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Encyclopedia > Terrestrial television

Terrestrial television (also known as over-the-air, OTA or broadcast television) was the traditional method of television broadcast signal delivery prior to the advent of cable and satellite television. Although still in wide use, in some countries and many densely-populated areas it is decreasing in use but in others, digital terrestrial has become popular. It works via radio waves transmitted through open space, usually unencrypted (commonly known as "free-to-air" television). Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Artists impression of a Boeing 601 satellite, as configured for digital television transmission by SES Astra Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ...


Terrestrial television broadcasting dates back to the very beginnings of television as a medium itself with the first long-distance public television broadcast from Washington, D.C., on April 7, 1927. Aside from transmission by high-flying planes moving in a loop using a system developed by Westinghouse called Stratovision, there was virtually no other method of television delivery until the 1950s with the beginnings of cable television, or community antenna television (CATV). The first non-terrestrial method of delivering television signals that in no way depended on a signal originating from a traditional terrestrial source began with the use of communications satellites during the 1960s and 1970s. Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar). ... Westinghouse logo (designed by Paul Rand) The Westinghouse Electric Company, headquartered in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, is an organization founded by George Westinghouse in 1886. ... Stratovision is an airborne television transmission relay system from aircraft flying at high altitudes. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ...

Contents

Europe

In Europe, a planning conference ("ST61") held under the auspices of the International Telecommunications Union in Stockholm in 1961 allocated frequencies the Bands IV and V for the first time for broadcast television use. It also superseded the 1951 Plan (also made in Stockholm) which had first allocated Band II frequencies for FM radio and Band III frequencies for television. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th Century Population (April 2007)  - City 782,885  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...


Following the ST61 conference, UHF frequencies were first used in the UK in 1964 with the introduction of BBC2. In UK, VHF channels were kept on the old 405-line system, while UHF was used solely for 625-line broadcasts (which later used PAL colour). Television broadcasting in the 405-line system continued after the introduction of four analogue programmes in the UHF bands until the last 405-line transmitters were switched off on January 6, 1985. VHF Band III is still used in other countries around Europe for PAL broadcasts, though many have plans to phase it out. 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The 405-line monochrome analogue television broadcasting system was the first electronic television system to be used in regular broadcasting. ... Television encoding systems by nation PAL, short for Phase Alternating Line, is a colour encoding system used in broadcast television systems in large parts of the world. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The success of terrestrial analogue television across Europe varies from country to country. Although each country has rights to a certain number of frequencies by virtue of the ST61 plan, not all of them have been bought into service.


North America

In the United States and most of the rest of North America as well, terrestrial television underwent a revolutionary transformation with the eventual acceptance of the NTSC standard for color television broadcasts in 1953. Later, Europe and the rest of the world either chose between the later PAL and SECAM color television standards, or adopted NTSC. Japan also uses a version of NTSC. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Television encoding systems by nation PAL, short for Phase Alternating Line, is a colour encoding system used in broadcast television systems in large parts of the world. ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ...


In addition to the threat from Cable Television, analog terrestrial television is now also subject to competition from satellite television and distribution of video and film content over the Internet. The technology of digital terrestrial television has been developed as a response to these challenges. The rise of digital terrestrial television, especially HDTV, may mark an end to the decline of broadcast television reception via traditional receiving antennas, which can receive over-the-air HDTV signals. Artists impression of a Boeing 601 satellite, as configured for digital television transmission by SES Astra Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV or DTT) is an implementation of digital technology to provide a greater number of channels and/or better quality of picture and sound using aerial broadcasts to a conventional antenna (or aerial) instead of a satellite dish or cable connection. ... Projection screen in a home theater, displaying a high-definition television image. ... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna or aerial is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. ...


In North America, terrestrial broadcast television operates on TV channels 2 through 6 (VHF-low band, known as band I in Europe), 7 through 13 (VHF-high band, known as band III elsewhere), and 14 through 69 (UHF television band, elsewhere bands IV and V). Channel numbers represent actual frequencies used to broadcast the television signal. Additionally, television translators and boosters can be used to rebroadcast a terrestrial TV signal using an otherwise unused channel to cover areas with marginal reception. A chart showing the North American television bandplan can be found here. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ... Band I is the name of a radio frequency range within the very high frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Band III is the name of a radio frequency range within the very high frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... This article is about the radio frequency. ... In broadcasting, a translator is an FM radio station or a TV station which acts as a full-duplex repeater. ... In North America, terrestrial television is broadcast on designated channels numbered 2 through 69. ...


Digital television

By the mid 1990s, the interest in digital television across Europe was such the CEPT convened the "Chester '97" conference to agree means by which digital television could be inserted into the ST61 frequency plan. Digital television (DTV) is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound by means of digital signals, in contrast to analog signals used by analog (traditional) TV. DTV uses digital modulation data, which is digitally compressed and requires decoding by a specially designed television set, or a... The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) was established on June 26, 1959 as a coordinating body for European state telecommunications and postal organizations. ...


The introduction of digital television in the late 1990s and early years of the 21st century led the ITU to call a Regional Radiocommunications Conference to abrogate the ST61 plan and to put a new plan for digital broadcasting only in its place. A Regional Radiocommunications Conference (RRC) is a meeting held between members of the International Telecommunications Union from one or more ITU Regions, but from the whole world. ...


In December 2005 the EU has decided to cease all analogue television transmissions by the year 2012 and switch all terrestrial television broadcasting to digital (all EU countries have agreed on using DVB-T). The Netherlands completed the transition in December 2006, and some EU member states have decided to complete this switchover as early as 2008 (Sweden) and 2009 (Denmark). Two member states (not specified in the announcement) have expressed concerns that they might not be able to proceed to the switchover by 2012 due to technical limitations, the rest of the EU member states are expected to stop analogue television transmissions by 2012. DVB-T stands for Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. ...


Many countries are developing and evaluating digital terrestrial television systems.


In North America a specification laid out by the ATSC has become the standard for digital terrestrial television. In the United States the FCC has set a final deadline for the switchoff of analog service for February 17, 2009. All television receivers with a 25 inch display or larger must now include a digital tuner. Sets from 13 to 24 inches must include digital tuners by July 1, 2007. In Canada, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), has set August 31, 2011 as the date that over-the-air analog transmission service will cease in most parts of the country except in Northern Canada.[1] [2] The Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) is the group that helped to develop the new digital television standard for the United States, also adopted by Canada, Mexico, and South Korea and being considered by other countries. ... The FCCs official seal. ... An ATSC receiver, often called an ATSC tuner, allows reception of digital television (DTV) signals broadcast over-the-air by TV stations in North America. ... The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... 2011 (MMXI) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

There are several broadcast television systems in use in the world today. ... The lists of television channels are grouped by name, country or language: // List of television channels in Africa List of television stations in Central and Western Asia List of television stations in Eastern and Southern Asia List of television stations in Southeast Asia List of television channels in Europe List... The following tables show the frequencies assigned to broadcast television channels in various regions of the world, along with the ITU letter designator for the system used. ... DVB-T stands for Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. ... Advance Television Systems Committe (ATSC) tuner allows reception of over the air high definition digital television signals in North America and South Korea. ...

References

  1. ^ Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (2007-05-17). The Commission establishes a new approach for Canadian conventional television. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-05-17.
  2. ^ Broadcasting Public Notice CRTC 2007-53 (HTML). Sections 50 to 80. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (2007-05-17). Retrieved on 2007-05-17.

The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ... The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ...

External links

  • TVRadioWorld TV stations directory
  • W9WI.com (Terrestrial repeater and TV hobbyist information)
  • TV Coverage maps and Signal Analysis

  Results from FactBites:
 
Speech of Commissioner Paola Manacorda at the Conference on Digital Terrestrial Television (1811 words)
For this reason the Authority has decided to encourage terrestrial broadcasters to go digital, by envisaging special financial incentives: analogue terrestrial operators that will switch to digital within 36 months from the release of the licence will not pay their annual fee for the use of the terrestrial frequency for a six years period.
This means that a terrestrial broadcaster already collecting 30% of the financial resources of the terrestrial television market is still allowed to operate in the radio business or in the satellite TV business.
Nevertheless the objective and the priorities have clearly been set: Digital Terrestrial Television, to which the government is strongly committed, means technological innovation, development of the new media businesses and connected industries, rational and efficient management of the spectrum.
Digital Terrestrial Television Revolution Put on Hold (595 words)
SCOTTSDALE, Ariz., Dec. 4 /PRNewswire/ -- The outlook for the Digital Terrestrial TV (DTT) set top box (STB) market is not as rosy as once thought, according to In-Stat/MDR (http://www.instat.com).
"DTT broadcasting is the next generation of over-the-airwaves television signal that is expected to replace today's analog terrestrial television service," said Gerry Kaufhold, a Principal Analyst with In-Stat/MDR.
Television networks need to figure out how to migrate their programming and services onto new, digital, platforms, or consumers will just keep their old, analog TV and thwart the DTT revolution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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