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Encyclopedia > Terror bombing

Terror bombing is a strategy of deliberately bombing and/or strafing civilian targets in order to break the morale of the enemy, make its civilian population panic, bend the enemy's political leadership to the attacker's will, or to "punish" an enemy. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Legal framework

International law in 1945

International law relating to aerial area bombardment before and during World War II rests on the treaties of 1864, 1899, 1907 which constituted the definition of most of the laws of at that time. The most relevant of these treaties are the Hague Conventions of 1907 because they were the last treaties ratified before 1939 which specify the laws of war on aerial bombardment. Of these treaties there are two which have a direct bearing on this issue of bombardment. These are "Laws of War: Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907"[1] and "Laws of War: Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War (Hague IX); October 18, 1907"[2]. It is significant that there is a different treaty which should be invoked for bombardment of land by land (Hague IV) and of land by sea (Hague IX)[3]. Hague IV which reaffirmed and updated Hague II (1899)[4] contains the following clauses: Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law. ...

Article 25: The attack or bombardment of towns, villages, habitations or buildings which are not defended, is prohibited.
Article 26: The Commander of an attacking force, before commencing a bombardment, except in the case of an assault, should do all he can to warn the authorities.
Article 27: In sieges and bombardments all necessary steps should be taken to spare as far as possible edifices devoted to religion, art, science, and charity, hospitals, and places where the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are not used at the same time for military purposes.
The besieged should indicate these buildings or places by some particular and visible signs, which should previously be notified to the assailants.

In 1923, a draft convention promoted by the United States was proposed: The Hague Rules of Air Warfare, December, 1922-February, 1923"[5], There are number of articles which would have directly affected how nations used aerial bombardment and defended against it; these are articles 18, 22 and 24. It was, however, never adopted in legally binding form[6].


In response to a League of Nations declaration against bombardment from the air[7], a draft convention in Amsterdam of 1938[8] would have provided specific definitions of what constituted a "undefended" town, excessive civilian casualties and appropriate warning. This draft convention makes the standard of being undefended quite high - any military units or anti-aircraft within the radius qualifies a town as defended. This convention, like the 1923 draft, was not ratified, nor even close to being ratified, when hostilities broke out in Europe. While the two conventions offer a guideline to what the belligerent powers were considering before the war, neither document was legally binding. The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


After World War II, the judgment of the Nuremberg Trials[9] records the decision that, by 1939, those rules laid down in the 1907 Hague Convention were recognized by all civilized nations, and were regarded as being declaratory of the laws and customs of war. Under this post-war decision, a country did not have to have ratified the 1907 Hague conventions in order to be bound by them[10]. For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...


The legality of the status of area bombardment during World War II rested on the language of 1899 and 1907, from a time before aerial mass bombardment was even possible — language which, despite repeated diplomatic attempts, was not updated in the immediate run-up to the conflict.

In examining these events [aerial area bombardment] in the light of international humanitarian law, it should be borne in mind that during the Second World War there was no agreement, treaty, convention or any other instrument governing the protection of the civilian population or civilian property, as the Conventions then in force dealt only with the protection of the wounded and the sick on the battlefield and in naval warfare, hospital ships, the laws and customs of war and the protection of prisoners of war.[11]

International humanitarian law (IHL), also known as the law of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus comprised of the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law. ...

International law since 1945

In the post-war environment, a series of treaties governing the laws of war were adopted starting in 1949. These Geneva Conventions would come into force, in no small part, because of a general reaction against the practices of the Second World War. The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Original document. ...

  • Protocol I, Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts.
  • Nuclear weapons can be seen as a type of area bombardment weapon and it is not clear that their use is illegal [12].

Protocol I: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

World War I

The first ever aerial bombardment of civilians was during World War I. On January 19, 1915, in which two German Zeppelins dropped 24 fifty-kilogram high-explosive bombs and ineffective three-kilogram incendiaries on Great Yarmouth, Sheringham, King's Lynn, and the surrounding villages. In all, four people were killed, sixteen injured, and monetary damage was estimated at £7,740, although the public and media reaction were out of proportion to the death toll. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Zeppelins are a type of rigid airship pioneered by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century, based in part on an earlier design by aviation pioneer David Schwarz. ... Great Yarmouth, often known to locals simply as Yarmouth, is an English coastal town in the county of Norfolk. ... Sheringham from the mound Sheringham is a seaside town (population 7143[1]) in Norfolk, England, west of Cromer. ... , Kings Lynn is a town and port in Norfolk, England. ...


There were a further nineteen raids in 1915, in which 37 tons of bombs were dropped, killing 181 people and injuring 455. Raids continued in 1916. London was accidentally bombed in May, and, in July, the Kaiser allowed directed raids against urban centres. There were 23 airship raids in 1916 in which 125 tons of ordnance were dropped, killing 293 people and injuring 691. Gradually British air defences improved. In 1917 and 1918 there were only eleven Zeppelin raids against England, and the final raid occurred on August 5, 1918, which resulted in the death of KK Peter Strasser, commander of the German Naval Airship Department. By the end of the war, 51 raids had been undertaken, in which 5,806 bombs were dropped, killing 557 people and injuring 1,358. The Zeppelin raids were complemented by the Gotha bomber, which was the first heavier than air bomber to be used for strategic bombing. It has been argued that the raids were effective far beyond material damage in diverting and hampering wartime production, and diverting twelve squadrons and over 10,000 men to air defences. The calculations which were performed on the number of dead to the weight of bombs dropped would have a profound effect on the attitudes of the British authorities and population in the interwar years, because as bombers became larger it was fully expected that deaths from aerial bombardment would approach those anticipated in the Cold War from the use of nuclear weapons. The fear of aerial attack on such a scale was one of the fundamental driving forces of British appeasement in the 1930s. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Portrait of Peter Strasser in 1914, commander of the Luftschiffer German Airforce Peter Strasser (April 1, 1876 - August 6, 1918) Chief Commander of Germanys Luftschiffer airforce during World War I. He was the main leader of the Zeppelins command and in charge, operating bombing campaigns from 1915 to 1918. ... Gothaer Waggonfabrik (Gotha, GWF) was a German manufacturer of rolling stock established in the late nineteenth century at Warnemünde. ... The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ...


Inter war years

  • Theoretical developments in the use of Aerial Warfare
  • Use of aerial bombardment as part of British colonial policy, Sir Hugh Trenchard. In Iraq, around 1924, the techniques of 'Air Control', as it was called, were developed, which included target marking and locating, as well as formation flying, by the Trenchardian school which included Bomber Harris, Charles Portal and Sid Bufton.
  • Use of aerial bombardment as part of French colonial policy
  • Use of aerial bombardment by Italians in Ethiopia during the Italo-Ethiopian War

* Use of aerial bombardment by Japan in China during the Second Sino-Japanese War(notably, Shanghai, Canton(Guangzhou) and Chungking) General Giulio Douhet (30 May 1869 - 15 February 1930) was an Italian air power theorist. ... For other people with the same name, see Billy Mitchell (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military term. ... Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard (February 3, 1873 - February 10, 1956) was the British Chief of the Air Staff during World War I, and was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... Italian troops fortify a position in Abyssinia Lasting seven months from 1935-1936, the Second Italo-Abyssinian War is often seen as a precursor to World War II and a demonstration of the inefficiency of the League of Nations. ... Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata...


Spanish Civil War

In the 1930s, the Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica both conducted aerial attacks during the Spanish Civil War. The bombing of Guernica was the foremost example, leading to the seminal painting of "Guernica" by the artist Picasso showing all the horror and terror of such attacks. Many other cities were also bombed in this conflict, including Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Sevilla, Zaragoza, Malaga, Bilbao, Alicante, and Valladolid. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Insignia applied with a decal on the tail of the Règia Aeronautica aircraft (reconstruction). ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... Guernica is one of the most famous paintings by Pablo Picasso, depicting the consequences of the bombing of Guernica. ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... The Siege of Madrid was a three year siege of the Spanish capital Madrid, during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ...


World War II

Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki.
Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki.

During attack on Poland in 1939, the Luftwaffe carried out bombing of cities in Poland, including many cities without any military presence. Among the targets were Frampol, Wieluń, and Warsaw. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... The Bombing of Frampol happened during the Polish Defence War of 1939. ... Bombing of WieluÅ„ in World War II refers to the German bomb raid on a Polish city of WieluÅ„ at the outbreak of World War II. On September 1, 1939 at 4. ... The Bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers both to the terror bombing campaign on Warsaw by Luftwaffe during the September Campaign (siege of Warsaw and to the German bombing raids during the Warsaw Uprising. ...


As World War II began in 1939, the president of the United States (then a neutral power), Franklin D. Roosevelt, issued a request to the major belligerents to confine their air raids to military targets.[1] The French and the British agreed to abide by the request which included the provision that "upon the understanding that these same rules of warfare will be scrupulously observed by all of their opponents".[2] Some things which can be neutral are: Neutral country, in politics, a country takes no side in a conflict. ... FDR redirects here. ... For the musical group Provision, see Provision (musical group) For accounting term provision, see Provision (Accounting) ... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ...


The United Kingdom had a policy of using aerial bombing only against military targets and against infrastructure such as ports and railways which were of direct military importance. Whilst it was acknowledged that the aerial bombing of Germany would cause civilian casualties, the British government renounced the deliberate bombing of civilian property, outside combat zones, as a military tactic.[3] Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


On 14 May 1940, German bombers bombed Rotterdam in an effort to support an imminent attack by German ground troops by artillery and aerial bombardment; this has been presented by contemporary Allied propaganda as bombing with the intent to force the city's surrender through terror.[citation needed] May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The city heart of Rotterdam after the bombing, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of the Rotterdams medieval architecture. ...


on May 15, 1940 as a consequence of Rotterdam Blitz the United Kingdom abandoned its policy of using aerial bombing only against military targets and against infrastructure that was of direct military importance. Two days after the Rotterdam Blitz, the RAF was given permission to attack targets in the Ruhr, including oil plants and other civilian industrial targets which aided the German war effort, such as blast furnaces which at night were self-illuminating. The first RAF raid on the interior of Germany took place on the night of 15 May - 16 May.[4] is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Luftwaffe carried out intensive bombing of cities in the United Kingdom, including London and Coventry, in a bombing campaign known in Britain as "the Blitz", from September, 1940, through May, 1941. The goal of this campaign was, after the invasion plan was dropped, to force Great Britain to a peace agreement by lowering the morale of the British population through intensive bombing. Germany continued to bomb the UK throughout the war, culminating in the attacks by V-1 flying bombs and V-2 missiles. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Coventry blitz was a series of bombing raids (blitzes) that took place in the English city of Coventry. ... For other uses, see Blitz. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... German test launch. ...


Also in 1941, Germany invaded Yugoslavia after a new government in that nation repudiated its ties with Germany. Hitler ordered the terror bombing of Belgrade specifically to punish Yugoslavia.


In World War II, the British RAF Bomber Command and the USAAF XXI Bomber Command both engaged in the aerial bombing of cities. The most known is the Dresden bombing of February 13-15, 1945, which left the city in ruins and claimed at least 25,000 lives. The RAF Bomber Command did target civilian housing and other civilian infrastructure which was known to cause a large loss of life among civilians, starting from May 1940. It is estimated that raids of Allied air forces on the Third Reich killed between 305,000 and 600,000 civilians of which about 80,000 were children [13]. The primary objective of these attacks was to damage economic infrastructure to seriously weaken the enemy's ability to fight the war, in line with the doctrines of Total war. Senior Allied commanders like Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris and politicians also hoped, in the early years of the war, that the morale of the Axis populations and governments could be so undermined by these tactics that they would sue for peace. However the resilience of Londoners under the Blitz, and the failures of Operation Gomorrah (the bombing of Hamburg) and the Battle of Berlin to break the morale of the Germans, showed that this was unrealistic to all but the most ardent advocates of area bombardment, like Arthur "Bomber" Harris. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Bomber Command badge RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAFs bomber forces. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... Bomber Command is an organizational military unit, generally subordinate to the air force of a country. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Terror bombing. ... The bombing of Dresden, led by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and involving the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. Historian Frederick Taylor says: The destruction of Dresden has an... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet GCB OBE AFC RAF (April 13, 1892 - April 5, 1984), commonly known as Bomber Harris by the press, and often within the RAF as Butcher Harris[1], was commander of RAF Bomber Command and later a Marshal of... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Firestorm in Hamburg Operation Gomorrah was the military codename for a series of air raids conducted by the Royal Air Force on the city of Hamburg beginning in the end of July 1943. ... The term Battle of Berlin is sometimes restricted to the Royal Air Force for a bombing campaign on Berlin and other cities between the night of November 18 1943 and March 1944. ...


Following the February 1945 bombing of Dresden British Prime Minister Winston Churchill stated in a top secret telegram:[5][6] The bombing of Dresden, led by Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. The exact number of casualties is uncertain, but most historians agree... Churchill redirects here. ...

"It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed." "...I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive."

The Germans harboured similar unrealistic hopes for their V1 and V2 rockets. With only conventional warheads and limited to area targeting they did not make any difference to the military outcome. The Nazi government propaganda ministry made much of their use as reprisal weapons (Vergeltungswaffen) on the population of London in response to the Allied strategic bombing campaign waged against German cities. In the Pacific Theater, Japan specifically terror bombed Chinese civilian targets, inflicting massive civilian casualties in the Bombing of Chongqing and various other bombings. The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... For other uses, see V2. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... The Pacific Ocean theater was one of four major theaters of the Pacific War, between 1941 and 1945. ... The Bombing of Chongqing (February 18, 1938 - August 23, 1943) was a Japanese strategic bombing campaign against the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing that lasted 5 1/2 years. ...


The fire-bombing of Tokyo, Kobe, and other targets in Japan is another example. B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... On March 17th, 1945, three hundred and thirty-one American B-29 bombers launched a firebombing attack against the city of Kobe, Japan. ...

The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service bombed Chongqing using incendiary bombs aimed at non-military targets. Other cities were also bombed using similar methods. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service, or more traditionally called the Japanese Army Air Force (陸軍航空本部 Rikugun Kōkū Hombu), was Imperial Japans land-based aviation force. ... The Bombing of Chongqing (February 18, 1938 - August 23, 1943) was a Japanese strategic bombing campaign against the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing that lasted 5 1/2 years. ... Incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, or white phosphorus. ...


The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, that "most cruel bomb", forced the Japanese Government into "enduring the [unavoidable] and suffering what is unsufferable" and agreeing to unconditional surrender of their armed forces under the terms of the Potsdam Declaration.[7] The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the...


Aerial bombardments since World War II

Recent treaty obligations explicitly make the deliberate targeting of noncombatants a war crime. During the course of both the First Chechen War (1994-1996) and Second Chechen War (1999-present) the Russian Military has implemented the use of carpet bombing across the separatist republic of Chechnya with a devastatingly high cost of civilian casualties most acutely apparent in the capital city of Grozny.[citation needed] With modern precision-guided munitions (or "smart bombs"), fewer casualties are caused among the civilian populations than with area bombing. This was demonstrated in the use of "smart" munitions before the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, when U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld spoke of Shock and Awe bombings that he hoped would lead to an Iraqi surrender without the destruction of large areas of Baghdad. Modern weapons however still cause collateral damage and there is still a high percentage of 'dumb' bombs for example used in Iraq and Afghanistan (around 30% [14][15]). There are instances in all recent conflicts of civilians being killed by airborne munitions, with most bombs missing their targets. [16] In the Kosovo War, NATO intended to bomb military and political targets in Serbia and Montenegro. However, scores of civilians were mistakenly killed in the bombings, leading to international protest. In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen loyalists Republic of Chechnya Chechen rebels Caucasian insurgents and foreign fighters Caucasian Islamists Commanders Vladimir Putin Nikolai Patrushev Akhmad Kadyrov† Ramzan Kadyrov Aslan Maskhadov† Abdul Halim Sadulayev† Doku Umarov Shamil Basayev† Ibn al-Khattab† Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999. ... The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC) (Russian: Transliteration: Vooruzhyónniye síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii) is the military of Russia, established after the break-up of the Soviet Union. ... The phrase carpet bombing refers to the use of large numbers of unguided gravity bombs, often with a high proportion of incendiary bombs, to attempt the complete destruction of a target region, either to destroy personnel and materiel, or as a means to demoralize the enemy (see terror bombing). ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... For other uses of Grozny, see Grozny (disambiguation). ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... Area bombardment is the policy of indiscriminate bombing of an enemys cities, for the purpose of destroying civilian morale. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Shock and awe, technically known as rapid dominance, is a military doctrine based on the use of overwhelming decisive force, dominant battlefield awareness, dominant maneuvers, and spectacular displays of power to paralyze an adversarys perception of the battlefield and destroy its will to fight. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Collateral damage is a U.S. Military term for unintended or incidental damage during a military operation. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


During the Vietnamese War the USAF increasingly resorted to 'box bombing', a form of carpet bombing in which the entire area within 'the box' (usually miles wide) is destroyed by fire.


See also

Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... Original document. ... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ... The London Charter of the International Military Tribunal (usually referred to simply as the London Charter or Nuremberg Charter) was the decree issued on August 8, 1945, that set down the laws and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ...

References

  1. ^ President Franklin D. Roosevelt Appeal against aerial bombardment of civilian populations, 1 September 1939
  2. ^ Taylor References Chapter "Call Me Meier", Page 105
  3. ^ A.C. Grayling, Among the Dead Cities (Bloomsbury 2006), Page 24.
  4. ^ Taylor References Chapter "Call Me Meier", Page 111
  5. ^ British Bombing Strategy in World War Two, Detlef Siebert, 2001-08-01, BBC History, verified 26 February 2005.
  6. ^ Taylor, p. 430.
  7. ^ Speech by Emperor Hirohito accepting the Terms of Surrender
  • Grayling, A. C. (2006). Among the Dead Cities. New York: Walker Publishing Company Inc.. ISBN 0-8027-1471-4. 
  • U.S. Air Force: List of documents and web links relating to the law of armed conflict in air and space operations
  • International Review of the Red Cross no 323, p.347-363 The Law of Air Warfare (1998)
  • Le droit des conflits armés, by Charles Rousseau, Editions Pedone, Paris, (1983)
  • Spaight. James M. "Bombing Vindicated" G. Bles, 1944. ASIN: B0007IVW7K (Spaight was Principal Assistant Secretary of the Air Ministry (U.K)

is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthony Clifford Grayling MA, DPhil (Oxon) FRSA (born 3 April 1949) is a British philosopher and author. ...

Notes

  1. ^  Laws of War : Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907 available from the Avalon Project at the Yale Law School, entered into force: 26 January 1910.
  2. ^  Laws of War: Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War (Hague IX); October 18, 1907, available from the Avalon Project at the Yale Law School,
  3. ^ International Review of the Red Cross no 323 cites: Charles Rousseau, References p. 360. "the analogy between land and aerial bombardment"
  4. ^  Laws of War: Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague II); July 29, 1899, available from the Avalon Project at the Yale Law School, entry into force 1900-09-04
  5. '^  The Hague Rules of Air Warfare, 1922-12 to 1923-02, this convention was never adopted.
  6. ^  Rules concerning the Control of Wireless Telegraphy in Time of War and Air Warfare, from the International Committee of the Red Cross's section on international humanitarian law verified 26 February 2005
  7. ^  Protection of Civilian Populations Against Bombing From the Air in Case of War, Unanimous resolution of the League of Nations Assembly, 30 September 1938, verified 2005-02-26
  8. ^  Draft Convention for the Protection of Civilian Populations Against New Engines of War. Amsterdam, 1938, verified 26 February 2005
  9. ^  "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 1 Charter of the International Military Tribunal", proceedings of the Nuremberg Trials, available from the Avalon Project at the Yale Law School, verified 26 February 2005.
  10. ^  Judgement : The Law Relating to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, available from the Avalon Project at the Yale Law School, verified 26 February 2005.
  11. ^  International Review of the Red Cross no 323, p.347-363 The Law of Air Warfare (1998)
  12. ^  International Court of Justice General List No. 95 Legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons 8 July 1996
  13. ^ German Deaths by Air Bombardment

  Results from FactBites:
 
Strategic bombing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2979 words)
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war.
It is different from the tactical event of strategic bombing, which involves strategic bomber aircraft, cruise missiles, or fighter-bomber aircraft attacking targets determined during the organization of the strategic bombing campaign.
The Bombing of Guernica: the first aerial bombardment in history in which a civilian population was attacked with the apparent intent of producing total destruction.
World Journal of Emergency Surgery | Full text | Terrorist bombing (4263 words)
Bombings and explosions directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror, resulting in death, injury, fear and chaos.
The general types of common explosives used in terror bombing have been discussed elsewhere [8,9], but all explosives produce their detrimental effects through one or more of the following distinct mechanisms of blast injury, each of which is responsible for a different type of injury.
They were analyzed in detail in one particular bombing event where a suicide bomber detonated an 8 to 10 kg charge packed with hundreds of hard steel balls in the centre of a crowded dining hall of a hotel during the ceremonial Passover dinner [5].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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