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Encyclopedia > Terrain
Present day Earth altimetry (and bathymetry). Data from the National Geophysical Data Center's TerrainBase Digital Terrain Model.

Terrain, or relief, is the third or vertical dimension of land surface. When relief is described underwater, the term bathymetry is used. Topography has recently become an additional synonym, though in many parts of the world it retains its original more general meaning of description of place. Terrain is a French academic journal of ethnology, social and cultural anthropology (the three terms are not clearly distinguished in France). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixel Image in higher resolution (1617 × 1133 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixel Image in higher resolution (1617 × 1133 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to topography. ... The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provides scientific stewardship, products and services for geophysical data describing the solid earth, marine, and solar-terrestrial environment, as well as earth observations from space. ... An underwater scene just beneath the surface. ... Bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to topography. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ...


Terrain is used as a general term in physical geography, referring to the lie of the land. This is usually expressed in terms of the elevation, slope, and orientation of terrain features. Terrain affects surface water flow and distribution. Over a large area, it can affect weather and climate patterns. True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... Present day Earth altimetry (and bathymetry). ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Look up Slope in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ...

Contents

Importance of terrain

The understanding of terrain is critical for a number of reasons.

  • The terrain of a region largely determines its suitability for human settlement: flatter, alluvial plains tend to be better farming soils than steeper, rockier uplands.
  • Understanding terrain also supports on soil conservation, especially in agriculture. Contour plowing is an established practice enabling sustainable agriculture on sloping land; it is the practice of plowing along lines of equal elevation instead of up and down a slope.
  • Terrain is militarily critical because it determines the ability of armed forces to take and hold areas, and to move troops and material into and through areas. An understanding of terrain is basic to both defensive and offensive strategy.
  • Terrain is important in determining weather patterns. Two areas close to each other geographically may differ radically in precipitation levels or timing because of elevation differences or a "rain shadow" effect.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... River in Madagascar relatively free of sediment load An hydrological transport model is a mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters. ... The US Environment Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. ... Lake Tahoe, headwater sub-basin of the Truckee River watershed The DSSAM Model (Dynamic Stream Simulation and Assessment. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Sheep pasture with macroscale erosion, Australia Soil Conservation is a set of management strategies for prevention of soil being eroded from the earth’s surface or becoming chemically altered by overuse, salinization, acidification, or other chemical soil contamination. ... Elevation contour map A contour line shows elevation. ... The traditional way: a German farmer works the land with a horse and plough. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Pretorian Guards, Roman Soldiers Military has two broad meanings. ... US 1979 and 2002 Reissue Cover Also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... For the TV show, see F Troop. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... For the television series see Rain Shadow. ...

Characteristics of terrain

Land surface may appear fractal, anisotropic and non-periodic. However, the land surface is controlled by the underlying geologic structures and the climate affecting the surface. Land surface can be rather smooth but also very rough and dissected and complex. Areas of land surface that have relatively homogeneous morphometric properties are called landforms. The boundary of the Mandelbrot set is a famous example of a fractal. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit. ...


Geomorphology

Geomorphology is in large part the study of the formation of terrain or topography. Terrain is formed by intersecting processes: Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ...

Tectonic processes such as orogenies cause land to be elevated, and erosional (and weathering) processes cause land to be worn away to lower elevations. This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Old fault exposed by roadcut near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. ... Very tight folds. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... Weathering is the process of breaking down rocks, soils and their mineral through direct contact with the atmosphere. ...


Land surface parameters are quantitative measures of various morphometric properties of a surface. The most common examples are used to derive slope or aspect of a terrain or curvatures at each location. These measures can also be used to derive hydrological parameters that reflect flow/erosion processes. Climatic parameters are based on the modelling of solar radiation or air flow. Generally, morphometrics (from the Greek: morph, meaning shape or form, and metron”, meaning measurement) comprises methods of extracting measurements from shapes. ... Look up Slope in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aspect is a piece of information about a topic, usually on look and appearance. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ...


Land surface objects or landforms are definite physical objects (lines, points, areas) that differ from the surrounding objects. The most typical examples are lines of watersheds, stream patterns, ridges, break-lines, pools, borders of specific landforms etc. A landform comprises a geomorphological unit. ... Main European water divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ... Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria A stream, brook, beck, burn or creek, is a body of water with a detectable current, confined within a bed and banks. ... A ridge is a geological feature that features a continuous elevational crest for some distance. ... The fall line has meanings in both geographical features and the sport of alpine skiing. ... Look up pool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

Look up terrain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Active Worlds Help ~ Terrain (755 words)
Terrain is a complex new feature in Active Worlds 3.3 that allows worlds to have continuous ground objects generated on the fly by the browser.
Terrain can use up to 63 unique textures, each of which can be rotated in one of four directions in each cell.
Terrain for a world can be generated in one of two ways: it can be edited by hand in-world using the browser, or it can be uploaded to the world from some other source (e.g.
UnrealWiki: Terrain (504 words)
Terrain in the Unreal Engine (UT2003 and beyond) is based around creating a large grid of polygons based on a heightmap and centered around a TerrainInfo Actor.
A terrain could be a small area of a map within architecture, such as a sandy courtyard, or the basic world space, such as with a large outdoor level.
The terrain editing is realtime in the editor, you define various layers (as you would in photoshop) and you paint over the terrain with various opacity brushes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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