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Encyclopedia > Teratoma
Teratoma
Classification & external resources
ICD-O: 9080
DiseasesDB 3604 12952 12966
eMedicine med/3449 
MeSH D013724
Look up teratoma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A teratoma is a type of neoplasm (specifically, a tumor). The word teratoma comes from Greek and means roughly "monstrous tumor". Definitive diagnosis of a teratoma is based on its histology: a teratoma is a tumor with tissue or organ components resembling normal derivatives of all three germ layers. Rarely, not all three germ layers are identifiable. The tissues of a teratoma, although normal in themselves, may be quite different from surrounding tissues, and may be highly inappropriate, even grotesque (hence the monstrous): teratomas have been reported to contain hair, teeth, bone and very rarely more complex organs such as eyeball, torso, and hand. Usually, however, a teratoma will contain no organs but rather one or more tissues normally found in organs such as the brain, thyroid, liver, and lung. The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Neoplasia (new growth in Greek) is abnormal proliferation of cells in a tissue or organ. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Organs derived from each germ layer. ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...


Teratomas are thought to be present at birth, but often they are not diagnosed until much later in life.

Contents

Natural history

Main article: Germ cell tumor

Teratomas belong to a class of tumors known as nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT). All tumors of this class are the result of abnormal development of pluripotent cells: germ cells and embryonal cells. Teratomas of embryonal origin are congenital; teratomas of germ cell origin may or may not be congenital (this is not known). The kind of pluripotent cell appears to be unimportant, apart from constraining the location of the teratoma in the body. Germ cell tumours are ovarian neoplasms derived from germ cells. ... Together with seminomas, nonseminomas make up the two histological subtypes of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT). ... Germ cell tumours are ovarian neoplasms derived from germ cells. ... In cell biology, a pluripotent cell is one able to differentiate into many cell types. ... A germ cell is part of the germline and is involved in the reproduction of organisms. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. ...


Location and incidence

Teratomas derived from germ cells occur in the testes in males and ovaries in females. Teratomas derived from embryonal cells usually occur on the body midline: in the brain, elsewhere inside the skull, in the nose, in the tongue, under the tongue, and in the neck (cervical teratoma), mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and attached to the coccyx. However, teratomas may also occur elsewhere: very rarely in solid organs (most notably the heart and liver) and hollow organs (such as the stomach and bladder), and more commonly on the skull sutures. Embryonal teratomas most commonly occur in the sacrococcygeal region: sacrococcygeal teratoma is the single most common tumor found in newborn babies. Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... FIG. 967– Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax (chest), surrounded by loose connective tissue. ... The retroperitoneum (adj. ... The coccyx is formed of up to five vertebrae. ... Side view of the skull. ... Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT), a birth defect, is a tumor located at the base of the tailbone (coccyx). ... “Baby” redirects here. ...


Of teratomas on the skull sutures, approximately 50% are found in or adjacent to the orbit[1]. Limbal dermoid is a choristoma, not a teratoma. In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated. ...


Teratoma qualifies as a rare disease, but is not extremely rare. Sacrococcygeal teratoma alone is diagnosed at birth in 1 out of 40,000 babies. Given the current world population birth rate, this equals 5 per day or 1800 per year. Add to that number sacrococcygeal teratomas diagnosed later in life, and teratomas in other locations, and the incidence approaches 10,000 new diagnoses of teratoma per year. A rare disease (sometimes known as an orphan disease) has such a low prevalence in a population that a doctor in a busy general practice would not expect to see more than one case a year. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Incidence is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time. ...


Hypotheses of origin

Concerning the origin of teratomas, there exist numerous hypotheses.[2] These hypotheses are not to be confused with the unrelated hypothesis that fetus in fetu (see below) is not a teratoma at all but rather a parasitic twin. A parasitic twin is the result of a situation related to the process that results in teratomas, vanishing twin, and conjoined twins – two unique embryos begin developing in utero, but something goes wrong. ... A parasitic twin (also known as an asymmetrical or unequal conjoined twin) is the result of the processes that produce vanishing twins and conjoined twins, and may represent a continuum between the two. ...


Dermoid cyst

A dermoid cyst is a mature teratoma containing hair (sometimes very abundant) and other structures characteristic of normal skin and other tissues derived from the ectoderm. The term is most often applied to teratoma on the skull sutures and in the ovaries of females. A dermoid cyst is a teratoma that contains developmentally mature skin, with hair follicles and sweat glands, sometimes luxuriant clumps of long hair, and often pockets of sebum, blood, or fat. ...


Fetus in fetu and fetiform teratoma

Fetus in fetu and fetiform teratoma are rare forms of mature teratoma that include one or more components resembling a malformed fetus. Both forms may contain or appear to contain complete organ systems, even major body parts such as torso or limbs. Fetus in fetu differs from fetiform teratoma in having an apparent spine and bilateral symmetry.[2] The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... In biology, bilateral symmetry is a characteristic of multicellular organisms, particularly animals. ...


Most authorities agree that fetiform teratomas are highly developed mature teratomas; the natural history of fetus in fetu, however, is controversial.[2] There also may be a cultural difference, with fetiform teratoma being reported more often in ovarian teratomas (by gynecologists) and fetus in fetu being reported more often in retroperitoneal teratomas (by general surgeons). Fetus in fetu has often been interpreted as a fetus growing within its twin. As such, this interpretation assumes a special complication of twinning, one of several grouped under the term parasitic twin. In this regard, it is noteworthy that in many cases the fetus in fetu is reported to occupy a fluid-filled cyst within a mature teratoma.[3][4][5] Cysts within mature teratoma have also been reported to contain a rudimentary beating heart.[6] A parasitic twin is the result of a situation related to the process that results in teratomas, vanishing twin, and conjoined twins – two unique embryos begin developing in utero, but something goes wrong. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Twin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Twin (disambiguation). ... A parasitic twin (also known as an asymmetrical or unequal conjoined twin) is the result of the processes that produce vanishing twins and conjoined twins, and may represent a continuum between the two. ...


Regardless of whether fetus in fetu and fetiform teratoma are one entity or two, they are distinct from and not to be confused with ectopic pregnancy.


Struma ovarii

A struma ovarii (literally: goitre of the ovary) is a rare form of mature teratoma that contains mostly thyroid tissue. Despite its name, struma ovarii is not restricted to the ovary. Only 5% of struma ovarii are malignant.[citation needed] A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ...


Pathology classification of individual teratomas

Teratomas commonly are classified using the Gonzalez-Crussi[2] grading system: 0 or mature (benign); 1 or immature, probably benign; 2 or immature, possibly malignant (cancerous); and 3 or frankly malignant. See also cancer staging. Teratomas are also classified by their content: a solid teratoma contains only tissues (perhaps including more complex structures); a cystic teratoma contain only pockets of fluid or semi-fluid such as cerebrospinal fluid, sebum, or fat; a mixed teratoma contains both solid and cystic parts. Cystic teratomas usually are grade 0 and, conversely, grade 0 teratomas usually are cystic. Look up Benign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... The sebaceous glands are glands found in the skin of mammals. ...


Grade 0, 1 and 2 pure teratomas have the potential to become malignant (grade 3), and malignant pure teratomas have the potential to metastasize. These rare forms of teratoma with malignant transformation may contain elements of somatic (non germ cell) malignancy such as leukemia, carcinoma or sarcoma.[7] A teratoma may contain elements of other germ cell tumors, in which case it is not a pure teratoma but rather is a mixed germ cell tumor and is malignant. In infants and young children, these elements usually are endodermal sinus tumor, followed by choriocarcinoma. Finally, a teratoma can be pure and not malignant yet highly aggressive: this is exemplified by growing teratoma syndrome, in which chemotherapy eliminates the malignant elements of a mixed tumor, leaving pure teratoma which paradoxically begins to grow very rapidly. Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Leukemia or leukaemia(Greek leukos λευκός, “white”; aima αίμα, “blood”) (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the connective or supportive tissue (bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels) and soft tissue. ... Germ cell tumours are ovarian neoplasms derived from germ cells. ... Endodermal sinus tumor, formerly often known as yolk sac tumor, is a member of the germ cell tumor group of neoplasms. ... Choriocarcinoma is a rare cancer of the placenta, curable by chemotherapy. ...


"Benign" teratoma may prove to be malignant

A "benign" grade 0 (mature) teratoma nonetheless has a non-zero risk of malignancy. Recurrence with malignant endodermal sinus tumor has been reported in cases of formerly benign mature teratoma,[8] even in fetiform teratoma and fetus in fetu.[9][10] A grade 1 immature teratoma that appears to be benign (e.g., because AFP is not elevated) has a much higher risk of malignancy, and requires adequate follow-up.[11][12][13][14] Endodermal sinus tumor, formerly often known as yolk sac tumor, is a member of the germ cell tumor group of neoplasms. ...


Teratoma with malignant transformation

A teratoma with malignant transformation or TMT is a very rare form of teratoma that may contain elements of somatic (non germ cell) malignant tumors such as leukemia, carcinoma or sarcoma.[7] Of 641 children with pure teratoma, 9 developed TMT[15]: 5 carcinoma, 2 glioma, and 2 embryonal (here, these last are classified among germ cell tumors). Leukemia or leukaemia(Greek leukos λευκός, “white”; aima αίμα, “blood”) (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the connective or supportive tissue (bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels) and soft tissue. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ...


Extraspinal ependymoma

Extraspinal ependymoma, usually considered to be a glioma (a type of non-germ cell tumor), may be an unusual form of mature teratoma.[16][citation needed] Ependymoma are tumors arising from the inner lining of the cerebral ventricles (= intracranial) and the remnants of the central canal in the spinal cord. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ...


Initial diagnosis

Teratomas are thought to be present since birth, or even before birth, and therefore can be considered congenital tumors. However, many teratomas are not diagnosed until much later in childhood or in adulthood. Large tumors are more likely to be diagnosed early on. Sacrococcygeal and cervical teratomas are often detected by prenatal ultrasound. Additional diagnostic methods may include prenatal MRI. In rare circumstances, the tumor is so large that the fetus may be damaged or die. In the case of large sacrococcygeal teratomas, a significant portion of the fetus' blood flow is redirected toward the teratoma (a phenomenon called steal syndrome), causing heart failure, or hydrops, of the fetus. In certain cases, fetal surgery may be indicated. A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ... MRI redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... Blood flow is the flow of blood in the cardiovascular system. ... Steal syndrome often refers to vascular access steal syndrome, which is a problem related to a surgically created vascular access for hemodialysis, but may also refer to subclavian steal syndrome, which is often associated with syncope and typically due to atherosclerosis. ... Hydrops fetalis is a blood condition in the fetus characterized by an edema in the fetal subcutaneous tissue, sometimes leading to spontaneous abortion. ... Open fetal surgery is an invasive form of fetal intervention in the treatment of birth defects where the uterus is opened up for direct surgery on the fetus. ...


Beyond the newborn period, symptoms of a teratoma depend on its location and organ of origin. Ovarian teratomas often present with abdominal or pelvic pain, caused by torsion of the ovary or irritation of its ligaments. Testicular teratomas present as a palpable mass in the testis; mediastinal teratomas often cause compression of the lungs or the airways and may present with chest pain and/or respiratory symptoms. Women and Pelvic pain Most women (and some men), sometime in their lives experience pelvic pain (when at least 3 mths, called chronic pelvic pain (CPP)). This is a poorly understood condition that likely represents abnormal neurological function, either in the peripheral nervous system or central nervous system. ... // Mathmatics In mathematics, the term torsion has several meanings, mostly unrelated to each other. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... FIG. 967– Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax (chest), surrounded by loose connective tissue. ... In medicine, chest pain is a symptom of a number of conditions and is generally considered a medical emergency, unless the patient is a known angina pectoris sufferer and the symptoms are familiar (appearing at exertion and resolving at rest, known as stable angina). When the chest pain is not...


Some teratomas contain yolk sac elements, which secrete alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Detection of AFP may help to confirm the diagnosis and is often used as a marker for recurrence or treatment efficacy, but is rarely the method of initial diagnosis. (Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, or MSAFP, is a useful screening test for other fetal conditions, including Down syndrome, spina bifida and abdominal wall defects such as gastroschisis). The yolk sac is the first element seen in the gestational sac during pregnancy, usually at 5 weeks gestation. ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein that is normally only produced in the foetus during its development. ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein that is normally only produced in the foetus during its development. ... Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used to identify disease in an unsuspecting population. ... In human anatomy, the layers of the abdominal wall are (from superficial to deep): Skin Fascia Campers fascia - fatty superficial layer Scarpas fascia - deep fibrous layer Muscle External oblique muscle Internal oblique muscle Transverse abdominal muscle Deep fascia or subserous fascia See also Peritoneum Terms for anatomical location... Gastroschisis is a type of abdominal wall defect in which the intestines and sometimes other organs develop outside the fetal abdomen through an opening in the abdominal wall. ...


Time of presentation

Teratomas of germ cell origin usually are found (i.e., present) in adult men and women, but they may also be found in children and infants. Teratomas of embryonal origin are most often found in babies at birth, in young children, and, since the advent of ultrasound imaging, in fetuses. Sonography redirects here. ...


The most commonly diagnosed fetal teratomas are sacrococcygeal teratoma (Altman types I, II, and III) and cervical (neck) teratoma. Because these teratomas project from the fetal body into the surrounding amniotic fluid, they can be seen during routine prenatal ultrasound exams. Teratomas within the fetal body are less easily seen with ultrasound; for these, MRI of the pregnant uterus is more informative.[17][18] Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT), a birth defect, is a tumor located at the base of the tailbone (coccyx). ... A drawing of the amniotic sac from Grays Anatomy. ...


Complications

Teratomas are not dangerous for the fetus unless there is either a mass effect or a large amount of blood flow through the tumor (known as vascular steal). The mass effect frequently consists of obstruction of normal passage of fluids from surrounding organs. The vascular steal can place a strain on the growing heart of the fetus, even resulting in heart failure, and thus must be monitored by fetal echocardiography. This article is about the phenomenon in medicine. ... An echocardiogram. ...


After surgery, there is a risk of regrowth in place, or in nearby organs.[19]


Treatment

Surgery

The treatment of choice is complete surgical removal (i.e., complete resection).[20][21] Teratomas normally are well encapsulated and non-invasive of surrounding tissues, hence they are relatively easy to resect from surrounding tissues. Exceptions include teratomas in the brain, and very large, complex teratomas that have pushed into and become interlaced with adjacent muscles and other structures.


Prevention of recurrence does not require en bloc resection of surrounding tissues.


Chemotherapy

For malignant teratomas, usually, surgery is followed by chemotherapy.


Teratomas that are in surgically inaccessible locations, or are very complex, or are likely to be malignant (due to late discovery and/or treatment) sometimes are treated first with chemotherapy.


Clinical trials

There are now (2007) two clinical trials in progress that address germ cell tumors, both of which include teratomas.[22][23] Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... Germ cell tumors are neoplasms derived from germ cells. ...


Follow-up

Depending on which tissue(s) it contains, a teratoma may secrete a variety of chemicals with systemic effects. Some teratomas secrete the "pregnancy hormone" human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG), which can be used in clinical practice to monitor the successful treatment or relapse in patients with a known HCG-secreting teratoma. This hormone is not recommended as a diagnostic marker, because most teratomas do not secrete it. Some teratomas secrete thyroxine, in some cases to such a degree that it can lead to clinical hyperthyroidism in the patient. Of special concern is the secretion of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); under some circumstances AFP can be used as a diagnostic marker specific for the presence of yolk sac cells within the teratoma. These cells can develop into a frankly malignant tumor known as yolk sac tumor or endodermal sinus tumor. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein that is normally only produced in the foetus during its development. ... The yolk sac is the first element seen in the gestational sac during pregnancy, usually at 5 weeks gestation. ... Yolk sac tumours are members of the germ cell tumour group of ovarian neoplasms. ... Endodermal sinus tumor, formerly often known as yolk sac tumor, is a member of the germ cell tumor group of neoplasms. ...


Adequate follow-up requires close observation, involving repeated physical examination, scanning (ultrasound, MRI, or CT), and measurement of AFP and/or βhCG.[24][25]


Use in basic research

In light of the ethical issues surrounding the source of human stem cells, teratomas are being looked at as an alternative source for research since they lack the potential to grow into functional human beings. There is widespread controversy over stem cell research largely due to techniques used in the creation and usage of human embryonic stem cells. ...


References

  1. ^ Emedicine article on orbital dermoid cyst
  2. ^ a b c d Gonzalez-Crussi, F. (1982) Extragonadal Teratomas. Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Second Series, Fascicle 18. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington D.C.
  3. ^ Saito K, Katsumata Y, Hirabuki T, Kato K, Yamanaka M. Fetus-in-fetu: Parasite or Neoplasm? A Study of Two Cases. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2007 Jun 5;22(5):383-388
  4. ^ Kajbafzadeh AM, Baharnoori M. Fetus in fetu. Can J Urol. 2006 Oct;13(5):3277-8.
  5. ^ Chua JH, Chui CH, Sai Prasad TR, Jabcobsen AS, Meenakshi A, Hwang WS. Fetus-in-fetu in the pelvis: report of a case and literature review. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005 Nov;34(10):646-9. PubMed abstract and free full text PDF
  6. ^ Kazez A, Ozercan IH, Erol FS, Faik Ozveren M, Parmaksiz E (2002). "Sacrococcygeal heart: a very rare differentiation in teratoma.". European journal of pediatric surgery (Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie) 12 (4): 278-80. doi:10.1055/s-2002-34483. PMID 12369008. PubMed
  7. ^ a b Harms D, Zahn S, Göbel U, Schneider DT (2006). "Pathology and molecular biology of teratomas in childhood and adolescence.". Klinische Pädiatrie 218 (6): 296-302. doi:10.1055/s-2006-942271. PMID 17080330. 
  8. ^ Ohno Y, Kanematsu T (1998). "An endodermal sinus tumor arising from a mature cystic teratoma in the retroperitoneum in a child: is a mature teratoma a premalignant condition?". Hum. Pathol. 29 (10): 1167-9. PMID 9781660. 
  9. ^ Chen YH, Chang CH, Chen KC, Diau GY, Loh IW, Chu CC (2007). "Malignant transformation of a well-organized sacrococcygeal fetiform teratoma in a newborn male.". J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 106 (5): 400-2. PMID 17561476.  (publisher offers free full text PDF to registered users)
  10. ^ Hopkins KL, Dickson PK, Ball TI, Ricketts RR, O'Shea PA, Abramowsky CR (1997). "Fetus-in-fetu with malignant recurrence.". J. Pediatr. Surg. 32 (10): 1476-9. PMID 9349774. 
  11. ^ Muscatello L, Giudice M, Feltri M (2005). "Malignant cervical teratoma: report of a case in a newborn.". European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 262 (11): 899-904. doi:10.1007/s00405-005-0917-2. PMID 15895292. 
  12. ^ Ukiyama E, Endo M, Yoshida F, Tezuka T, Kudo K, Sato S, Akatsuka S, Hata J (2005). "Recurrent yolk sac tumor following resection of a neonatal immature gastric teratoma.". Pediatr. Surg. Int. 21 (7): 585-8. doi:10.1007/s00383-005-1404-y. PMID 15928937. 
  13. ^ Bilik R, Shandling B, Pope M, Thorner P, Weitzman S, Ein SH (1993). "Malignant benign neonatal sacrococcygeal teratoma.". J. Pediatr. Surg. 28 (9): 1158–60. PMID 7508500. 
  14. ^ Hawkins E, Issacs H, Cushing B, Rogers P (1993). "Occult malignancy in neonatal sacrococcygeal teratomas. A report from a Combined Pediatric Oncology Group and Children's Cancer Group study.". The American journal of pediatric hematology/oncology 15 (4): 406–9. PMID 7692755. 
  15. ^ Biskup W, Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Leuschner I, Göbel U (2006). "Teratoma with malignant transformation: experiences of the cooperative GPOH protocols MAKEI 83/86/89/96.". Klinische Pädiatrie 218 (6): 303-8. doi:10.1055/s-2006-942272. PMID 17080331. 
  16. ^ Aktuğ T, Hakgüder G, Sarioğlu S, Akgür FM, Olguner M, Pabuçcuoğlu U. (2000) Sacrococcygeal extraspinal ependymomas: the role of coccygectomy. J Pediatr Surg. 35(3):515-518. PubMed
  17. ^ Diagnosis and characterization of fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma with prenatal MRI. Danzer E, Hubbard AM, Hedrick HL, Johnson MP, Wilson RD, Howell LJ, Flake AW, Adzick NS. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006 Oct;187(4):W350-6. PMID: 16985105 PubMed
  18. ^ Pediatric presacral masses. Kocaoglu M, Frush DP. Radiographics. 2006 May-Jun;26(3):833-57. Review. PMID: 16702458 PubMed Free Text
  19. ^ A recurred case of a mature ovarian teratoma presenting as a rectal mass (in Korean, abstract in English)
  20. ^ Teratomas in infancy and childhood. A 54-year experience at the Children's Hospital Medical Center Tapper and Lack (1983) Ann Surg. 198(3): 398–410
  21. ^ Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups Göbel et al (2000) Ann Oncol. 11(3): 263-271
  22. ^ GCT1P1 Protocol / Clinical Study: Pilot study of Cisplatin, Etoposide, Bleomycin and Escalating Dose Cyclophosphamide Therapy for Children with High-Risk Malignant Germ Cell Tumors
  23. ^ GCT132 Protocol / Clinical Study: A Phase III Study of Reduced Therapy in the Treatment of Children with Low and Intermediate Risk Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors (AGCT0132)
  24. ^ Marina NM, Cushing B, Giller R, Cohen L, Lauer SJ, Ablin A, Weetman R, Cullen J, Rogers P, Vinocur C, Stolar C, Rescorla F, Hawkins E, Heifetz S, Rao PV, Krailo M, Castleberry RP (1999). "Complete surgical excision is effective treatment for children with immature teratomas with or without malignant elements: A Pediatric Oncology Group/Children's Cancer Group Intergroup Study.". J. Clin. Oncol. 17 (7): 2137-43. PMID 10561269. 
  25. ^ Cushing B, Giller R, Ablin A, Cohen L, Cullen J, Hawkins E, Heifetz SA, Krailo M, Lauer SJ, Marina N, Rao PV, Rescorla F, Vinocur CD, Weetman RM, Castleberry RP (1999). "Surgical resection alone is effective treatment for ovarian immature teratoma in children and adolescents: a report of the pediatric oncology group and the children's cancer group.". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 181 (2): 353-8. PMID 10454682. 

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See also

Tumor pages for locations in which teratoma can occur:

Other conditions that may resemble a teratoma: A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or... Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the mouth. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths originating in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of the neck. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Endoscopic image of adenocarcinoma of duodenum seen in the post-bulbar duodenum. ... Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT), a birth defect, is a tumor located at the base of the tailbone (coccyx). ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor (a kind of neoplasm) located on an ovary. ... Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system. ...

Dermoid sinus is a congenital condition in dogs. ...

External links

Technical information


  Results from FactBites:
 
eMedicine - Teratoma, Cystic : Article by Chad A Hamilton, MD (4491 words)
Teratomas, specifically solid teratomas, essentially are devoid of organization; thus, the presence of some degree of organization, a high degree of cellular differentiation, and cystic structure differentiates dermoids from teratomas.
Benign teratomas of the mediastinum are rare, representing 8% of all tumors of this region.
Grosfeld JL, Billmire DF: Teratomas in infancy and childhood.
Teratoma of the Ovary (5002 words)
The MR images of immature teratoma tended to show aqueous fluids and the solid components consisting of numerous cysts with punctate foci of adipose tissue, whereas predominant fluid is sebaceous fluid in the vast majority of mature cystic teratomas.
Teratomas are neoplasms that originate in pluripotential cells and contain representations of all three germ layers in a rather mature state.
The tumor in the fourth case was an immature teratoma with abundant primitive neuroepithelium, and in the fifth case was a mixed germ cell tumor, composed mostly of immature teratoma with a minor component of yolk sac tumor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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