a further 209. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2004 Madrid train bombings were a series of coordinated bombings against the commuter train system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004, which killed 192 people and wounded 2,050. ... Location Location of Madrid in Europe Coordinates : 40° 23’N , 3°43′0″W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Villa de Madrid (Spanish) Spanish name Villa de Madrid Founded 9th century Postal code 28001-28080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 91 (Villa de... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom. ... Wikinews has news related to: Fatal explosions hit Bali The 2005 Bali bombings were a series of explosions that occurred on October 1, 2005, in Bali, Indonesia. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mumbai (IPA: ,Marathi: मुंबई), formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, and the most populous city of India, with an estimated population of about 13 million (as of 2006)[1]. Mumbai is located on Salsette Island, off the west coast of Maharashtra. ... Map showing the Western line and blast locations. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to definitions of terrorism which focus on the killing of innocents and the intention of affecting morale, there could be examples of state terrorism such as the bombings of London by the Luftwaffe, of Berlin and especially the bombing of Dresden by the Royal Air Force, or the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings by the United States Air Force (the main difference being that under the Laws of Armed Conflict, a formal declaration of war had been made for each of the WWII incidents). The word terrorism has been defined in many different ways by many different sources, and is therefore a controversial term without a simple agreed meaning. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or (German: air force, literally Air Arm or Air Weapon, IPA: [luftvafÉ™]) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ... The bombing of Dresden led by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and involving the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945 remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. Historian Frederick Taylor says: The destruction of Dresden has an... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerospace branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... International humanitarian law (IHL), also known as the law of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus comprised of the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ...


The deadliest events described as terrorism and not known to have been sponsored by a state were the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York, the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and Somerset County, Pennsylvania with a death toll of around 3000. The explosion resulting from the crashing of United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower. ... WTC redirects here. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located at 48 N. Rotary Road, Arlington, Virginia 22211 (Map). ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ... Somerset County is a county located in the state of Pennsylvania. ...


Some terrorist attacks or plots were designed to kill thousands of people, but either failed or fell short. Such plans include the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, Operation Bojinka, and possibly the 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot. The World Trade Center bombing was the February 26, 1993 attack in the garage of the New York City World Trade Center. ... Operation Bojinka (also known as Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: بجنكة – slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995, and was a precursor to the September... According to British and American authorities, the 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot was a terrorist plot to detonate liquid explosives carried on board several airliners travelling from the United Kingdom to the United States. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Terrorism. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.
  2. ^ Terrorism. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.
  3. ^ Dr. Jeffrey Record, Bounding the Global War on Terrorism(PDF)
  4. ^ Ali Khan, A LEGAL THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM Published in 19 Connecticut Law Review 945-972(1987)
  5. ^ In a comentary issued by the UN it states that The second part of the report [titled "Larger Freedom." by Kofi Annan, Secretary General, United Nations at the Security Council Meeting on 17 March, 2005], entitled "Freedom from Fear backs the definition of terrorism - an issue so divisive agreement on it has long eluded the world community - as any action "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act."
  6. ^ Hoffman, Bruce "Inside Terrorism" Columbia University Press 1998 ISBN 0-231-11468-0. Page 32. See review in The New York TimesInside Terrorism Google cached copy
  7. ^ Sudha Ramachandran Death behind the wheel in Iraq Asian Times, November 12 2004, "Insurgent groups that use suicide attacks therefore do not like their attacks to be described as suicide terrorism. They prefer to use terms like "martyrdom ..."
  8. ^ Alex Perry How Much to Tip the Terrorist? Time Magazine, September 26, 2005. "The Tamil Tigers would dispute that tag, of course. Like other guerrillas and suicide bombers, they prefer the term “freedom fighters.”
  9. ^ TERRORISM: CONCEPTS, CAUSES, AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION George Mason University Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, Printed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, January 2003
  10. ^ Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army Britannica Concise
  11. ^ Dr Chris Clark Malayan Emergency, 16 June 1948, 16 June, 2003
  12. ^ Ronald Reagan, speech to National Conservative Political Action Conference 8 March, 1985. On the Spartacus Educational web site
  13. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/02/20060209-2.html President Discusses Progress in War on Terror to National Guard White House web site February 9, 2006
  14. ^ Theodore P. Seto The Morality of Terrorism Includes a list in the Times published on July 23 1946 which were described as Jewish terrorist actions, including those launched by Irgun which Begin was a leading memeber
  15. ^ BBC News: PROFILES: Menachem Begin BBC website "Under Begin's command, the underground terrorist group Irgun carried out numerous acts of violence."
  16. ^ Eqbal Ahmad "Straight talk on terrorism" Monthly Review, January, 2002. "including Menachem Begin, appearing in "Wanted" posters saying, "Terrorists, reward this much." The highest reward I have seen offered was 100,000 British pounds for the head of Menachem Begin"
  17. ^ NEWS: World: Middle East: Sharon's legacy does not include peace BBC website "Ariel Sharon will be compared to Menachem Begin, another warrior turned statesman, who gave up the Sinai and made peace with Egypt."
  18. ^ Lord Desai Hansard, House of Lords 3 Sept 1998 : Column 72, "However, Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela and Menachem Begin--to give just three examples--were all denounced as terrorists but all proved to be successful political leaders of their countries and good friends of the United Kingdom."
  19. ^ BBC NEWS:World: Americas: UN reforms receive mixed response BBC website "Of all groups active in recent times, the ANC perhaps represents best the traditional dichotomous view of armed struggle. Once regarded by western governments as a terrorist group, it now forms the legitimate, elected government of South Africa, with Nelson Mandela one of the world's genuinely iconic figures."
  20. ^ BBC NEWS: World: Africa: Profile: Nelson Mandela BBC website "Nelson Mandela remains one of the world's most revered statesman"
  21. ^ Quinn v. Robinson (pdf), 783 F2d. 776 (9th Cir. 1986)(PDF), web site of the Syracuse University College of Law
  22. ^ Page 17, NORTHERN IRELAND: TP , T , S 11 (PDF) Queen's University Belfast School of Law
  23. ^ GuardianUnlimited style guide
  24. ^ BBC editorial guidelines on the use of language when reporting terrorism
  25. ^ Boehlert, Eric. 2003. "Terrorism or Hate Crime?" Salon.com, April 17 2003. http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2003/04/17/terrorist_act/
  26. ^ Plous, Scott. 2004. "How Social Science Can Reduce Terrorism". Washington: Vol. 51, Iss. 3; p. B. 9
  27. ^ della Porta, Donatella. 1995. "Left-Wing Teorrorism in Italy". University Park:Pennsylvania State University Press. ch. 4 pp. 105-159.
  28. ^ Boehlert, Eric. 2003. “Terrorism or Hate Crime?” Salon.com, April 17
  29. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark. 2000. Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press. Ch. 7 pp. 125-135
  30. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark. 2000. Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press. Ch 8-10.
  31. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark. 2000. Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press. Ch. 7 pp. 127-128
  32. ^ Pape, Robert A. "The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism," American Political Science Review, 2003. 97 (3): pp. 1-19.
  33. ^ shabad, goldie and francisco jose llera ramo. "Political Violence in a Democratic State," Terrorism in Context. Ed. Martha Crenshaw. University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 1995. pp467.
  34. ^ Sageman, Mark. 2004. "Social Networks and the Jihad". Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Ch. 5 pp. 166-167
  35. ^ Chomsky, Noam: "Internation Terrorism: Image and Reality" in Alexander George (ed.), Western State Terrorism, Routledge, 1991 [1]
  36. ^ Garrison, Arthur. 2004. "Defining Terrorism". Criminal Justice Studies. Vol 17. pp. 259-279
  37. ^ Sageman, Marc. 2004. Social Networks and the Jihad. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Ch. 5 pp. 158-161
  38. ^ Pape, Robert A. 2005. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism.. New York: Random House. Ch. 12 pp. 237-250
  39. ^ a b c d e f Human Rights News (2004): "Human Rights and Counter-Terrorism", in the Briefing to the 60th Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights. online
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h Amnesty International (2005): "Counter-terrorism and criminal law in the EU". online
  41. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press. Ch. 1 pp. 5
  42. ^ During the 9-11 attacks a fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757-222, crashed in a field in southwest Pennsylvania just outside of Shanksville (Somerset County), Pennsylvania, about 150 miles (240 km) northwest of Washington, D.C., at 10:03:11 a.m. local time (14:03:11 UTC), with parts and debris found up to eight miles away. The crash in Pennsylvania is believed to have resulted from the hijackers either deliberately crashing the aircraft or losing control of it as they fought with the passengers. It is also believed that the hijackers intended to crash the plane into the White House, or the Capitol building in Washington, D.C.
  43. ^ The Pentagon Building is actually across the Potomac River in Arlington County, Virginia, but is generally considered to be a part of the greater Washington D.C. area

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See also

An agent provocateur (plural: agents provocateurs) is a person assigned to provoke unrest, violence, debate, or argument by or within a group while acting as a member of the group but covertly representing the interests of another. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The word indoctrination has accumulated negative connotations over the past century. ... Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility or violence towards members of a race, ethnicity, religion, or other sector of society. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... The strategy of tension (Italian: strategia della tensione) is a way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, false flag terrorism actions and even terroristic actions. ... Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Religious violence. ... State-sponsored terrorism (SST) is a political term used to refer to finance and bounties given across international boundaries to terrorist organizations and the families of deceased militants for the purpose of conducting or rewarding attacks on civilians. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • Most Wanted Terrorists- Rewards for Justice
  • The Terrorism Index - Terrorism "scorecard" from Foreign Policy Magazine and the Center for American Progress
  • Noam Chomsky: The New War on Terror
  • RAND Terrorism Experts Guide
  • MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  • Terrorism Research Center - Terrorism research site started in 1996.
  • Terrorism Research - International Terrorism and Security Research
  • Strategic Foresight Group- a think tank known for its roundtables on deconstructing terror
  • Law, Terrorism and Homeland Security. A collection of articles compiled by Greg McNeal, Fellow in Terrorism and Homeland Security at the Institute for Global Security Law and Policy.
  • Israeli Counter Terror at isayeret.com
  • Scale invariance in global terrorism
  • Security NewsLine: Global Terrorism and Counterterrorism www.debriefed.org
  • Nuclear Facilities and Sabotage: Using Morphological Analysis as a Scenario and Strategy Development Laboratory (PDF)
  • C.O.D.E. : Center for the Observation and Deterrence of Extremism
  • The Institute for Counter-Terrorism
  • A reliable and daily updated Open Sources Center that includes a "Terrorism" section. by ISRIA.
  • Paradise Poisoned: Learning About Conflict, Development and Terrorism from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars by John Richardson
  • "The Security Constitution," UCLA Law Review, Vol. 53, No. 29, 2005
  • SourceWatch article on the War on Terror
  • Diplomacy Monitor - Terrorism
  • The Evolution of Terrorism in 2005. A statistical assessment An article by Rik Coolsaet and Teun Van de Voorde, University of Ghent
  • Polish Terrorism Center
  • Jihad Monitor
  • Israel Global Terror desk
  • Commentary Blog on Latest Terrorism Issues

  Results from FactBites:
 
CNN.com - Paige calls NEA 'terrorist organization' - Feb. 23, 2004 (439 words)
Education Secretary Rod Paige called the National Education Association a "terrorist organization" Monday as he argued that the country's largest teachers union often acts at odds with the wishes of rank-and-file teachers regarding school standards and accountability.
Paige later issued a written release saying that statement, made during a conversation with governors, "was an inappropriate choice of words" but reiterated his criticism of the NEA and its Washington lobbyists.
An administration official said the secretary was "clearly joking" but he should not have used the "terrorist" label in taking issue with the NEA -- which is not only the largest teachers union but also a major player in Democratic Party politics.
Terrorism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6629 words)
Those who are accused of being "terrorists" rarely identify themselves as such and, instead, typically use terms that refer to their ideological or ethnic struggle, such as: separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel, jihadi or mujaheddin, or fedayeen or any one of similar-meaning words in a number of languages.
For instance, the FBI asserts that for an act to be considered terrorist, it must be perpetrated by a like-minded group, and not a single individual acting alone.
Terrorists also attack national symbols to show their power and to shake the foundation of the country or society they are opposed to.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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