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Encyclopedia > Terbium
65 gadoliniumterbiumdysprosium
-

Tb

Bk
General
Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65
Chemical series lanthanides
Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f
Appearance silvery white
Atomic mass 158.92535(2) g/mol
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f9 6s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 8.23 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 7.65 g·cm−3
Melting point 1629 K
(1356 °C, 2473 °F)
Boiling point 3503 K
(3230 °C, 5846 °F)
Heat of fusion 10.15 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 293 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 28.91 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1789 1979 (2201) (2505) (2913) (3491)
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 3, 4
(weakly basic oxide)
Electronegativity  ? 1.2 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 565.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1110 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2114 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 175 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 225 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
in dry ice [1]
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly)
1.150 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 11.1 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly)
10.3 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 2620 m/s
Young's modulus (α form) 55.7 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) 22.1 GPa
Bulk modulus (α form) 38.7 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) 0.261
Vickers hardness 863 MPa
Brinell hardness 677 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-27-9
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of terbium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
157Tb syn 71 y ε 0.060 157Gd
158Tb syn 180 y ε 1.220 158Gd
β- 0.937 158Dy
159Tb 100% Tb is stable with 94 neutrons
References

Terbium (IPA: /ˈtɛː(r)biəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Tb and atomic number 65. General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density... Terbium table image created for Wikipedia by Schnee on June 24, 2003, 15:42 UTC. File links The following pages link to this file: Terbium User:Femto/elements e8 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of elements. ... This extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... The lanthanide series comprises the 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 57 through 71. ... A periodic table group is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... 6 *Lanthanides 7 **Actinides IUPAC has not recommended a specific format for the periodic table, so different conventions are permitted and are often used for the group number of lanthanides and actinides. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... The f-block of the periodic table of elements consists of those elements for which, in the atomic ground state, the highest-energy electrons occupy f-orbitals. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Terbium sample. ... The atomic mass of a chemical element is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... The Electron is a fundamental subatomic particle that carries an electric charge. ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per volume. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per volume. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In chemical nomenclature, the oxidation number (formerly known as the Stock number) of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would bear if all the ligands were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom. ... A bases in chemistry is a chemical substance which has a free pair of electrons to bind a Hydrogen ion commonly referred to as a proton (IUPAC definition). ... The electronegativities on this page are incorrect and need to be updated Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The atomic radius is the distance from the atomic nucleus to the outermost stable electron orbital in an atom that is at equilibrium. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Picometre (American spelling: picometer) is an SI measure of length that is equal to 10−12 of a metre. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon by which a material can exhibit a spontaneous magnetization, and is one of the strongest forms of magnetism. ... Dry ice is a genericized trademark for solid (frozen) carbon dioxide. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The speed of sound is a term used to describe the speed of sound waves passing through an elastic medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... This article is about a physical property. ... In materials science, shear modulus S, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain: S = shear stress/shear strain = (F/A)/Φ. Another commonly accepted symbol is G. Shear modulus is usually measured in ksi (kips per square... The bulk modulus K of a fluid or solid is the inverse of the compressibility: where p is pressure and V is volume. ... When a sample of material is stretched in one direction, it tends to get thinner in the other two directions. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Terbium (Tb) Standard atomic mass: 158. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... (Redirected from 1 E s) An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 157. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... (Redirected from 1 E s) An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 157. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 162. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, often called simply an element, is a substance that cannot be decomposed or transformed into other chemical substances by ordinary chemical processes. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. ... In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (Z) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Terbium is a silvery-white rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile and soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is reasonably stable in air, and two crystal allotropes exist, with a transformation temperature of 1289 °C. A rare earth is an oxide of a rare earth element. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Applications

Terbium is used to dope calcium fluoride, calcium tungstate and strontium molybdate, materials that are used in solid-state devices, and as a crystal stabilizer of fuel cells which operate at elevated temperatures, together with ZrO2. Terbium is also used in alloys and in the production of electronic devices, its oxide is used in green phosphors in fluorescent lamps and color TV tubes. Sodium terbium borate is used in solid state devices. Calcium fluoride (CaF2) is an insoluble ionic compound of calcium and fluorine. ... The tungstate ion is WO42-. A tungstate (compound) is a compound containing the tungstate ion, or more complicated polymeric ions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 87. ... The molybdate ion is MoO42-. A molybdate (compound) is a compound containing the molybdate ion, or more complicated polymeric ions. ... Zirconia (ZrO2) is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium. ... An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... An oxide is a chemical compound of oxygen with other chemical elements. ... A phosphor is a substance that can exhibit the phenomenon of fluorescence (glowing during absorption of radiation of another kind) or phosphorescence (sustained glowing without further stimulus). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... Borates in chemistry are chemical compounds containing boron bonded to three oxygen atoms written as B(OR)3. ... In electronics, solid state circuits are those that do not contain vacuum tubes. ...


History

Terbium was discovered in 1843 by Swedish chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander, who detected it as an impurity in Yttrium-oxide, Y2O3, and named after the village Ytterby in Sweden. It was not isolated in pure form until the recent advent of ion exchange techniques. 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A chemist pours from a Florence flask. ... Carl Gustaf Mosander (Kalmar 10 September 1797 – Lovö, Stockholm County 15 October Swedish chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 88. ... Vaxholm To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ion exchange is a process in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an ion exchanger, an insoluble solid or gel. ...


Terbium is classified as a rare earth element. The term "rare" is misleading because terbium is more common than metals such as silver and mercury. The name "rare earth" meant something else to early chemists. It was used because the rare earth elements were very difficult to separate from each other. They were not "rare" in the Earth, but they were "rarely" used for anything.


Occurrence

Terbium is never found in nature as the free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite ((Ce,LaTh,Nd,Y)PO4, which contains up to 0.03% of terbium), xenotime (YPO4) and euxenite ((Y,Ca,Er,La,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6, which contains 1% or more of terbium). Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Cerite is a complex mineral containing Cerium, formula Ce9Fe(SiO4)6(SIO3)(OH)3 from Sweden. ... Gadolinite is a mineral of a nearly black color and vitreous luster, and consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with formula: (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10. ... Monazite powder In geology, the mineral monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate containing rare earth metals and an important source of thorium, lanthanum, and cerium. ... Xenotime (from the Greek words xenos, foreign, and time, honour) is a rare yttrium phosphate mineral whose chemical formula is YPO4. ... Euxenite or euxenite-Y is a brownish black mineral with a metallic luster, found in Norway. ...


Compounds

Terbium compounds include:

See also terbium compounds. Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... An oxide is a chemical compound of oxygen with other chemical elements. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Terbium(III,IV) oxide, occasionally called tetraterbium heptaoxide, has the formula Tb4O7, though some texts refer to it as TbO1. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... Definition The nitride ion is very very gay and retarded A nitride (compound) is a compound that has nitrogen with more electropositive elements. ...


Isotopes

Naturally occurring terbium is composed of 1 stable isotope, 159-Tb. 33 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 158-Tb with a half-life of 180 years, 157-Tb with a half-life of 71 years, and 160-Tb with a half-life of 72.3 days. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than 6.907 days, and the majority of these have half lifes that are less than 24 seconds. This element also has 18 meta states, with the most stable being 156m1-Tb (t½ 24.4 hours), 154m2-Tb (t½ 22.7 hours) and 154m1-Tb (t½ 9.4 hours). Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 159-Tb, is electron capture, and the primary mode after is beta minus decay. The primary decay products before 159-Tb are element Gd (gadolinium) isotopes, and the primary products after are element Dy (dysprosium) isotopes. In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 162. ...


Precautions

As with the other lanthanides, terbium compounds are of low to moderate toxicity, although their toxicity has not been investigated in detail. Terbium has no known biological role.


References

  • Los Alamos National Laboratory – Terbium

External links

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Chemistry : Periodic Table : terbium : key information (370 words)
This sample is from The Elements Collection, an attractive and safely packaged collection of the 92 naturally occurring elements that is available for sale.
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Terbium metal is available commercially so it is not normally necessary to make it in the laboratory, which is just as well as it is difficult to isolate as the pure metal.
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Terbium is a member of the lanthanide or "rare earth" group of elements.
Sodium terbium borate is used as a laser material and emits coherent light at 0.546 um.
Terbium is used to dope calcium fluoride, calcium tungstate, and strontium molybdate, used in solid-state devices.
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