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Encyclopedia > Terramare culture
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A simplified map showing the Terramare culture c 1200 BC (blue area). The red area is the central Urnfield culture, and the orange area is the northern Urnfield culture. The purple area is the Lusatian culture, the central blue area is the Knoviz culture. The brown area is the Danubian culture, and the green area is the West European Bronze Age. The yellow area is the Nordic Bronze Age

Terramare or Terramara is the name given by archaeologists to culture mainly of the early bronze age, but stretching back into the later stone age, c 1500-1100 BC. As Mallory puts it, it "takes its name from the black earth, (terremare) residue of settlement mounds which have long served the fertilizing needs of local farmers." (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ... The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300-500 BC) in eastern Germany, most of Poland, parts of Czech Republic and Slovakia (in older articles described also as Czechoslovakia) and parts of Ukraine. ... This is an article about the Danubian Neolithic culture For the River Danube go to Danube River The term Danubian culture was coined by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe for the first agrarian society in central and eastern Europe. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far east as Estonia [1... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ...


This civilization is represented by a number of finds, formerly thought (e. g. by Venturi) to be sepulchral, but really the remains of human habitations, analogous to shell heaps or kitchen middens. They are found chiefly in north Italy, in the valley of the Po, in the vicinity of Modena, Mantua and Parma. A summary of early results as to these mounds was published by Munro (Lake Dwellings) in 1890, but scientific investigation really began only with the excavation of the terramare at Castellazzo di Fontanellato (province of Parma) in 1889. From this and succeeding investigations certain general conclusions have been reached. A fluid passing through smoothly varying constrictions is subject to changes in velocity and pressure, as described by Bernoullis principle. ... A midden, or kitchen midden, is a dump for domestic waste. ... PO or po may stand for: the Po River in Italy Pô, the town in Burkina Faso Pô (département), part of the Napoleonic Empire Po, one of the Teletubbies. ... Location within Italy Modena is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Mantua (in Italian Mantova) is a city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province with the same name. ... Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it. ...


The terramare, in spite of local differences, is of typical form; it is a settlement, trapezoidal in form, built upon piles on dry land protected by an earthwork strengthened on the inside by buttresses, and encircled by a wide moat supplied with running water. They range in size up to 20 hectares (not quite 50 acres). The east and west sides are parallel, and two roads, at right angles divide the settlement into four quarters. Outside are one or two cemeteries. Traces of burning which have been found render it probable that, when the refuse thrown down among the piles had filled the space, the settlement was burned and a new one built upon the remains. The origin of the terramare type is not definitely ascertained. The most probable inference, however, is that these settlements were not built to avoid the danger of inundation, but represent a survival of the ordinary lake dwelling.


The remains discovered may be briefly summarized. Stone objects are few. Of bronze (the chief material) axes, daggers, swords, razors and knives are found, as also minor implements, such as sickles, needles, pins, brooches, etc. There are also objects of bone and wood, besides pottery (both coarse and fine), amber and glass-paste. Small clay figures, chiefly of animals (though human figures are found at Castellazzo), are interesting as being practically the earliest specimens of plastic art found in Italy. Bronze figurine, found at Öland Bronze is the traditional name for a broad range of alloys of copper. ... Firefighter with a fire-axe An axe (also spelt as ax) is a tool with a metal blade that is securely fastened at a 90 degree angle to a handle, usually of wood, while a blade fastened horizontally is called an adze. ... A dagger is essentially a double-edged knife, where the tang is placed along the center line of the blade. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century A sword (from Old English sweord; akin to Old High German swerd lit. ... A razor is an edge tool (primarily, used in shaving). ... Using a sickle A sickle is a curved, hand-held agricultural tool typically used for harvesting grain crops before the advent of modern harvesting machinery. ... The word needle has several meanings: // Sewing Needles used for sewing In sewing, a needle is a long, slender, object with a pointed tip, usually made of metal. ... Pin is a word with multiple meanings: Look up Pin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together. ... Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ... A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is an organic material found as the primary content of the stems of woody plants, especially trees, but also shrubs. ... A man shapes pottery as it turns on a wheel. ... Amber pendants. ... Clay is a generic term for an aggregate of hydrous silicate particles less than 4 μm (micrometres) in diameter. ...


The occupations of the terramare people as compared with their neolithic predecessors may be inferred with comparative certainty. They were, still hunters, but had domesticated animals; they were fairly skilful metallurgists, casting bronze in moulds of stone and clay; they were also agriculturists, cultivating beans, the vine, wheat and flax. Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Moldy cream cheese Molds (British English: moulds) are various fungi that cover surfaces as fluffy mycelium and usually produce masses of asexual, sometimes sexual spores. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... The term vine was originally a term for the plant on which grapes grew, from the word for wine (Greek oinos), for which grapes were grown. ... Species T. boeoticum T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum Linnaeus. ...


According to Prof. W. Ridgeway (Who were the Romans? p. 16; and Early Age of Greece, i. 496) burial was by inhumation: investigation, however, of the cemeteries shows that both inhumation and cremation were practiced, with cremated remains placed in ossuaries; practically no objects were found in the urns. Cremation may have been a later introduction. Categories: Stub ...


Great differences of opinion have arisen as to the origin and ethnographical relations of the terramare folk. Brizio in his Epoca Preistorica advances the theory that they were the original Ibero-Ligurians who at some early period took to erecting pile-dwellings. Why they should have done so is difficult to see. Some of the terremare are clearly not built with a view to avoiding inundation, inasmuch as they stand upon hills. The rampart and the moat are for defence against enemies, not against floods, and as Brizio brings in no new invading people till long after the terramare period, it is difficult to see why the Ibero-Ligurians should have abandoned their unprotected hut-settlements and taken to elaborate fortification. There are other difficulties of a similar character. Hence Pigorini regards the terramare people as an Indo-European lake-dwelling people who invaded the north of Italy in two waves from Central Europe (the Danube valley) in the end of the stone age and the beginning of the bronze age, bringing with them the building tradition whith led them to erect pile dwellings on dry land. These people he calls the Italici, to whom he attributes to the Villanovan culture. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078  m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s Belgrade: 4,000 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500  m³/s Area watershed 817,000  km² Origin  Black Forest... The Villanovan culture and proto-Villanovan culture existed from 1100 BC to 700 BC where the proto-Villanovan culture runs from 1100 BC to 900 BC and Villanovan culture proper from 900 BC to 700 BC. The name Villanovan comes from the fact that the first archaeological finds relating to...


Modern thinking, however, attributes the Villanovan culture essentially to a proto-Etruscan people. It is thought the Terremare culture may be an early manifestation of Italic speaking Indo-Europeans. See: Etruscan civilization Etruscan language Etruscan alphabet Etruscan mythology See also: Tyrrhenian, Lemnian, Pelasgian. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ...


All the evidence is collected by T. E. Peet, The Stone and Bronze Ages in Italy and Sicily (Oxford, 1909), xiv. and xviii., which gives illustrations and references to the more important literature; this work supersedes all previous works on the terramare. Prof. Pigorinis article, '"La pifi antiche civilt dell Italia", in Bullettino di paletnologia italiana, xxix., is classical. See also the works of Montelius, Modestov, and Ridgeway (Early Age of Greece, vol. i.).


Sources

  • James P. Mallory, "Terramare Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (Fitzroy Dearborn, Chicago), 1997.

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclop√¶dia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) represents, in many ways, the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Urnfield - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3022 words)
The brown area is the Danubian culture, the blue area is the Terramare culture and the green area is the West European Bronze Age.
The Urnfield culture grew from the preceding tumulus culture.
The numerous hoards of the Urnfield culture and the existence of fortified settlements (hill forts) were taken as evidence for widespread warfare and upheaval by some scholars.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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