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Encyclopedia > Term limit
See also: Rotation in office

A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office. Term limits are found usually in presidential and semi-presidential systems as a method to curb the potential for dictatorships, where a leader effectively becomes "president for life". There are different types of term limits. Sometimes, there is an absolute limit on the number of terms a person can serve, while in other cases, the restrictions are merely on the number of consecutive terms a person can serve. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Rotation in office was a feature of the American political system of the nineteenth century. ... Term of office refers to the length of time a person (usually a politician) serves in a particular office. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Use of term limits

See also: List of political term limits

Term limits have a long history. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, two early civilizations which had elected offices, both imposed limits on some positions. In ancient Athenian democracy, no citizen could serve on the council of 500, or boule, for two consecutive annual terms, nor for more than two terms in his lifetime, nor be head of the boule more than once. In the Roman Republic, a law was passed imposing a limit of a single term on the office of censor. The annual magistrates—tribune of the plebs, aedile, quaestor, praetor, and consul—were forbidden reelection until a number of years had passed.[1] (see cursus honorum, Constitution of the Roman Republic). // Governors or Governors-General - No Limit but traditionally serve for one five year term or at the pleasure of the British Crown Prime Minister - No term limits Prime Minister - No term limits Chief Executive - two consecutive five-year terms Beretitenti - three four-year terms President - One six-year term President... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the political process. ... Athenian democracy (sometimes called Direct democracy) developed in the Greek city-state of Athens. ... In the cities (Gr. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ...


Many modern presidential republics employ term limits for their highest offices. The United States, one of the first countries of the modern era to have elected political offices, placed a limit of two terms on its presidency by means of the 22nd Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951. There are no term limits for members of CongressRepresentatives and Senators, although there have been calls for term limits for those offices. Under various state laws some state governors and state legislators have term limits. Formal limits in America date back to the 1682 Pennsylvania Charter of Liberties, and the colonial frame of government of the same year, authored by William Penn and providing for triennial rotation of the provincial council, the upper house of the colonial legislature.[2] (See also term limits in the United States). A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Amendment XXII in the National Archives The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... State law, in the United States, is the law of each separate U.S. state, as passed by the state legislature and signed into law by the state governor. ... A governor is an official who heads the government of a colony, state or other sub-national state unit. ... State legislatures are the lawmaking bodies of the 50 states in the United States of America. ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... There are a number of term limits to offices in the United States. ...


Russian Federation has a common rule for head of state, though allows the President to serve more than two terms if they're not consecutive. For governors of federal subjects, the same two-term limit acted in 1990's, but since 2004 there's no term limits for governors. Motto: none Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) Russian Government Semi-presidential Federal republic  - President of Russia Vladimir Putin  - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared June 12, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area    - Total 17,075,400 km... The President of Russia (Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ...


Term limits are also common in Latin America, where most countries are also presidential republics. Early in the last century, the Mexican revolutionary Francisco Madero, popularized the slogan Sufragio Efectivo, no Reelección (effective suffrage, no reelection). In keeping with that principle, members of the Congress of Mexico (the Chamber of Deputies and Senate) cannot be reelected for the next immediate term under article 50 and 59 of the Constitution of Mexico, adopted in 1917. Likewise, the President of Mexico is limited to a single six-year term. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Congress (formally: Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. ... The Senate (Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) is the upper house of Mexicos bicameral Congress. ... This article is about the current Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. ... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ...


Countries which operate a parliamentary system of government are less likely to employ term limits on their leaders. This is because such leaders rarely have a set "term" at all: rather, they serve as long as they have the confidence of the parliament, a period which could potentially last for life. Nevertheless, such countries may impose term limits on the holders of other offices—in republics, for example, a ceremonial presidency may have a term limit, especially if the office holds reserve powers. States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government. ...


Offices of local government, such as a mayoralty, may also have term limits. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ...


See also

There are a number of term limits to offices in the United States. ...

External links

Doug Bandow was a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute, a libertarian think tank. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Term limit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1463 words)
In the United States the concept of term limits is not a new one: the constitution of the state of Delaware, adopted in 1787, limits the governor to two four-year terms.
What term limit supporters argue is that democratic governance requires elected officials who are responsive and accountable to the people who elected them, and that elected officials who no longer fear losing their offices cease to be concerned with the needs of their constituents.
Congressional term limits were featured prominently in the Republican Party's Contract with America in the 1994 election campaign, and may well have contributed to the so-called "Republican Revolution", as the Republicans wrested control of the US House of Representatives from the Democratic Party for the first time since the 1952 election.
Term limit - definition of Term limit in Encyclopedia (711 words)
A term limit is a clause put in a constitution, statute, or bylaw which limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office.
In the United States the concept of term limits is not a new one: the short-lived Confederate States of America adopted a six year term for its president and vice-president and barred holders of these offices from seeking re-election.
A number of Southern states later adopted term limits of various types: one peculiar variation prohibited a state Governor from succeeding himself, which led to the election of Lurleen Wallace as the first female governor of Alabama.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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