FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Terraforming" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Terraforming
Artist's conception of a terraformed Mars in four stages of development.
Artist's conception of a terraformed Mars in four stages of development.

The terraforming (literally, "Earth-shaping") of a planet, moon, or other body is the hypothetical process of deliberately modifying its atmosphere, temperature, surface topography or ecology to be similar to those of Earth in order to make it habitable by humans. Shellac (sometimes referred to as Shellac of North America) is an American rock music group comprised of Steve Albini (guitar and vocals), Bob Weston (bass guitar and vocals) and Todd Trainer (drums and vocals). ... Shellac Terraform Track Listing Didnt We Deserve A Look At You The Way You Really Are This Is A Picture Disgrace Mouthpiece Canada Rush Job House Full Of Garbage Copper Artwork Credited to: Courtesy Estate of Chesley Bonestell Space Art Museum Smithsonion Institution Personnel Steve Albini - guitar/vocals Robert S... Knut is a mathcore band from Geneva, Switzerland that formed in 1994. ... Terraformer is the third album by Swiss mathcore band Knut, released in 2005 on Hydra Head Records. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1303x5140, 2615 KB) Side by side images en:User:Ittiz created to show what Mars might look like at various stages while being terraformed in vertical alignment. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1303x5140, 2615 KB) Side by side images en:User:Ittiz created to show what Mars might look like at various stages while being terraformed in vertical alignment. ... This article is about the planet. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... A natural satellite or moon is a celestial body that orbits a planet or smaller body, which is called the primary. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Air redirects here. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ...


The term is sometimes used more generally as a synonym for planetary engineering. The concept of terraforming developed from both science fiction and actual science. The term was probably invented by Jack Williamson in a science-fiction story ("Collision Orbit") published during 1942 in Astounding Science Fiction,[1] but the actual concept pre-dates this work. Olaf Stapledon's Last and First Men (1930)[2] provides a fictional example in which the planet Venus is modified after a long and destructive war with the original inhabitants of the planet. However, in the 1898 book The War of the Worlds, H. G. Wells describes a reverse-terraforming, where aliens change Earth for their own benefit. Planetary engineering is the application of technology for the purpose of influencing the global properties of a planet. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... John Stewart Williamson (April 29, 1908 – November 10, 2006), who wrote as Jack Williamson (and occasionally under the pseudonym Will Stewart) was a U.S. writer considered by many the Dean of Science Fiction. [1] // Williamson spent his early childhood in western Texas. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... William Olaf Stapledon (May 10, 1886 – September 6, 1950) was a British philosopher and author of several influential works of science fiction. ... Last and First Men: A Story of the Near and Far Future is a science fiction novel written in 1930 by the British author Olaf Stapledon. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... The War of the Worlds (1898), by H. G. Wells, is an early science fiction novel (or novella) which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ...


Humans currently do not possess the technological or economic means to terraform another planet or moon. Since space exploration is primitive, terraforming techniques remain speculative at best. Based on experiences with Earth, the environment of a planet can be altered deliberately: however the feasibility of creating an unconstrained planetary biosphere that mimics Earth on another planet has yet to be verified. Mars is considered by many to be the most likely candidate for terraformation. Much study has been done concerning the possibility of heating the planet and altering its atmosphere, and NASA has even hosted debates on the subject. However, a multitude of obstacles stand between the present and an active terraforming effort on Mars or any other world. The long timescales and practicality of terraforming are the subject of debate. Other unanswered questions relate to the ethics, logistics, economics, politics and methodology of altering the environment of an extraterrestrial world. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Meethodology is defined as the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline, the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline or a particular procedure or set of procedures [1]. It should be noted that methodology is...

Contents

History of scholarly study

Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popularizer of science, proposed the planetary engineering of Venus in a 1961 article published in the journal Science titled, "The Planet Venus."[3] Sagan imagined seeding the atmosphere of Venus with algae, which would remove carbon dioxide and reduce the greenhouse effect until surface temperatures dropped to "comfortable" levels. 3 billion years ago, the Earth had a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Blue-green algae and water evaporation changed the earth's atmosphere into oxygen and nitrogen gas. Later discoveries about the conditions on Venus made this particular approach impossible since Venus has too much atmosphere to process and sequester. Even if atmospheric algae could thrive in the hostile and arid environment of Venus' upper atmosphere, any carbon that was fixed in organic form would be liberated as carbon dioxide again as soon as it fell into the hot lower regions. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Ecopoiesis is a neologism created by Robert Haynes. ... Planetary ecosynthesis is defined as the making of a home for life on a planetary scale. ... Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrochemist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... This article is about the planet. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... Cyanobacteria (Greek: cyanos = blue) are a phylum of aquatic bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. ... This article is about the planet. ...


Sagan also visualized making Mars habitable for human life in "Planetary Engineering on Mars," a 1973 article published in the journal Icarus.[4] Three years later, NASA addressed the issue of planetary engineering officially in a study, but used the term planetary ecosynthesis instead.[5] The study concluded that it was possible for Mars to support life and be made into a habitable planet. That same year 1976, one of the researchers, Joel Levine, organized the first conference session on terraforming, which at the time was called "Planetary Modeling." This article is about the planet. ... ICARUS is the official journal of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society. ... Planetary ecosynthesis is defined as the making of a home for life on a planetary scale. ... Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ...


In March 1979, NASA engineer and author James Oberg organized the "First Terraforming Colloquium," a special session on terraforming held at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston. Oberg popularized the terraforming concepts discussed at the colloquium to the general public in his 1981 book, New Earths.[6] It wasn't until 1982 that the word terraforming was used in the title of a published journal article. Planetologist Christopher McKay wrote "Terraforming Mars," a paper for the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society.[7] The paper discussed the prospects of a self-regulating Martian biosphere, and McKay's use of the word has since become the preferred term. During 1984, James Lovelock and Michael Allaby published The Greening of Mars.[8] Lovelock's book was one of the first books to describe a novel method of warming Mars, where chlorofluorocarbons are added to the atmosphere. Motivated by Lovelock's book, biophysicist Robert Haynes worked behind the scenes to promote terraforming, and contributed the word ecopoiesis to its lexicon. James Edward Oberg (b. ... The Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (JBIS) is a technical scientific journal, first published in 1934. ... Dr. James Ephraim Lovelock, CH, CBE, FRS (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, author, researcher, environmentalist, and futurologist who lives in Cornwall, in the south west of Great Britain. ... Robert Hall Haynes (August 27, 1931 - December 22, 1998) was a Canadian geneticist and biophysicist. ... Ecopoiesis is a neologism created by Robert Haynes. ...


Beginning in 1985, Martyn J. Fogg began publishing several articles on terraforming. He also served as editor for a full issue on terraforming for the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society in 1991, and in 1995 published the book Terraforming: Engineering Planetary Environments.[9] Fogg also maintains an active website called The Terraforming Information Pages.[10] This article is about the year. ... Artists conception of a terraformed Mars in three stages of development. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Fogg used the following definitions for different aspects related to terraforming:

  • Planetary Engineering: the application of technology for the purpose of influencing the global properties of a planet.
  • Geoengineering: planetary engineering applied specifically to the Earth. It includes only those macroengineering concepts that deal with the alteration of some global parameter, such as the greenhouse effect, atmospheric composition, insulation or impact flux.
  • Terraforming: a process of planetary engineering, specifically directed at enhancing the capacity of an extraterrestrial planetary environment to support life as we know it. The ultimate in terraforming would be to create an open planetary biosphere emulating all the functions of the biosphere of the Earth, one that would be fully habitable for human beings.
  • Astrophysical Engineering: taken to represent proposed activities, relating to future habitation, that are envisaged to occur on a scale greater than that of "conventional" planetary engineering.

Fogg also devised definitions for candidate planets of varying degrees of human compatibility:

  • Habitable Planet (HP): A world with an environment sufficiently similar to the Earth as to allow comfortable and free human habitation.
  • Biocompatible Planet (BP): A planet possessing the necessary physical parameters for life to flourish on its surface. If initially lifeless, then such a world could host a biosphere of considerable complexity without the need for terraforming.
  • Easily Terraformable Planet (ETP): A planet that might be rendered biocompatible, or possibly habitable, and maintained so by modest planetary engineering techniques and with the limited resources of a starship or robot precursor mission.

Fogg designates Mars as having been a biologically compatible planet in its youth, but not being in any of these three categories in its present state, since it could only be terraformed with relatively greater difficulty. Mars Society founder Robert Zubrin produced a plan for a Mars return mission called Mars Direct that would set up a permanent human presence on Mars and steer efforts towards eventual terraformation.[11] This article is about the planet. ... The Mars Society is an international space advocacy non-profit organization dedicated to encouraging the exploration and settlement of Mars. ... Zubrin giving a talk in 2005. ... Mars Direct is a proposal for a relatively low-cost manned mission to Mars with current rocket technology. ...


The principal reason given to pursue terraforming is the creation of an ecology to support worlds suitable for habitation by humans. However, some researchers believe that space habitats will provide a more economical means for supporting space colonization. If research in nanotechnology and other advanced chemical processes continues apace, it may become feasible to terraform planets in centuries rather than millennia. On the other hand, it may become reasonable to modify humans so that they don't require an oxygen/nitrogen atmosphere in a 1 g gravity field to live comfortably. That would then reduce the need to terraform worlds, or at least the degree to which other worlds' environments would need to be altered. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... A pair of ONeill cylinders Interior of a Torus (doughnut-shaped) station A space habitat, also called space colony or orbital colony, is a space station intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple waystation or other specialized facility. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ... Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices that lie within that size range. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...


Requirements for sustaining terrestrial life

The only absolute requirement for life is an energy source, but the notion of planetary habitability implies that many other geophysical, geochemical, and astrophysical criteria must be met before the surface of an astronomical body is able to support life. Of particular interest is the set of factors that has sustained complex, multicellular animals and not merely unicellular organisms on this planet. Research and theory in this regard is a component of planetary science and the emerging discipline of astrobiology. Not only are there planetary requirements, there are theories as to the type and age of the star.[citation needed] Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ...

Artist's conception of a terraformed Mars. This realistic portrayal is approximately centered on the prime meridian, 30 degrees north latitude. The hypothesized oceans are depicted with sea level at approximately two kilometers below average surface elevation. The ocean submerges what are now Vastitas Borealis, Acidalia Planitia, Chryse Planitia, and Xanthe Terra; the visible landmasses are Tempe Terra at left, Aonia Terra at bottom, Terra Meridiani at lower right, and Arabia Terra at upper right. Rivers that feed the ocean at lower right occupy what are now Valles Marineris and Ares Vallis, while the large lake at lower right occupies what is now Aram Chaos.
Artist's conception of a terraformed Mars. This realistic portrayal is approximately centered on the prime meridian, 30 degrees north latitude. The hypothesized oceans are depicted with sea level at approximately two kilometers below average surface elevation. The ocean submerges what are now Vastitas Borealis, Acidalia Planitia, Chryse Planitia, and Xanthe Terra; the visible landmasses are Tempe Terra at left, Aonia Terra at bottom, Terra Meridiani at lower right, and Arabia Terra at upper right. Rivers that feed the ocean at lower right occupy what are now Valles Marineris and Ares Vallis, while the large lake at lower right occupies what is now Aram Chaos.
Photorealistic conception of a terraformed Mars. In the middle is the hypothesized Mariner Bay, currently part of the Mariner Valleys, up in the extreme north part of the Arctic is the Acidalia Planitia Sea.
Photorealistic conception of a terraformed Mars. In the middle is the hypothesized Mariner Bay, currently part of the Mariner Valleys, up in the extreme north part of the Arctic is the Acidalia Planitia Sea.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4450 × 4450 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4450 × 4450 pixel, file size: 6. ... Location of the Prime Meridian Image:Prime Meridian. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... “km” redirects here. ... Vastitas Borealis is the largest lowland region of Mars. ... Chryse Planitia is a smooth circular plain in the northern equatorial region of Mars close to the Tharsis region. ... Xanthe Terra is a large area on Mars, centered just north of the Martian equator. ... Tempe Terra is an area in the northern hemisphere of Mars and part of the larger Tharsis region. ... Sinus Meridiani is a feature name for an albedo feature on Mars stretching east-west just south of that planets equator. ... Arabia Terra is large upland region in the north of Mars. ... Valles Marineris cuts a wide swath across the face of Mars Valles Marineris (Latin for Mariner Valley, named after the Mariner 9 Mars orbiter of 1971-72 which discovered it. ... Ares Vallis is a valley on Mars which appears to have been carved by fluids, perhaps water. ... Aram Chaos is the circular depression in the top left. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1309 × 1309 pixel, file size: 814 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An image I made of what Mars might look like terraformed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1309 × 1309 pixel, file size: 814 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An image I made of what Mars might look like terraformed. ... Valles Marineris cuts a wide swath across the face of Mars Valles Marineris (Latin for Mariner Valley, named after the Mariner 9 Mars orbiter of 1971-72 which discovered it. ...

Further stages of terraforming

Main article: Ecopoiesis

Once conditions become more suitable to life from Earth, the importation of microbial life could begin.[9] As conditions approach that of Earth, plant life could also be brought in. This would accelerate the production of oxygen, which theoretically would make the planet eventually able to support animal and human life. Ecopoiesis is a neologism created by Robert Haynes. ...


Prospective planets

Mars

Main article: Terraforming of Mars
See also: Colonization of Mars

There is some scientific debate over whether it would even be possible to terraform Mars, or how stable its climate would be once terraformed. It is possible that over geological timescales—tens or hundreds of millions of years—Mars could lose its water and atmosphere again, possibly to the same processes that reduced it to its current state. Indeed, it is thought that Mars once did have a relatively Earth-like environment early in its history, with a thicker atmosphere and abundant water that was lost over the course of hundreds of millions of years. The exact mechanism of this loss is still unclear, though several mechanisms have been proposed. The lack of a magnetosphere surrounding Mars may have allowed the solar wind to erode the atmosphere, the relatively low gravity of Mars helping to accelerate the loss of lighter gases to space. The lack of plate tectonics on Mars is another possibility, preventing the recycling of gases locked up in sediments back into the atmosphere. The core of Mars, which is made mostly of iron, originally held up the magnetic field of Mars. However, once the core cooled down, the magnetic field weakened. The lack of magnetic field and geologic activity may both be a result of Mars' smaller size allowing its interior to cool more quickly than Earth's, though the details of such processes are still unrealized. Re-heating the core of Mars is considered an impractical solution; one only theoretically possible (but still impractical) method would be to hold some sort of giant 'magnifying glass' over the planet to melt it, and possibly re-liquefy the core. However, none of these processes are likely to be significant over the typical lifespan of most animal species, or even on the timescale of human civilization, and the slow loss of atmosphere could possibly be counteracted with ongoing low-level artificial terraforming activities. Terraforming Mars would entail two major interlaced changes: building the atmosphere and heating it. Since a thicker atmosphere of carbon dioxide and/or some other greenhouse gases would trap incoming solar radiation and the raised temperature would put the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, the two processes would augment one another. Fossil fuels are a possible way to increase the temperature on Mars.[12] Artists conception of the process of terraforming Mars Since the origin of the idea of terraforming, or changing a planets environment to produce a world that is habitable by humans, one of the primary subjects of study for potential terraforming has been the planet Mars. ... Mars Mars is the focus of much speculation and serious study about possible human colonization. ... A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object in which phenomena are dominated or organized by its magnetic field. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ...


Venus

Artist's conception of a terraformed Venus.
Artist's conception of a terraformed Venus.
Main article: Terraforming of Venus
See also: Colonization of Venus

Terraforming Venus requires two major changes; removing most of the planet's dense 9 MPa carbon dioxide atmosphere and reducing the planet's 500 °C (770 K) surface temperature. These goals are closely interrelated, since Venus' extreme temperature is due to the greenhouse effect caused by its dense atmosphere. Sequestering the atmospheric carbon would likely solve the temperature problem as well. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 591 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1262 × 1281 pixel, file size: 908 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A conceptual picture I made of Venus if it were terraformed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 591 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1262 × 1281 pixel, file size: 908 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A conceptual picture I made of Venus if it were terraformed. ... This article is about the planet. ... Artists conception of a terraformed Venus. ... Venus The colonization of Venus has been a subject of much speculation and many works of science fiction since before the dawn of spaceflight, and is still much discussed. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ...


Europa (moon)

Europa, a moon of Jupiter, is a potential candidate for terraforming. One of the advantages to Europa is the presence of liquid water which could be extremely helpful for the introduction of complex life.[13] The difficulties are numerous; Europa is in the middle of a huge radiation belt around Jupiter, and a human would die from the radiation within 10 minutes on the surface. This would require the building of massive radiation deflectors, which is currently impractical. Additionally, this satellite is covered in ice and would have to be heated, and there would need to be a supply of oxygen,[14] though this could, at sufficient energy cost, be manufactured in situ by electrolysis of the copious water available. Apparent magnitude: 5. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ...


Other planets and solar system entities

Artist's conception of what the Moon might look like terraformed, as seen from Earth.
Artist's conception of what the Moon might look like terraformed, as seen from Earth.
See also: Colonization of the Moon, Colonization of Mercury, Colonization of the outer solar system, and Colonization of Ceres

Other possible candidates for terraformation include Titan, Mercury, Ganymede, Io, Callisto, Luna, and even the dwarf planet Ceres. Most, however, have too little mass to hold an atmosphere indefinitely (although it is possible, but not certain, that an atmosphere could remain for tens of thousands of years or be replenished as needed). In addition, aside from the Moon, most of these worlds are so far from the Sun that adding sufficient heat would be much more difficult than even Mars would be.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 587 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2193 × 2238 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 587 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2193 × 2238 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Lunar outpost redirects here. ... Mercury Mercury has been suggested as one possible target for space colonization of the inner solar system, along with Mars, Venus, the Moon and the asteroid belt. ... Some of the moons of the outer planets of the solar system are large enough to be suitable places for colonization. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonization of the asteroids. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... This article is about the planet. ... This article is about the natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... There is also an asteroid named 204 Kallisto. ... Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... Spectral type: G[8] Absolute magnitude: 3. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about the planet. ...


Paraterraforming

Also known as the "worldhouse" concept, or domes in smaller versions, paraterraforming involves the construction of a habitable enclosure on a planet which eventually grows to encompass most of the planet's usable area. The enclosure would consist of a transparent roof held one or more kilometers above the surface, pressurized with a breathable atmosphere, and anchored with tension towers and cables at regular intervals. Proponents claim worldhouses can be constructed with technology known since the 1960s. The Biosphere 2 project on Earth proved that it is not quite so simple. Biosphere 2 Biosphere 2 is a 3. ...


Paraterraforming has several advantages over the traditional approach to terraforming. For example, it provides an immediate payback to investors; the worldhouse starts out small in area (a domed city for example), but those areas provide habitable space from the start. The paraterraforming approach also allows for a modular approach that can be tailored to the needs of the planet's population, growing only as fast and only in those areas where it is required. Finally, paraterraforming greatly reduces the amount of atmosphere that one would need to add to planets like Mars in order to provide Earth-like atmospheric pressures. By using a solid envelope in this manner, even bodies which would otherwise be unable to retain an atmosphere at all (such as asteroids) could be given a habitable environment. The environment under an artificial worldhouse roof would also likely be more amenable to artificial manipulation. The domed city is a kind of space habitat that appears repeatedly in science fiction. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ...


It has the disadvantage of requiring a great deal of construction and maintenance activity. The extra cost might be ameliorated to some degree through the use of automated manufacturing and repair mechanisms. A worldhouse might also be more susceptible to catastrophic failure in the event of a major breach, though this risk can likely be reduced by compartmentalization and other active safety precautions. Meteor strikes are a particular concern in the absence of any external atmosphere in which they would burn up before reaching the surface. Photo of a burst of meteors with extended exposure time A meteor is the visible path of a meteoroid that enters the Earths (or another bodys) atmosphere, commonly called a shooting star or falling star. ...


Ethical issues

There is a philosophical debate within biology and ecology as to whether terraforming other worlds is an ethical endeavor. On the pro-terraforming side of the argument, there are those like Robert Zubrin, Martyn J. Fogg, and Richard L. S. Taylor who believe that it is humanity's moral obligation to make other worlds suitable for life, as a continuation of the history of life transforming the environments around it on Earth.[15][16] They also point out that Earth would eventually be destroyed if nature takes its course, so that humanity faces a very long-term choice between terraforming other worlds or allowing all terrestrial life to become extinct. In any case, terraforming totally barren planets, it is asserted, is not morally wrong as it does not affect any other life. Some more cautious thinkers believe terraforming would be an unethical interference in nature, and that given humanity's past treatment of the Earth, other planets may be better off without human interference. Still others strike a middle ground, such as Christopher McKay, who argues that terraforming is ethically sound only once we have completely assured that an alien planet does not harbor life of its own; but that if it does, while we should not try to reshape the planet to our own use, we should engineer the planet's environment to artificially nurture the alien life and help it thrive and co-evolve (or even co-exist with humans).[17] The ethics of terraforming has constituted a philosophical debate within biology, ecology, and environmental ethics as to whether terraforming other worlds is an ethical endeavor. ... Zubrin giving a talk in 2005. ... Artists conception of a terraformed Mars in three stages of development. ... Richard L. S. Taylor is the author of Moon Maps, and a leading supporter of terraforming other planets. ... Dr. Christopher McKay of NASA Ames Research Center. ...


Economic issues

The initial cost of such projects as planetary terraforming would be gargantuan, and the infrastructure of such an enterprise would have to be built from scratch. Such technology is not yet developed, let alone financially feasible at the moment. John Hickman has pointed out that almost none of the current schemes for terraforming incorporate economic strategies, and most of their models and expectations seem highly optimistic.[18] Access to the vast resources of space may make such projects more economically feasible, though the initial investment required to enable easy access to space will likely be tremendous (see Asteroid mining, solar power satellites, In-Situ Resource Utilization, bootstrapping, space elevator). 433 Eros is a stony asteroid in a near-Earth orbit Raw resources and minerals could be mined from an asteroid in space using a variety of methods. ... An artists depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface. ... In astronautics, In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is the way to describe the use the resources of the planetary body which is explored (Moon, Mars,...) to provide propellant, energy or consumables to the science payload or to the crew which has been deployed there. ... Look up bootstrapping in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A space elevator would consist of a cable [4] anchored to the Earths surface [6], reaching into space. ...


Some advocates of space colonization have argued that the same financial investment required to terraform Mars or Venus could produce a larger area of "land" if used to build space habitats instead. They argue that a civilization that knows how to live in space can survive anywhere in the solar system, whereas terraforming Mars will only help us to live in one place.[citation needed] Some view terraforming as planetary chauvinism. Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ... A pair of ONeill cylinders Interior of a Torus (doughnut-shaped) station A space habitat, also called space colony or orbital colony, is a space station intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple waystation or other specialized facility. ... Planetary chauvinism is a term coined by Isaac Asimov to describe a belief that human society will be planet based, rather than space based, despite the benefits of the latter. ...


Political issues

Further information: Outer Space Treaty

There are many potential political issues arising from terraforming a planet, such as who gets to own the extraterrestrial land on the new planet, with contenders being national governments, trans-national organizations like the United Nations, Corporations or individual settlers themselves. Such settlements may become part of national disputes as countries try to make parts of other planets part of their own national territory. Rivalries between nations continue to be a primary motivation for shaping space projects.[19] // The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies also known as the Outer Space Treaty (the Treaty), was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union (the three... UN redirects here. ...


Popular culture

Terraforming is a common concept in science fiction, ranging from television, movies, novels and video games. The concept of changing a planet for habitation precedes the use of the word 'terraforming', with H. G. Wells describing a reverse-terraforming, where aliens in his story The War of the Worlds change Earth for their own benefit. Also, Olaf Stapledon's Last and First Men (1930) provides the first example in fiction in which Venus is modified, after a long and destructive war with the original inhabitants, who naturally object to the process. Recent works involving terraforming of Mars includes the novels in the Mars trilogy, by Kim Stanley Robinson. Terraforming has been well-represented in popular culture, usually in the form of science fiction. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... The War of the Worlds (1898), by H. G. Wells, is an early science fiction novel (or novella) which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. ... William Olaf Stapledon (May 10, 1886 – September 6, 1950) was a British philosopher and author of several influential works of science fiction. ... Last and First Men: A Story of the Near and Far Future is a science fiction novel written in 1930 by the British author Olaf Stapledon. ... The Mars trilogy is a series of award-winning science fiction novels by Kim Stanley Robinson, chronicling the settlement and terraforming of the planet Mars. ... For the late American actress, see Kim Stanley. ...


Terraforming has also been explored on television and in feature films, most prominently and famously in the Star Trek universe. In the Star Trek movie The Wrath of Khan, the film's antagonist Khan steals the "Genesis device", a device developed to quickly terraform barren planets, and wields it as a weapon. A similar device exists in the animated feature film Titan A.E. which depicts the eponymous ship Titan, capable of creating a planet. This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (Paramount Pictures, 1982; see also 1982 in film) is the second feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... In the Star Trek fictional universe, the Genesis Device was an experimental terraforming device. ... Titan A.E. is a 2000 animated science fiction adventure film from Fox Animation Studios and Twentieth Century Fox. ...


Also in the Star Trek universe, humans terraformed Mars in the 22nd century by redirecting comets towards Mars' north and south poles. In the episode "Terra Prime" the Enterprise crew uses one of the comets to avoid being detected by the antagonist.


In Joss Whedon's short-lived hit television series Firefly, and its feature film sequel Serenity, giant "terraformers" (ships or factories designed to generate atmosphere and perform other functions of terraforming) were used to transform the ecosystems of dozens of planets and hundreds of moons across a huge solar system into human-livable environments. Firefly is an American science fiction television series created by writer/director Joss Whedon, creator of Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel, under his Mutant Enemy Productions. ... Serenity is a 2005 science fiction space western/epic film written and directed by Joss Whedon. ...


It is shown in the movies Alien and Aliens. In the first film, the atmosphere of LV-426 is unbreathable and John Hurt's character must wear an environment suit; 60 years later an atmospheric factory has been utilized to withdraw sulphur and replace it with oxygen; producing a stormy but breathable atmosphere. This article is about the first film in a series. ... This article is about the film; for the video games see Aliens (Square computer game) and Aliens (arcade game). ... LV-426 as seen in Aliens LV-426, also known as Acheron and the home of the xenomorph, is the name of the fictitious moon (frequently but erroneously referred to as a planet) where the Alien was first encountered by humans in the movie Alien (1979) of the Alien Series. ... For the singer, see Mississippi John Hurt. ...


In the anime Cowboy Bebop humanity has terraformed dozens of moons and planets after a hyperspace gate accident fractured the Moon, raining debris on Earth. Asteroids have also been colonized to sustain human life. Also, the manga and anime series Aria takes place on a terraformed Mars. In Dragon Ball Z movie 4, the evil "Lord Slug" terraforms the Earth to make it suitable for his soldiers and to kill humanity. As well as the video game Armored Core 2, which takes place on a newly terraformed Mars. Original run April 3, 1998 – April 23, 1999 Episodes 26 Movie: Knockin on Heavens Door (天国の扉) Director Shinichiro Watanabe Writer Keiko Nobumoto Studio Sunrise BONES Bandai Visual[2] Released September 1, 2001 Runtime 115 min. ... Demographic Shōnen[1] Magazine Monthly Stencil Original run – Volumes 2 Manga Author Kozue Amano Publisher Mag Garden English publisher ADV Manga (former) Tokyopop (current) Demographic Shōnen[1] Magazine Comic Blade Original run – Volumes 12 TV anime: Director Junichi Satō Studio Hal Film Maker Licensor Nozomi Entertainment Network... DBZ redirects here. ... In the popular anime series Dragon Ball Z, Lord Slug was one of the Ancient Namek s who discovered the key to unlocking a higher consciousness within. ... This is a list of fictional extraterrestrials (excluding the Saiyan race) who first appeared in Akira Toriyamas Dragon Ball manga, followed by the anime series, including the Dragon Ball films. ... Armored Core 2 is a mecha video game in the Armored Core series. ...


In Stargate SG1 episode "Scorched Earth" an alien ship terraforms a planet recently inhabited by Enkarans with the help of humans. The movie Blade Runner alludes to the existence of "Off-World Colonies" which are advertised as having a more suitable living atmosphere than the polluted Earth: the story is based on the escape of individuals designed as labor forces for the new colonists. In the movie Total Recall an alien device is activated to transform the atmosphere of Mars. Stargate SG-1 Cast Stargate SG-1 is a television series based upon the 1994 science fiction movie Stargate. ... Scorched Earth is an episode of the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1. ... This is a list of the human civilizations featured in the television series Stargate SG-1. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... For other uses, see Total recall (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ...


In the series Red Dwarf, the crew have to rescue Rimmer from a planet terraformed to match his own disturbed sub-conscious, and in the episode Rimmerworld, Rimmer sets off two "Eco-Accelerator Rockets" which after six days and nights transforms the planet into a "lush and verdant" world. This article is about the type of star. ... Arnold Judas Rimmer BSc, SSc (Bronze Swimming certificate, Silver Swimming certificate), who sometimes goes by Arnold Jonathan Rimmer, is a fictional character in the television series Red Dwarf, played by Chris Barrie. ... Rimmerworld was the fifth epsiode to air in the sixth series of Red Dwarf. ... Arnold Judas Rimmer BSc, SSc (Bronze Swimming certificate, Silver Swimming certificate), who sometimes goes by Arnold Jonathan Rimmer, is a fictional character in the television series Red Dwarf, played by Chris Barrie. ...


In the movie Red Planet humanity has partially terraformed Mars by putting algae on the planet's surface. As a result, the crew that crash lands on Mars can breathe. Also, in the Halo series there exist multiple colony planets that were made suitable for human habitation through terraforming. Red Planet is a 2000 science fiction film directed by Antony Hoffman, starring Val Kilmer. ... It has been suggested that Covenant Vehicles in Halo be merged into this article or section. ...


On the tv series Futurama (set 1000 years in the future) in the episode Mars University it is discovered that mars in the year 3000 is habitable, and there is a university there. It is discussed that when Mars University was established, they planted "traditional college foliage" including Trees and Hemp and that soon after the whole planet was Terraformed . There are also native Martians, who are revealed in the episode Where the Buggalo Roam. The Martians however, sold their land to a Chinese man named Sir Reginold Wong for a single bead (an enormous diamond)- a play on the sale of the isle of Manhattan. This article is about the television series. ... Mars University is episode eleven of the first production season of Futurama. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tree (disambiguation). ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... Where the Buggalo Roam is the tenth episode in season three of the animated television series Futurama. ...


David Gerrold's currently incomplete novel series The War Against The Chtorr takes a twist with the terraforming concept and has the Earth being invaded by unseen an alien species which is Chtoraforming the Earth to match their own world. The species from Chtorr are estimated to be a half a billion years older than those on Earth, and thus evolved to a higher level of competition and trickery. The Earth's species are steadily losing the battle as they are unable to compete. Humans are steadily losing the battle, as well, as the different species interfere with and overpower their best technologies which they are not designed to work against. David Gerrold, born Jerrold David Friedman (January 24, 1944), in Chicago, Illinois, is an award-winning science fiction author who started his career in 1966 as a college student by submitting an unsolicited story outline for the television series Star Trek. ... The War Against the Chtorr is a series of novels written by David Gerrold. ...


See also

Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ... Globus Cassus is a utopian project for the transformation of Planet Earth into a much bigger, hollow, artificial world with an ecosphere on its inner surface. ... Infrared Image of a possible extrasolar planet (lower left) in the Constellation Taurus, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. ... For other uses, see Project Genesis (disambiguation). ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ... Futurology is the detailed critical inspection and reasoning of the state in which things will develop in the future on the basis of existing circumstances in history. ... Megascale engineering is defined as engineering structures on an enormous scale. ...

References

  1. ^ Science Fiction Citations: terraforming (html). Retrieved on 2006-06-16.
  2. ^ Stapledon, Olaf (1930). Last and First Men. 
  3. ^ Sagan, Carl (1961). "The Planet Venus". Science. 
  4. ^ Sagan, Carl (1973). "Planetary Engineering on Mars". Icarus 20: 513. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(73)90026-2. 
  5. ^ Averner, M; MacElroy, R. D. (1976). "On the Habitability of Mars: An Approach to Planetary Ecosynthesis". Nasa Sp-414. 
  6. ^ Oberg, James Edward (1981). New Earths: Restructuring Earth and Other Planets. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. 
  7. ^ McKay, Christopher (1982). "Terraforming Mars". Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. 
  8. ^ (1984) The Greening of Mars. 
  9. ^ a b Fogg, Martyn J. (1995). Terraforming: Engineering Planetary Environments. SAE International, Warrendale, PA. 
  10. ^ Fogg, Martyn J.. The Terraforming Information Pages. Retrieved on 2006-12-24.
  11. ^ Building a Solid Case. SpaceViews (November 1, 1996). Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  12. ^ Technological Requirements for Terraforming Mars (html). Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  13. ^ Terraforming: Human Destiny or Hubris? (html). Retrieved on 2006-04-28.
  14. ^ Humans on Europa: A Plan for Colonies on the Icy Moon (html). Retrieved on 2006-04-28.
  15. ^ Robert Zubrin, The Case for Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We Must, pp. 248-249, Simon & Schuster/Touchstone, 1996, ISBN 0-684-83550-9
  16. ^ The Ethical Dimensions of Space Settlement (pdf). Retrieved on 2006-05-15.
  17. ^ Christopher McKay and Robert Zubrin, "Do Indigenous Martian Bacteria have Precedence over Human Exploration?", pp. 177-182, in On to Mars: Colonizing a New World, Apogee Books Space Series, 2002, ISBN 1-896522-90-4
  18. ^ The Political Economy of Very Large Space Projects (htm). Retrieved on 2006-04-28.
  19. ^ China's Moon Quest Has U.S. Lawmakers Seeking New Space Race (htm). Retrieved on 2006-04-28.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Case For Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We Must is a nonfiction science book by Robert Zubrin, first published in 1996. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Terraforming | The Astrobiology Web | Your Online Guide to the Living Universe (689 words)
Terraforming Mars: A Review of Current Research modify barren planets elsewhere such that they can naturally support life.
Martyn J. Fogg (abstract)If humanity is to embark on the permanent settlement of space, consideration of long-term life-support is crucial.
Terraforming - an Ethical Perspective By Richard Miller (abstract)
Terraforming (3485 words)
Some terraforming corporations, suggesting that it was better to meet the planets halfway by adapting colonists to the conditions but fixing the worst drawbacks with terraforming, pioneered Ecopoiesis during the First Federation era.
Tidally locked worlds such as Twilight were once terraformed; the constant sunlight on the hot side and the cold on the dark side required the terraformers to add extra amounts of volatiles to keep the hydrological cycle running and often massive landscape re-engineering to promote ice to move towards the terminator to melt.
In terraforming gas giant moons large frameworks are placed in the L4 and L5 positions around the moon and adjustable reflectors reflect extra sunlight onto the planet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m