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Encyclopedia > Terauchi Masatake
Count Terauchi Masatake
(5 February 18523 November 1919

Field Marshal Count Terauchi Masatake
Nickname Billiken
Place of birth Hagi,Nagato domain, Chōshū Japan
Place of death Tokyo, Japan
Allegiance Empire of Japan
Years of service 1871–1909
Rank Field Marshal
Commands Imperial Japanese Army
Battles/wars Boshin War
Satsuma Rebellion
First Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
Awards Order of the Rising Sun (1st class)
Order of the Golden Kite (1st Class)
Other work Resident-General of Korea, Governor-General of Korea
Prime Minister of Japan

Field Marshal Count Masatake Terauchi (寺内 正毅 Terauchi Masatake?) (5 February 18523 November 1919) was Field Marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 18th Prime Minister of Japan from 9 October 1916 to 29 September 1918. is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wooden statue of Billiken enshrined in Tsutenkaku Tower Billiken was a charm doll created by an American art teacher and illustrator, Ms. ... Hagi (萩市; -shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi, Japan and was founded on July 1, 1932. ... Nagato (Japanese: 長門国, Nagato no kuni), often called Choshu (é•·å·ž, ChōshÅ«), was a province of Japan. ... ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Satsuma fief Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor CIC: Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori Strength 300,000 40,000 Casualties estimate ~60,000 dead soldiers about 30,000 dead The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army, Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over... Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun The Order of the Rising Sun or Kyokujitsu sho(旭日章) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... The Order of the Golden Kite ) was a Japanese Order (decoration), established on 12 February 1889 by Emperor Meiji. ... The Governor-General of Korea was the head of the Japanese colony of Korea from 1910 to 1945. ... During the period between 1910 and 1948 there were various Governors of Korea. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Contents

Early Period

Terauchi Masatake was born in Chōshū (present-day Yamaguchi prefecture) as the son of a samurai of the Hagi clan. ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ... Yamaguchi Prefecture (山口県 Yamaguchi-ken) is located in the Chugoku region on Honshu island, Japan. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hagi (萩市; -shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi, Japan and was founded on July 1, 1932. ...


As a young soldier, he fought in the Boshin War against the Tokugawa shogunate, and later was commissioned second lieutenant in the fledging Imperial Japanese Army. He was injured and lost his right hand during the Satsuma Rebellion of 1877, but his physical disability did not prove to be an impediment to his future military and political career. Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Satsuma fief Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor CIC: Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori Strength 300,000 40,000 Casualties estimate ~60,000 dead soldiers about 30,000 dead The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ...


Military career

In 1882, after being sent to France for military study as military attaché, Terauchi was appointed to several important military posts. He was the first Inspector General of Military Education in 1898 and made that post one of the three most powerful in the Imperial Army. He was appointed as Minister of the Army in 1901, during the first Katsura administration. The Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) occurred during his term as War Minister. After the war, he was ennobled with the title of danshaku (baron), and in 1911, his title was raised to that of hakushaku (count). A military attaché is a military expert who is part of a diplomatic mission. ... The Inspectorate General of Military Training was responsible for all non-aviation training of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... The Ministry of War of Japan (陸軍省 Rikugun shó) was established in the late 19th century, alongside many other Ministries, as part of the creation of the first modern Japanese government. ... Katsuura (勝浦市 Katsuura-shi) is a city located in Chiba, Japan. ... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ...


Korean career

Terauchi was appointed as the third and last Japanese Resident-General of Korea on the assassination of Ito Hirobumi in Harbin by Ahn Jung-geun. As Resident-General, he executed the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910, and thus became the first Japanese Governor-General of Korea. The Governor-General of Korea was the head of the Japanese colony of Korea from 1910 to 1945. ... Born in Hagi, Yamaguchi, Prince Itō Hirobumi (伊藤 博文 Itō Hirobumi 16 October 1841–26 October 1909, also called Hirofumi/Hakubun and Shunsuke in his youth) was a Japanese politician and the countrys first Prime Minister (and the 5th, 7th and 10th). ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... An Jung-geun as a Korean Soldier Ahn Jung-geun or An Jung-geun (September 2, 1879 - March 26, 1910) (Christian name: Thomas) was the Korean independence activist who is best known for assassination of the Japanese resident general of Korea, Itō Hirobumi, following the signing of the Eulsa Treaty... The Treaty of Annexation of Korea by Japan, also called in Korea 경술국치(庚戌國恥), meaning Humiliation of the Nation in the Year of the Dog, was signed on August 22, 1910 by the representatives of the Korean and Japanese Imperial Governments. ... During the period between 1910 and 1948 there were various Governors of Korea. ...


The annexation of Korea by Japan and subsequent policies introduced by the new government was highly unpopular with large segments of the Korean population, and Terauchi employed military force to maintain control. Terauchi used the deep historical and cultural ties between Korea and Japan as justification for the eventual goal of complete assimilation of Korea into the Japanese mainstream. To this end, thousands of schools were built across Korea. Although this contributed greatly to an increase in literacy and the educational standard, the curriculum was centered on Japanese language and history, with the intent of assimilation of the populace into loyal subjects of the Japanese Empire.


Other of Terauchi's policies also had noble goals but evil consequences. For example, land reform was desperately needed in Korea. The Korean land ownership system was a complex system of absentee landlords, partial owner-tenants, and cultivators with traditional but without legal proof of ownership. Terauchi's new Land Survey Bureau conducted cadastral surveys that reestablished ownership by basis of written proof (property deed|deeds, titles, and similar documents). Ownership was denied to those who could not provide such written documentation (mostly lower class and partial owners, who had only traditional verbal "cultivator rights"). Although the plan succeeded in reforming land ownership/taxation structures, it added tremendously to the bitter and hostile environment of the time by enabling a huge amount of Korean land to be seized by the government and sold to Japanese developers..-1...


Political career

In 1916, Terauchi became the 18th Prime Minister of Japan. During the same year, he received his promotion to the largely ceremonial rank of field marshal. His cabinet consisted solely of career bureaucrats as he distrusted career civilian politicians. During part of his administration he simultaneously also held the post of Foreign Minister and Treasury Minister. The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Field Marshal ) was the highest rank in the prewar Imperial Japanese Army. ...


During his tenure, Terauchi pursued an aggressive foreign policy. He oversaw the Nishihara Loans (made to support the Chinese warlord Duan Qirui in exchange for confirmation of Japanese claims to parts of Shandong Province and increased rights in Manchuria) and the Lansing-Ishii Agreement (recognizing Japan's special rights in China). Terauchi upheld Japan's obligations to Great Britain under the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in World War I, dispatching ships from the Imperial Japanese Navy to the South Pacific. Indian Ocean and Mediterranean, and seizing control of German colonies in Tsingtao and the Pacific Ocean. After the war, Japan joined the Allies in the Siberian Intervention (whereby Japan sent troops into Siberia in support of White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the Russian Revolution). The Nishihara Loans ) were a series of loans made by the Japanese government under the administration of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake to the Anhui clique warlord Duan Qirui from January 1917 to September 1918, in exchange for territorial concessions and rights in northern China. ... Duan Qirui. ... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; pinyin: Shāndōng; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Lansing-Ishii Agreement of 1917 between the United States and Japan established an Open Door policy in China, while acknowledging that Japan had special interests in China. ... The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance was signed in London on January 30, 1902 by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earths oceanic subdivisions. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Tsigntao can refer to Tsingtao (beer) Qingdao, Shandong, China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Siberian Intervention ) of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Imperial Japanese Army to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by western powers to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the Russian Civil War. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... The term White Russian may refer to: A member of the White movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


In September 1918, Terauchi resigned his office, due to the rice riots that had spread throughout Japan due to postwar inflation; he died the following year. The Rice Riots of 1918 ) were a series of popular disturbances that erupted throughout Japan from July-September 1918, which brought about the collapse of the Terauchi Masatake administration. ...


His decorations included the Order of the Rising Sun (1st class) and Order of the Golden Kite (1st Class). Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun The Order of the Rising Sun or Kyokujitsu sho(旭日章) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... The Order of the Golden Kite ) was a Japanese Order (decoration), established on 12 February 1889 by Emperor Meiji. ...


Terauchi's son, Terauchi Hisaichi, was the commander of the Imperial Japanese Army's Southern Expeditionary Army Group during World War II and was also a field marshal. Field marshal Count Terauchi Hisaichi (寺内 寿一) (1879 - June or November 1945) was the commander of the Japanese Imperial Armys Southern Expeditionary Army Group during World War II. His headquarters was in Saigon. ... The Southern Expeditionary Army Group was part of the Japanese military during the World War II era. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Trivia

  • The billiken doll, which was a Kewpie-like fad toy invented in 1908 very popular in Japan lent its name to the Terauchi administration, partly due to the doll’s uncanny resemblance to Terauchi Masatake's bald head.

Wooden statue of Billiken enshrined in Tsutenkaku Tower Billiken was a charm doll created by an American art teacher and illustrator, Ms. ... Kewpie dolls and figurines are based on illustrations by Rose ONeill that appeared in Ladies Home Journal in 1909. ...

External links

  • National Diet Library photos and biography

References

  • Craig, Albert M. Chōshū in the Meiji Restoration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961.
  • Duus, Peter. The Abacus and the Sword: The Japanese Penetration of Korea, 1895-1910 (Twentieth-Century Japan - the Emergence of a World Power. University of California Press (1998). ISBN 0-520-21361-0.
  • Dupuy, Trevor N. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography. New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 1992. ISBN 0-7858-0437-4
  • Jansen, Marius B. and Gilbert Rozman, eds. Japan in Transition: From Tokugawa to Meiji. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
  • Jansen, Marius B. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000.
Preceded by
Ito Hirobumi
Japanese Resident-General in Korea
1910
Succeeded by
same, as Governor General of Korea
Preceded by
same, as Resident-General of Korea
Japanese Governor-General in Korea
1910
Succeeded by
Count Yoshimichi Hasegawa
Preceded by
Kikujiro Ishii
Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan
1916
Succeeded by
Ichiro Motono

  Results from FactBites:
 
Terauchi Masatake - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (950 words)
Terauchi Masatake was born in Chōshū (present-day Yamaguchi prefecture) as the son of a samurai of the Hagi clan.
Terauchi was appointed as the third and last Japanese Resident-General of Korea on the assassination of Ito Hirobumi in Harbin by Ahn Jung-geun.
Terauchi's son, Terauchi Hisaichi, was the commander of the Imperial Japanese Army's Southern Expeditionary Army Group during World War II and was also a field marshal.
4. Korea, 1910-1945. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History (752 words)
The first governor-general of the Korean colony was Gen. Terauchi Masatake (1852–1919).
Terauchi's period as governor-general, along with that of his successor, was dubbed “the period of military rule.” The bureaucracy in 1910 employed some 10,000 officials; by 1937, it encompassed 87,552 officials (over 60 percent of them Japanese).
Under Terauchi, a land survey bureau was set up to rationalize the land distribution and land-tax systems.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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