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Encyclopedia > Terrorism
Victims of Terrorism
Victims of Terrorism [1]

Terrorism is "the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion."[2] There is no internationally agreed definition of terrorism.[3][4] Most common definitions of terrorism include only those acts which are intended to create fear (terror), are perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a lone attack), and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants. Some definitions also include acts of unlawful violence and war. The word terrorist can mean: A terrorist is one who engages in acts of murder, rape or other violent crime, usually against civilians, under the guise of political activism. ... Few words are as politically or emotionally chared States Army|US Army]][1] counted 109 definitions of terrorism that covered a total of 22 different definitional elements. ... The history of terrorism is a history of the various types of terrorism and terrorist individuals and groups. ... International conventions on terrorism set out obligations of states in respect to defining international counter terrorist offences, prosecuting individuals suspected of such offences, extraditing such persons upon request, and providing mutual legal assistance upon request. ... Anti-terrorism legislation designs all types of laws passed in the purported aim of fighting terrorism. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... This article is about the U.S.-led campaign against the spread of terrorism. ... The term Red Terror may refer to: The Russian 1918-1922 Red Terror Spanish Red Terror during the Civil War Red terror (Spain) The 1977-1978 Red Terror in Ethiopia The race horse Red Terror The Red Terror, a figure in the Warhammer 40,000 game. ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... Many organizations that are accused of being a terrorist organization deny using terrorism as a military tactic to achieve their goals, and there is no international consensus on the bureaucratic definition of terrorism. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... Communist terrorism (or Communist terror) is terrorism committed by Communist organizations or Communist states against civilians to achieve political or ideological objectives by creating fear [1] [2][3] After Islamic groups, Communist groups are the largest number of organizations on the U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. ... Eco-terrorism or ecoterrorism is the concept of terrorism conducted for the sake of ecological or environmental causes. ... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Fernando Belaúnde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ... Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state. ... 15:40, 25 January 2007 (UTC)168. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... The Ku Klux Klan with a fiery cross Christian terrorism is a form of militant extremism that attempts to spread fear and terror, to perpetrate ideological goals, through violent attacks against civilian populations. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The definitions of state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism, and state terrorism are controversial. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Agro-terrorism is a controversial neologism used to describe threats by a terrorist act on the food chain. ... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... Environmental terrorism is the unlawful destruction of resources in order to deprive others of its use. ... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Nuclear terrorism denotes the use of nuclear weapons, radiological weapons (dirty bombs), or attacks against local facilities that handle nuclear material with mass destruction in mind. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... The Proxy Bomb (also known as a human bomb) was a tactic used by the Provisional IRA for a short time in 1990s, whereby people were forced to drive car bombs into military targets. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... A terrorist front organization is created to conceal activities or provide logistical or financial support to the illegal activities. ... This article is about acts of terrorism. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1117x661, 153 KB)Appendix F: International Terrorist Incidents, 2001 Patterns of Global Terrorism - 2001 Released by the Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1117x661, 153 KB)Appendix F: International Terrorist Incidents, 2001 Patterns of Global Terrorism - 2001 Released by the Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism http://www. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... Few words are as politically or emotionally chared States Army|US Army]][1] counted 109 definitions of terrorism that covered a total of 22 different definitional elements. ... Non-combatant is a military and legal term describing civilians not engaged in combat. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Terrorism is also a form of unconventional warfare and psychological warfare. The word is politically and emotionally charged,[5] and this greatly compounds the difficulty of providing a precise definition. One 1988 study by the US Army found that over 100 definitions of the word "terrorism" have been used.[6]. A person who practices terrorism is a terrorist. Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Unconventional warfare (abbreviated UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ...


Terrorism has been used by a broad array of political organizations in furthering their objectives; both right-wing and left-wing political parties, nationalistic, and religious groups, revolutionaries and ruling governments.[7] The presence of non-state actors in widespread armed conflict has created controversy regarding the application of the laws of war. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ...


An International Round Table on Constructing Peace, Deconstructing Terror (2004) hosted by Strategic Foresight Group recommended that a distinction should be made between terrorism and acts of terror. While acts of terrorism are criminal acts as per the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 and domestic jurisprudence of almost all countries in the world, terrorism refers to a phenomenon including the actual acts, the perpetrators of acts of terrorism themselves and their motives. There is disagreement on definitions of terrorism. However, there is an intellectual consensus globally, that acts of terrorism should not be accepted under any circumstances. This is reflected in all important conventions including the United Nations counter terrorism strategy, the decisions of the Madrid Conference on terrorism, the Strategic Foresight Group and ALDE Round Tables at the European Parliament. Introduction Strategic Foresight Group (SFG) is a think tank that helps policy makers to anticipate and shape, the future in uncertain times. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 is a counter-terrorism measure adopted September 28, 2001 following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States. ... Anti-terrorism legislation designs all types of laws passed in the purported aim of fighting terrorism. ... For other uses, see Consensus (disambiguation). ... Counter-terrorism or counterterrorism refers to the practices, tactics, techniques, and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...

Contents

Origin of term

See also: State terrorism

The word "terrorism" was first used in reference to the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution.
Few words are as politically or emotionally chared States Army|US Army]][1] counted 109 definitions of terrorism that covered a total of 22 different definitional elements. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... For other uses of terror, see Terror; Great Fear . ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...

"If the basis of a popular government in peacetime is virtue, its basis in a time of revolution is virtue and terror -- virtue, without which terror would be barbaric; and terror, without which virtue would be impotent." [Robespierre, speech in Fr. National Convention, 1794].[8]

A 1988 study by the United States Army found that more than one hundred definitions of the word exist and have been used.[9] In many countries, acts of terrorism are legally distinguished from criminal acts done for other purposes, and "terrorism" is defined by statute; see definition of terrorism for particular definitions. Common principles among legal definitions of terrorism provide an emerging consensus as to meaning and also foster cooperation between law enforcement personnel in different countries. Among these definitions there are several that do not recognize the possibility of legitimate use of violence by civilians against an invader in an occupied country and would, thus label all resistance movements as terrorist groups. Others make a distinction between lawful and unlawful use of violence. Ultimately, the distinction is a political judgment.[10] The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Few words are as politically or emotionally chared States Army|US Army]][1] counted 109 definitions of terrorism that covered a total of 22 different definitional elements. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


In November 2004, a United Nations Security Council report described terrorism as any act "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act." (Note that this report does not constitute international law.)[11] U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) defined terrorism as: “The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.” [12] “Security Council” redirects here. ... Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ...


Key criteria

Official definitions determine counter-terrorism policy and are often developed to serve it. Most government definitions outline the following key criteria: target, objective, motive, perpetrator, and legitimacy or legality of the act. Terrorism is also often recognizable by a following statement from the perpetrators.


Violence – According to Walter Laqueur of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, "the only general characteristic of terrorism generally agreed upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence." However, the criterion of violence alone does not produce a useful definition, as it includes many acts not usually considered terrorism: war, riot, organized crime, or even a simple assault. Property destruction that does not endanger life is not usually considered a violent crime, but some have described property destruction by the Earth Liberation Front and Animal Liberation Front as violence and terrorism; see eco-terrorism. The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a Washington, D.C.-based foreign policy think tank. ... -1... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which the offender uses or threatens violent force upon the victim. ... The Earth Liberation Front (ELF) is the collective name for anonymous and autonomous individuals or groups that, according to the now defunct Earth Liberation Front Press Office, use economic sabotage and guerrilla warfare to stop the exploitation and destruction of the natural environment. ... For other uses of the term ALF, see ALF (disambiguation). ... Eco-terrorism or ecoterrorism is the concept of terrorism conducted for the sake of ecological or environmental causes. ...


Psychological impact and fear – The attack was carried out in such a way as to maximize the severity and length of the psychological impact. Each act of terrorism is a “performance,” devised to have an impact on many large audiences. Terrorists also attack national symbols to show their power and to shake the foundation of the country or society they are opposed to. This may negatively affect a government's legitimacy, while increasing the legitimacy of the given terrorist organization and/or ideology behind a terrorist act.[13] ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ...


Perpetrated for a Political Goal – Something all terrorist attacks have in common is their perpetration for a political purpose. Terrorism is a political tactic, not unlike letter writing or protesting, that is used by activists when they believe no other means will effect the kind of change they desire. The change is desired so badly that failure is seen as a worse outcome than the deaths of civilians. This is often where the interrelationship between terrorism and religion occurs. When a political struggle is integrated into the framework of a religious or "cosmic"[14] struggle, such as over the control of an ancestral homeland or holy site such as Israel and Jerusalem, failing in the political goal (nationalism) becomes equated with spiritual failure, which, for the highly committed, is worse than their own death or the deaths of innocent civilians. Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ...


Deliberate targeting of non-combatants – It is commonly held that the distinctive nature of terrorism lies in its intentional and specific selection of civilians as direct targets. Specifically, the criminal intent is shown when babies, children, mothers, and the elderly are murdered, or injured, and put in harm's way. Much of the time, the victims of terrorism are targeted not because they are threats, but because they are specific "symbols, tools, animals or corrupt beings" that tie into a specific view of the world that the terrorist possess. Their suffering accomplishes the terrorists' goals of instilling fear, getting a message out to an audience, or otherwise accomplishing their often radical religious and political ends.[15] In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ...


Disguise – Terrorists almost invariably pretend to be non-combatants, hide among non-combatants, fight from in the midst of non-combatants, and when they can, strive to mislead and provoke the government soldiers into attacking the wrong people, that the government may be blamed for it. When an enemy is identifiable as a combatant, the word terrorism is rarely used. Mass executions of hostages, as by the Nazi military forces in the Second World War, certainly constituted crimes against humanity but are not commonly called terrorism. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Unlawfulness or illegitimacy – Some official (notably government) definitions of terrorism add a criterion of illegitimacy or unlawfulness[16] to distinguish between actions authorized by a "legitimate" government (and thus "lawful") and those of other actors, including individuals and small groups. Using this criterion, actions that would otherwise qualify as terrorism would not be considered terrorism if they were government sanctioned. For example, firebombing a city, which is designed to affect civilian support for a cause, would not be considered terrorism if it were authorized by a "legitimate" government. This criterion is inherently problematic and is not universally accepted, because: it denies the existence of state terrorism; the same act may or may not be classed as terrorism depending on whether its sponsorship is traced to a "legitimate" government; "legitimacy" and "lawfulness" are subjective, depending on the perspective of one government or another; and it diverges from the historically accepted meaning and origin of the term.[17][18][19][20] For these reasons this criterion is not universally accepted. Most dictionary definitions of the term do not include this criterion. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Pejorative use

The terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" (someone who engages in terrorism) carry a strong negative connotation. These terms are often used as political labels to condemn violence or threat of violence by certain actors as immoral, indiscriminate, or unjustified. Those labeled "terrorists" rarely identify themselves as such, and typically use other euphemistic terms or terms specific to their situation, such as: separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel, jihadi or mujaheddin, or fedayeen, or any similar-meaning word in other languages. Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... For the DC Comics superhero team, see Freedom Fighters (comics). ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... For other uses, see Vigilante (disambiguation). ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rebel (disambiguation) and Rebellion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyun, فدائيون: one who is ready to sacrifice his life, Armenian: ) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ...


This is further complicated by the moral ambiguity that surrounds terrorism. On the question of whether particular terrorist acts, such as murder, can be justified as the lesser evil in a particular circumstance, philosophers have expressed different views: While, according to David Rodin, utilitarian philosophers can in theory conceive of cases in which evil of terrorism is outweighed by important goods that can be achieved in no morally less costly way, in practice utilitarians often universally reject terrorism because it is very dubious that acts of terrorism achieve important goods in a utility efficient manner, or that the "harmful effects of undermining the convention of non-combatant immunity is thought to outweigh the goods that may be achieved by particular acts of terrorism." [21] Among the non-utilitarian philosophers, Michael Walzer argued that terrorism is always morally wrong but at the same time those who engaged in terrorism can be morally justified in one specific case: when "a nation or community faces the extreme threat of complete destruction and the only way it can preserve itself is by intentionally targeting non-combatants, then it is morally entitled to do so." [21] Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ... Image:Mwalzer large. ...


In his book "Inside Terrorism" Bruce Hoffman wrote in Chapter One: Defining Terrorism that

On one point, at least, everyone agrees: terrorism is a pejorative term. It is a word with intrinsically negative connotations that is generally applied to one's enemies and opponents, or to those with whom one disagrees and would otherwise prefer to ignore. 'What is called terrorism,' Brian Jenkins has written, `'thus seems to depend on one's point of view. Use of the term implies a moral judgment; and if one party can successfully attach the label terrorist to its opponent, then it has indirectly persuaded others to adopt its moral viewpoint.' Hence the decision to call someone or label some organization `terrorist' becomes almost unavoidably subjective, depending largely on whether one sympathizes with or opposes the person/group/cause concerned. If one identifies with the victim of the violence, for example, then the act is terrorism. If, however, one identifies with the perpetrator, the violent act is regarded in a more sympathetic, if not positive (or, at the worst, an ambivalent) light; and it is not terrorism.[5]

The pejorative connotations of the word can be summed up in the aphorism, "One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter." This is exemplified when a group that uses irregular military methods is an ally of a State against a mutual enemy, but later falls out with the State and starts to use the same methods against its former ally. During World War II the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army was allied with the British, but during the Malayan Emergency, members of its successor, the Malayan Races Liberation Army, were branded terrorists by the British.[22][23] More recently, Ronald Reagan and others in the American administration frequently called the Afghan Mujahideen freedom fighters during their war against the Soviet Union,[24] yet twenty years later when a new generation of Afghan men are fighting against what they perceive to be a regime installed by foreign powers, their attacks are labelled terrorism by George W. Bush.[25][26] Groups accused of terrorism usually prefer terms that reflect legitimate military or ideological action.[27][28][29] Leading terrorism researcher Professor Martin Rudner, director of the Canadian Centre of Intelligence and Security Studies at Ottawa's Carleton University, defines "terrorist acts" as attacks against civilians for political or other ideological goals, and goes on to say: The word aphorism (literally distinction or definition, from Greek: ) denotes an original thought, spoken or written in a laconic and easily memorable form. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The Malayan Peoples Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) originated from among ethnic Chinese cadres of the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) who became increasingly opposed to Japan due to its invasion of China in 1937. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand British colonies Federation of Malaya Rhodesia Fiji various British East African colonies Malayan Communist Party Malayan Races Liberation Army Commanders Harold Briggs Henry Gurney † Gerald Templer Henry Wells Chin Peng Strength 250,000 Malayan Home Guard troops 40,000 regular Commonwealth personnel 37,000... The Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) was a combatant in the Malayan Emergency, an insurrection and guerrilla war against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article is about the university in Ottawa, Ontario. ...

"There is the famous statement: 'One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter.' But that is grossly misleading. It assesses the validity of the cause when terrorism is an act. One can have a perfectly beautiful cause and yet if one commits terrorist acts, it is terrorism regardless."[30]

Some groups, when involved in a "liberation" struggle, have been called terrorists by the Western governments or media. Later, these same persons, as leaders of the liberated nations, are called statesmen by similar organizations. Two examples of this phenomenon are the Nobel Peace Prize laureates Menachem Begin and Nelson Mandela.[31][32][33][34][35][36][37] The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ...


Sometimes states that are close allies, for reasons of history, culture and politics, can disagree over whether members of a certain organization are terrorists. For example for many years some branches of the United States government refused to label members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as terrorists, while it was using methods against one of the United States' closest allies (Britain) that Britain branded as terrorist attacks. This was highlighted by the Quinn v. Robinson case.[38][39] The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern...


Many times the term "terrorism" and "extremism" are interchangeably used. However, there is a significant difference between the two. Terrorism essentially threat or act of physical violence. Extremism involves using non-physical instruments to mobilise minds to achieve political or ideological ends. For instance, Al Qaeda is involved in terrorism. The Iranian revolution of 1979 is a case of extremism. A global research report An Inclusive World (2007) asserts that extremism poses a more serious threat than terrorism in the decades to come. Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of terrorist organizations founded in 1988[4] by Osama bin Laden and other veteran Afghan Arabs after the Soviet War in... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...


For these and other reasons, media outlets wishing to preserve a reputation for impartiality are extremely careful in their use of the term.[40][41]


Definition in international law

There are several International conventions on terrorism with somewhat different definitions.[42] The United Nations see this lack of agreement as a serious problem.[42] International conventions on terrorism set out obligations of states in respect to defining international counter terrorist offences, prosecuting individuals suspected of such offences, extraditing such persons upon request, and providing mutual legal assistance upon request. ...


Types of terrorism

In the spring of 1975, the Law Enforcement Assistant Administration in the United States formed the National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. One of the five volumes that the committee was entitled Disorders and Terrorism, produced by the Task Force on Disorders and Terrorism under the direction H.H.A. Cooper, Director of the Task Force staff.[43] The Task Force classified terrorism into six categories. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the United States Department of Justice. ...

  • Civil Disorders – A form of collective violence interfering with the peace, security, and normal functioning of the community.
  • Political TerrorismViolent criminal behaviour designed primarily to generate fear in the community, or substantial segment of it, for political purposes.
  • Non-Political Terrorism – Terrorism that is not aimed at political purposes but which exhibits “conscious design to create and maintain high degree of fear for coercive purposes, but the end is individual or collective gain rather than the achievement of a political objective.”
  • Quasi-Terrorism – The activities incidental to the commission of crimes of violence that are similar in form and method to genuine terrorism but which nevertheless lack its essential ingredient. It is not the main purpose of the quasi-terrorists to induce terror in the immediate victim as in the case of genuine terrorism, but the quasi-terrorist uses the modalities and techniques of the genuine terrorist and produces similar consequences and reaction. For example, the fleeing felon who takes hostages is a quasi-terrorist, whose methods are similar to those of the genuine terrorist but whose purposes are quite different.
  • Limited Political Terrorism – Genuine political terrorism is characterized by a revolutionary approach; limited political terrorism refers to “acts of terrorism which are committed for ideological or political motives but which are not part of a concerted campaign to capture control of the State.
  • Official or State Terrorism –"referring to nations whose rule is based upon fear and oppression that reach similar to terrorism or such proportions.” It may also be referred to as Structural Terrorism defined broadly as terrorist acts carried out by governments in pursuit of political objectives, often as part of their foreign policy.

In an analysis prepared for U.S. Intelligence[44] four typologies are mentioned. Civil disorder is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance caused by a group of people. ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Victim was the title of a British film made in 1961, directed by Basil Deardon and starring Dirk Bogarde and Sylvia Simms. ... A felony, in many common law legal systems, is the term for a very serious crime; misdemeanors are considered to be less serious. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ...

  • Nationalist-Separatist
  • Religious Fundamentalist
  • New Religious
  • Social Revolutionary

Politics and terrorism

Terrorism is currently, and has been historically, an important issue in politics around the world. Terrorism can be be both an advantage and a disadvantage, depending on the political climate and the political party in question. Politics has been the most significant issue in various elections in recent history. In the 2008 United States presidential election, Charlie Black, a senior adviser to the US presidential hopeful John McCain said a terrorist attack on American soil would be a "big advantage" to his campaign.[45] The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... Charles R. Black, Jr. ... McCain redirects here. ...


Democracy and domestic terrorism

The relationship between domestic terrorism and democracy is complex. Research shows that such terrorism is most common in nations with intermediate political freedom and that the nations with the least terrorism are the most democratic nations.[46][47][48][49] However, one study suggests that suicide terrorism may be an exception to this general rule. Evidence regarding this particular method of terrorism reveals that every modern suicide campaign has targeted a democracy- a state with a considerable degree of political freedom. The study suggests that concessions awarded to terrorists during the 80s and 90s for suicide attacks increased their frequency.[50]


Some examples of "terrorism" in non-democracies include ETA in Spain under Francisco Franco, the Shining Path in Peru under Alberto Fujimori, the Kurdistan Workers Party when Turkey was ruled by military leaders and the ANC in South Africa. Democracies such as the United States, Israel, and the Philippines also have experienced domestic terrorism. For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: Partido Comunista del Perú), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru that launched the internal conflict in Peru in 1980. ... Alberto Kenya Fujimori (Japanese name: Kenya Fujimori )) (born in Lima, Peru on July 28, 1938) is a Peruvian and Japanese[1] politician who served as President of Peru from July 28, 1990 to November 17, 2000. ... The Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: or PKK, also called KADEK, Kongra-Gel, and KGK[7]) is a militant Kurdish organization founded in the 1970s and led by Abdullah Öcalan until his capture in 1999. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ...


While a democratic nation espousing civil liberties may claim a sense of higher moral ground than other regimes, an act of terrorism within such a state may cause a perceived dilemma: whether to maintain its civil liberties and thus risk being perceived as ineffective in dealing with the problem; or alternatively to restrict its civil liberties and thus risk delegitimizing its claim of supporting civil liberties. This dilemma, some social theorists would conclude, may very well play into the initial plans of the acting terrorist(s); namely, to delegitimize the state.[51]


Perpetrators

Acts of terrorism can be carried out by individuals, groups, or states. According to some definitions, clandestine or semi-clandestine state actors may also carry out terrorist acts outside the framework of a state of war. However, the most common image of terrorism is that it is carried out by small and secretive cells, highly motivated to serve a particular cause and many of the most deadly operations in recent times, such as 9/11, the London underground bombing, and the 2002 Bali bombing were planned and carried out by a close clique, composed of close friends, family members and other strong social networks. These groups benefited from the free flow of information and efficient Telecommunications to succeed where others had failed. [52] Over the years, many people have attempted to come up with a terrorist profile to attempt to explain these individuals' actions through their psychology and social circumstances. Others, like Roderick Hindery, have sought to discern profiles in the propaganda tactics used by terrorists. A covert cell structure is a method for organizing undercover or unconventional fighters against a large and well-established organization. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... The 2002 Bali bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Terrorism. ...


Terrorist groups

Many organizations that are accused of being a terrorist organization deny using terrorism as a military tactic to achieve their goals, and there is no international consensus on the bureaucratic definition of terrorism. ... This article is about acts of terrorism. ...

State sponsors

A state can sponsor terrorism by funding or harboring a terrorist organization. Opinions as to which acts of violence by states consist of state-sponsored terrorism or not vary widely. When states provide funding for groups considered by some to be terrorist, they rarely acknowledge them as such. The definitions of state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism, and state terrorism are controversial. ...


State terrorism

Main article: State terrorism

The concept of state terrorism is controversial [53]. Military actions by states during war are usually not considered terrorism, even when they involve significant civilian casualties. The Chairman of the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee has stated that the Committee was conscious of the 12 international Conventions on the subject, and none of them referred to State terrorism, which was not an international legal concept. If States abused their power, they should be judged against international conventions dealing with war crimes, international human rights and international humanitarian law.[4] Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan has said that it is "time to set aside debates on so-called 'state terrorism'. The use of force by states is already thoroughly regulated under international law"[54] However, he also made clear that, "...regardless of the differences between governments on the question of definition of terrorism, what is clear and what we can all agree on is any deliberate attack on innocent civilians, regardless of one's cause, is unacceptable and fits into the definition of terrorism."[55] This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... -1... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... International humanitarian law (IHL), also known as the law of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus comprised of the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law. ... UN redirects here. ... A number of international organizations and other bodies use the title secretary general or secretary-general for their chief administrative officer. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... The use of force by states is controlled by both customary international law and by treaty law. ...


State terrorism has been used to refer to terrorist acts by governmental agents or forces. This involve the use of state resources employed by a state's foreign policies, such as the using its military to directly perform acts of considered to be state terrorism. Professor of Political Science, Michael Stohl cites the examples that include Germany’s bombing of London and the U.S. atomic destruction of Hiroshima during World War II. He argues that “the use of terror tactics is common in international relations and the state has been and remains a more likely employer of terrorism within the international system than insurgents." They also cite the First strike option as an example of the "terror of coercive dipolomacy" as a form of this, which holds the world "hostage,' with the implied threat of using nuclear weapons in "crisis management." They argue that the institutionalized form of terrorism has occurred as a result of changes that took place following World War ll. In this analysis, state terrorism exhibited as a form of foreign policy was shaped by the presence and use of weapons of mass destruction, and that the legitimizing of such violent behavior led to an increasingly accepted form of this state behavior. (Michael Stohl, “The Superpowers and International Terror” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Atlanta, March 27-April 1, 1984;"Terrible beyond Endurance? The Foreign Policy of State Terrorism." 1988;The State as Terrorist: The Dynamics of Governmental Violence and Repression, 1984 P49). For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... In nuclear strategy, first strike capability is a countrys ability to defeat another nuclear power by destroying its arsenal to the point where the attacking country can survive the weakened retaliation. ...


State terrorism is has also been used to describe peace time actions by governmental agents or forces, such as the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 flight. The concept is also used to describe political repressions by governments against their own civilian population with the purpose to incite fear. For example, taking and executing civilian hostages or extrjuducial elimination campaigns are commonly considered "terror" or terrorism, for example during Red Terror or Great Terror [45]. Such actions are often also described as democide which has been argued to be equivalent to state terrorism[56] Empirical studies on this have found that democracies have little democide.[57][58] PA 103 redirects here. ... Political repression is the oppression or persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of society. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ... Extrajudicial execution and extrajudicial punishment are terms to describe death sentences and other types of punishment, respectively, executed without prior proper judicial procedure. ... For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ... The Reign of Terror (June 1793 - July 1794) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ... Democide is a term coined by political scientist R. J. Rummel for the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder. Rummel created the term as an extended concept to include forms of government murder that are not covered by the legal definition...


Tactics

Main article: Tactics of terrorism

Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common when direct conventional warfare either cannot be (due to differentials in available forces) or is not being used to resolve the underlying conflict. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ... Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation. ...


The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include: For other uses, see Conflict (disambiguation). ...

  • Secession of a territory to form a new sovereign state
  • Dominance of territory or resources by various ethnic groups
  • Imposition of a particular form of government, such as democracy, theocracy, or anarchy
  • Economic deprivation of a population
  • Opposition to a domestic government or occupying army

Terrorist attacks are often targeted to maximize fear and publicity. They usually use explosives or poison, but there is also concern about terrorist attacks using weapons of mass destruction. Terrorist organizations usually methodically plan attacks in advance, and may train participants, plant "undercover" agents, and raise money from supporters or through organized crime. Communication may occur through modern telecommunications, or through old-fashioned methods such as couriers. For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anarchy (disambiguation). ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... For other uses, see Courier (disambiguation). ...


Causes

Many opinions exist concerning the causes of terrorism.[59][60] They range from demographic to socioeconomic to political factors. Demographic factors may include congestion and high growth rates. Socioeconomic factors may include poverty, unemployment, and land tenure problems. Political factors may include disenfranchisement, ethnic conflict, religious conflict, territorial conflict, access to resources, or even revenge. A demographic or demographic profile is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment. ... Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... Disenfranchising refers to the removal of the ability to vote from a person or group of people. ... An ethnic war is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ...

Those who make peaceful change impossible make violent revolution inevitable

John F Kennedy[61] JFK redirects here. ...

Factors that May Contribute to Terrorism

In some cases, the rationale for a terrorist attack may be uncertain (as in the many attacks for which no group or individual claims responsibility) or unrelated to any large-scale social conflict (such as the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway by Aum Shinrikyo). Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ... An ethnic war is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – AD 2000. ... A wanted poster in Japan. ... Aum Shinrikyo, now known as Aleph, is a Japanese new religious movement organization. ...


A global research report An Inclusive World prepared by an international team of researchers from all continents has analysed causes of present day terrorism. It has reached the conclusions that terrorism all over the world functions like an economic market. There is demand for terrorists placed by greed or grievances. Supply is driven by relative deprivation resulting in triple deficits - developmental deficit, democratic deficit and dignity deficit. Acts of terrorism take place at the point of intersection between supply and demand. Those placing the demand use religion and other denominators as vehicles to establish links with those on the supply side. This pattern can be observed in all situations ranging from Colombia to Colombo and the Philippines to the Palestine. Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Terrorism refers to the use of violence for the purpose of achieving a political, religious, or ideological goal. ... For other uses, see Greed (disambiguation). ... Look up supply in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about budget deficits. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: , District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


Responses to terrorism

Indian Army personnel take guard during a stand-off with Islamic terrorists in Srinagar, India.

Responses to terrorism are broad in scope. They can include re-alignments of the political spectrum and reassessments of fundamental values. The term counter-terrorism has a narrower connotation, implying that it is directed at terrorist actors. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Counter-terrorism. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... For other uses, see Srinagar (disambiguation). ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... A value system refers to the order and priority an individual or society grants to ethical and ideological values. ...


Specific types of responses include:

  • Targeted laws, criminal procedures, deportations, and enhanced police powers
  • Target hardening, such as locking doors or adding traffic barriers
  • Pre-emptive or reactive military action
  • Increased intelligence and surveillance activities
  • Pre-emptive humanitarian activities
  • More permissive interrogation and detention policies
  • Official acceptance of torture as a valid tool

Mass media

Media exposure may be a primary goal of those carrying out terrorism, to expose issues that would otherwise be ignored by the media. Some consider this to be manipulation and exploitation of the media.[62] Others consider terrorism itself to be a symptom of a highly controlled mass media, which does not otherwise give voice to alternative viewpoints, a view expressed by Paul Watson who has stated that controlled media is responsible for terrorism, because "you cannot get your information across any other way". Paul Watson's organization Sea Shepherd has itself been branded "eco-terrorist", although it claims to have not caused any casualties. Paul Watson (born December 2, 1950) is the founder of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society and is a significant, albeit controversial, figure in the environmental movement and the movement for animal rights. ... Sea Shepherd flag flying on the RV Farley Mowat. ... The term eco-terrorism is a neologism which has been used to describe acts of violence (as in violence against property), sabotage and/or property damage which are ostensibly motivated by concern for the natural environment. ...


The mass media will often censor organizations involved in terrorism (through self-restraint or regulation) to discourage further terrorism. However, this may encourage organisations to perform more extreme acts of terrorism to be shown in the mass media.

There is always a point at which the terrorist ceases to manipulate the media gestalt. A point at which the violence may well escalate, but beyond which the terrorist has become symptomatic of the media gestalt itself. Terrorism as we ordinarily understand it is innately media-related. Look up gestalt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

—Novelist William Gibson[63] For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ...

The Weather Underground was a militant US organization which, while causing no casualties, performed terrorist acts to bring media attention to various world political issues. Many of the issues were given brief mentions by news services only in relation to the terrorist acts. For other uses, see Weatherman (disambiguation). ...


History

Main article: History of terrorism

The modern English term "terrorism" dates back to 1795 when it was used to describe the actions of the Jacobin Club in their rule of post-Revolutionary France, the so-called "Reign of Terror". The history of terrorism is a history of the various types of terrorism and terrorist individuals and groups. ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses of terror, see Terror; Great Fear . ...


See also

An agent provocateur (plural: agents provocateurs) is a person assigned to provoke unrest, violence, debate, or argument by or within a group while acting as a member of the group but covertly representing the interests of another. ... Colombian Armed Conflict or Colombian Civil War are terms that are employed to refer to the current low intensity conflict in Colombia that has existed since approximately 1964 or 1966, which was when the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and later the National Liberation Army (ELN) were founded and... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... The term destructive cult (sometimes called doomsday cult) is sometimes used to refer to that small number of religious groups that have intentionally killed people, either the group members themselves or others outside of the group. ... False colors redirects here. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility, or violence towards members of a race, ethnicity, religion, gender or other designated sector of society, or that supports and publishes assertions and argumentation characteristic of hate groups without necessarily explicitly advocating such hate or violence that... Hirabah is the Arabic word for “piracy”, or “unlawful warfare”. Hirabah comes from the root hariba, which means “to become angry and enraged”. The noun harb (pl. ... Indoctrination is the process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of terrorist organizations. ... Nuclear weapons materials on the black market is a growing global concern,[1] and a nuclear 9/11 could involve the detonation of a small, crude nuclear weapon by a terrorist group, in a major U.S. city, with significant loss of life and property. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... A strategy of tension (Italian: ) is a way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, as well as false flag terrorist actions (including bombings). ... The ten threats identified by the High Level Threat Panel of the United Nations are: Poverty Infectuous Disease Environmental degradation Inter-State War Civil War Genocide Other Atrocities (e. ... UN redirects here. ... Terror bombing is a strategy of deliberately bombing and/or strafing civilian targets in order to break the morale of the enemy, make its civilian population panic, bend the enemys political leadership to the attackers will, or to punish an enemy. ... Terrorism insurance is insurance purchased by property owners to cover their potential losses and liabilities that might occur due to terrorist activities. ... http://www. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Unconventional warfare (abbreviated UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... Cyber-terrorism is the leveraging of a targets computers and information technology, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruption. ...

Further reading

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Terrorism
  • Köchler, Hans (ed.), Terrorism and National Liberation. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Question of Terrorism. Frankfurt a. M./Bern/New York: Peter Lang, 1988, ISBN 3-8204-1217-4
  • Köchler, Hans. Manila Lectures 2002. Terrorism and the Quest for a Just World Order. Quezon City (Manila): FSJ Book World, 2002, ISBN 0-9710791-2-9
  • Laqueur, Walter. No End to War - Terrorism in the 21st century, New York, 2003, ISBN 0-8264-1435-4
  • Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner, eds. Terrorism : essential primary sources. Thomson Gale, 2006. ISBN 9781414406213 Library of Congress. Jefferson or Adams Bldg General or Area Studies Reading Rms LC Control Number: 2005024002.
  • Lieberman, David M. Sorting the revolutionary from the terrorist: The delicate application of the "Political Offense" exception in U.S. extradition case, Stanford Law Review, Volume 59, Issue 1, 2006, pp. 181-211
  • Sunga, Lyal S., US Anti-Terrorism Policy and Asia’s Options, in Johannen, Smith and Gomez, (eds.) September 11 & Political Freedoms: Asian Perspectives (Select) (2002) 242-264.
  • Charles Tilly, Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists in Sociological Theory (2004) 22, 5-13 online
  • Christian Buder, "Die Todesstrafe, Tabu und Terror", VDM-Verlag, Saarbrücken, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8364-5163-5

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Dr. Lyal S. Sunga, Senior Lecturer / Director of Research, Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Lund, Sweden, is a specialist on international human rights law, international humanitarian law and international criminal law. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Tilly (born 1929) is a well known sociologist who has written a large number of books on the relationship between politics, economics and society. ...

UN conventions

  • United Nations: Conventions on Terrorism
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: "Conventions against terrorism". Archived from the original on 2007-08-05. "There are 12 major multilateral conventions and protocols related to states' responsibilities for combating terrorism. But many states are not yet party to these legal instruments, or are not yet implementing them."

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a United Nations agency which was founded in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention with the intent to fight drugs and crime on an international level. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

News monitoring websites specializing on articles on terrorism

Papers and articles on global terrorism

The Intelligence & Terrorism Information Center- www.terrorism-info.org.il Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Papers and articles on terrorism and the United States

  • Leonard Peikoff on Terrorism This article was published in the New York Times on October 2, 2001.
  • Ivan Arreguín-Toft, "Tunnel at the End of the Light: A Critique of U.S. Counter-terrorist Grand Strategy,"Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Vol. 15, No. 3 (2002), pp. 549-563.
  • The Terrorism Index - Terrorism "scorecard" from Foreign Policy Magazine and the Center for American Progress
  • The reality show: the Watch, the Fight
  • Most Wanted Terrorists- Rewards for Justice
  • Law, Terrorism and Homeland Security. A collection of articles.
  • "The Security Constitution," UCLA Law Review, Vol. 53, No. 29, 2005
  • The Enemy Within, PBS Frontline October 2006
  • "The Man Turned Away" by Charlotte Buchen and Marlena Telvick, PBS Frontline, October 2006.[66] To his family in Jordan, Raed Mansour al-Banna was a beloved son who wanted to make it in America. To his American friends, he was a sweet guy with a charming smile who loved to party. To the families of the 166 people he killed in Hilla, Iraq, he was a murderer.

Papers and articles on terrorism and Israel

  • Ariel Merari, "Terrorism as a Strategy in Insurgency," Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Winter 1993), pp. 213-251.
  • Israel Global Terror desk
  • Victims of Palestinian Violence and Terrorism since September 2000

Other

  • About the Qassam-sderot media center
  • Essay exploring uses of term in film, novels, and 20th century history
  • Paradise Poisoned: Learning About Conflict, Development and Terrorism from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars by John Richardson
  • Ontologies of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism
  • The Supreme Court of India adopted Alex P. Schmid's definition of terrorism in a 2003 ruling (Madan Singh vs. State of Bihar), "defin[ing] acts of terrorism veritably as 'peacetime equivalents of war crimes.'"[67]
  • Jack Goody What is a terrorist? Published in: journal History and Anthropology, Volume 13, Issue 2 2002 , pages 139 - 142 DOI: 10.1080/0275720022000001219
  • Schmid and Jongman (1988): "Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-)clandestine individual, group, or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal, or political reasons, whereby — in contrast to assassination — the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims are violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. Threat- and violence-based communication processes between terrorist (organization), (imperiled) victims, and main targets are use to manipulate the main target (audience(s), turning it into a target of terror, a target of demands, or a target of attention, depending on whether intimidation, coercion, or propaganda is primarily sought".[68]
  • Staff. U.S. Terrorism in the Americas an Encyclopedia "on violence promoted, supported and carried out by both the U.S. government and its servants in Latin America

Dr. John Richardson serves as Professor of International Development and as Director of the Center for Teaching Excellence at American University in Washington DC. Born in the United States of America on March 12, 1938, he received his AB degree from Dartmouth College and Ph. ... The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... Alex P. Schmid is an internationally renowned Dutch scholar in Terrorism Studies and former Officer-in-Charge of the Terrorism Prevention Branch of the United Nations. ... Jack Goody (born 1918 or 1919) is a British social anthropologist. ... Alex P. Schmid is an internationally renowned Dutch scholar in Terrorism Studies and former Officer-in-Charge of the Terrorism Prevention Branch of the United Nations. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ "International Terrorist Incidents, 2001" by the US Department of State
  2. ^ "Terrorism". Merriam-Webster's Dictionary (1795).
  3. ^ Angus Martyn, The Right of Self-Defence under International Law-the Response to the Terrorist Attacks of 11 September, Australian Law and Bills Digest Group, Parliament of Australia Web Site, 12 February 2002
  4. ^ Thalif Deen. POLITICS: U.N. Member States Struggle to Define Terrorism, Inter Press Service, 25 July 2005
  5. ^ a b Hoffman, Bruce "Inside Terrorism" Columbia University Press 1998 ISBN 0-231-11468-0. Page 32. See review in The New York TimesInside Terrorism
  6. ^ Dr. Jeffrey Record, Bounding the Global War on Terrorism(PDF)
  7. ^ "Terrorism" 3. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.
  8. ^ Harper, Thomas (2001). "Terrorism". Retrieved on 2008-5-11.
  9. ^ Record, Dr. Jeffrey (2003-12-01). "Bounding the Global War on Terrorism" (PDF). Strategic Studies Institute. Retrieved on 2008-07-11.
  10. ^ Khan, Ali (1987). "A Theory of International Terrorism" (PDF). Social Science Research Network. Retrieved on 2008-07-11.
  11. ^ "UN Reform". United Nations (2005-03-21). Archived from the original on 2007-04-27. Retrieved on 2008-07-11. “The second part of the report, entitled "Freedom from Fear backs the definition of terrorism - an issue so divisive agreement on it has long eluded the world community - as any action "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act."”
  12. ^ FM 100-20, Military Operations in Low Intensity Conflict, 5 December 1990; and Joint Pub 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 12 April 2001, as amended through 9 June 2004.
  13. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark (2000). Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press, 125-135. 
  14. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark (2000). Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press. 
  15. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark (2000). Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press, 127-128. 
  16. ^ "Terrorism in the United States 1999" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved on 2008-07-11.
  17. ^ "AskOxford Search Results - terrorist". AskOxford. AskOxford, Retrieved on 2008-07-11. 
  18. ^ Cambridge International Dictionary of English
  19. ^ Dictionary.com
  20. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  21. ^ a b Rodin, David (2006). Terrorism. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge
  22. ^ Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army Britannica Concise
  23. ^ Dr Chris Clark "Malayan Emergency, 16 June 1948". Archived from the original on 2007-06-08., 16 June 2003
  24. ^ Ronald Reagan, speech to National Conservative Political Action Conference 8 March, 1985. On the Spartacus Educational web site
  25. ^ President Meets with Afghan Interim Authority Chairman
  26. ^ President Discusses Progress in War on Terrorism to National Guard White House web site February 9, 2006
  27. ^ Sudha Ramachandran Death behind the wheel in Iraq Asian Times, November 12, 2004, "Insurgent groups that use suicide attacks therefore do not like their attacks to be described as suicide terrorism. They prefer to use terms like "martyrdom ..."
  28. ^ Alex Perry How Much to Tip the Terrorist? Time Magazine, September 26, 2005. "The Tamil Tigers would dispute that tag, of course. Like other guerrillas and suicide bombers, they prefer the term “freedom fighters.”
  29. ^ TERRORISM: CONCEPTS, CAUSES, AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION George Mason University Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, Printed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, January 2003
  30. ^ Humphreys, Adrian. "One official's 'refugee' is another's 'terrorist'", National Post, January 17, 2006.
  31. ^ Theodore P. Seto The Morality of Terrorism Includes a list in the Times published on July 23, 1946 which were described as Jewish terrorist actions, including those launched by Irgun which Begin was a leading member
  32. ^ BBC News: PROFILES: Menachem Begin BBC website "Under Begin's command, the underground terrorist group Irgun carried out numerous acts of violence."
  33. ^ Eqbal Ahmad "Straight talk on terrorism" Monthly Review, January, 2002. "including Menachem Begin, appearing in "Wanted" posters saying, "Terrorists, reward this much." The highest reward I have seen offered was 100,000 British pounds for the head of Menachem Begin"
  34. ^ NEWS: World: Middle East: Sharon's legacy does not include peace[dead links]BBC website "Ariel Sharon will be compared to Menachem Begin, another warrior turned statesman, who gave up the Sinai and made peace with Egypt."
  35. ^ Lord Desai Hansard, House of Lords 3 September 1998 : Column 72, "However, Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela and Menachem Begin — to give just three examples — were all denounced as terrorists but all proved to be successful political leaders of their countries and good friends of the United Kingdom."
  36. ^ BBC NEWS:World: Americas: UN reforms receive mixed response BBC website "Of all groups active in recent times, the ANC perhaps represents best the traditional dichotomous view of armed struggle. Once regarded by western governments as a terrorist group, it now forms the legitimate, elected government of South Africa, with Nelson Mandela one of the world's genuinely iconic figures."
  37. ^ BBC NEWS: World: Africa: Profile: Nelson Mandela BBC website "Nelson Mandela remains one of the world's most revered statesman"
  38. ^ Quinn v. Robinson (pdf), 783 F2d. 776 (9th Cir. 1986)(PDF), web site of the Syracuse University College of Law
  39. ^ Page 17, NORTHERN IRELAND: TP , T , S 11 (PDF) Queen's University Belfast School of Law
  40. ^ "Guardian Unlimited style guide".
  41. ^ "BBC editorial guidelines on the use of language when reporting terrorism".
  42. ^ a b "Definitions of Terrorism". United Nations. Archived from the original on 2007-01-29. Retrieved on 2008-07-11.
  43. ^ Disorders and Terrorism, National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals (Washington D.C.:1976)
  44. ^ Hudson, Rex A. Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why: The 1999 Government Report on Profiling Terrorists, Federal Research Division, The Lyons Press,2002
  45. ^ a b "McCain adviser says terrorist attack would boost campaign", Guardian (2008-06-24). Retrieved on 2008-06-24. 
  46. ^ "Freedom squelches terrorist violence: Harvard Gazette Archives".
  47. ^ "Freedom squelches terrorist violence: Harvard Gazette Archives".
  48. ^ "Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism" (PDF) (2004).
  49. ^ "Unemployment, Inequality and Terrorism: Another Look at the Relationship between Economics and Terrorism" (PDF) (2005).
  50. ^ Pape, Robert A. "The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism," American Political Science Review, 2003. 97 (3): pp. 1-19.
  51. ^ shabad, goldie and francisco jose llera ramo. "Political Violence in a Democratic State," Terrorism in Context. Ed. Martha Crenshaw. University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 1995. pp467.
  52. ^ Sageman, Mark. 2004. "Social Networks and the Jihad". Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Ch. 5 pp. 166-167
  53. ^ Pds Sso
  54. ^ http://newamerica.net/publications/articles/2005/the_legal_debate_is_over_terrorism_is_a_war_crime
  55. ^ Press conference with Kofi Annan & FM Kamal Kharrazi
  56. ^ Kisangani, E. (2007). "The Political Economy Of State Terror". Defence and Peace Economics 18 (5): 405–414. doi:10.1080/10242690701455433. Retrieved on 2008-04-02. 
  57. ^ DEATH BY GOVERNMENT By R.J. Rummel New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1994. Online links: [1][2][3]
  58. ^ No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust?[dead links], Barbara Harff, 2003.
  59. ^ ""Misunderestimating" Terrorism: Alan B. Krueger and David Laitin".
  60. ^ "The Terrorist Enemy: U.S. Department of State".
  61. ^ The Reality Behind the Disinformation and Propaganda of American Wars
  62. ^ The Media and Terrorism: A Reassessment Paul Wilkinson. Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol.9, No.2 (Summer 1997), pp.51-64 Published by Frank Cass, London.
  63. ^ his blog William Gibson's blog, October 31, 2004, retrieved April 26, 2007.
  64. ^ frontline: al qaeda's new front | PBS
  65. ^ frontline: al qaeda's new front: al qaeda today | PBS
  66. ^ FRONTLINE: the enemy within: new reality: the man turned away | PBS
  67. ^ http://www.sacw.net/hrights/judgementjehanabad.doc
  68. ^ "Academic Consensus Definition of "Terrorism," Schmid 1988, United Nations website". Archived from the original on 2007-06-27.. For more detailed information, see: Schmid, Jongman et al. Political terrorism: a new guide to actors, authors, concepts, data bases, theories, and literature. Amsterdam: North Holland, Transaction Books, 1988.[citation needed]
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Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Monthly Review is a socialist magazine published in New York City. ... Syracuse University College of Law (SUCOL), founded in 1895, is a professional school of Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York. ... Queens University Belfast is a university in Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... UN redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... July 11 is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Several newspapers go by the name of Guardian: The Guardian, a British newspaper founded in 1821 as the Manchester Guardian, which took its current title in 1959. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Wilkinson (born 9 May 1937, Harrow, Middlesex) is former Professor of International Relations and former Director of the University of St Andrews Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
terrorismfiles.org : Definition of terrorism (275 words)
terrorism: "...the systematic use of terror or unpredictable violence against governments, publics, or individuals to attain a political objective.
Terrorism is defined in the U.S. by the Code of Federal Regulations as: "..the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives." (28 C.F.R. Section 0.85)
These acts appear to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population, influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion, or affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping.
Terrorism & Terrorists - The Peace FAQ (757 words)
Terrorism is thus distinguished from other types of political violence (guerrilla warfare, civil insurrection, etc.).
Terrorism exploits the relative vulnerability of the civilian 'underbelly' - the tremendous anxiety, and the intense media reaction evoked by attacks against civilian targets.
The proposed definition emphasizes that terrorism is not the result of an accidental injury inflicted on a civilian or a group of civilians who stumbled into an area of violent political activity, but stresses that this is an act purposely directed against civilians.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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