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Encyclopedia > Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan, looking east. From the mural painting at the National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City. Painted in 1930 by Dr Atl.
Tenochtitlan, looking east. From the mural painting at the National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City. Painted in 1930 by Dr Atl.

Tenochtitlan (pronounced [tɛ.nɔtʃ.tɪ.tɬaːn]) or, alternatively, Mexico-Tenochtitlan, (Nahuatl for "Mexico among the stone-cacti") was the capital of the Aztec empire, built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now the Federal District in central Mexico. At its height, Tenochtitlan was one of the largest cities in the world, with over 200,000 inhabitants. Map of Tenochtitlan, Mural painting from the National Museum of Mexico City. ... Map of Tenochtitlan, Mural painting from the National Museum of Mexico City. ... Front entrance to the museum. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... Plan of Tenochtitlán by Dr. Atl Gerald Murillo (a Mexican painter who signed his work Dr. Atl) was born on October 3, 1875, in Guadalajara, Jalisco. ... Nahuatl is a native language of central Mexico. ... The Aztecs is a term used for certain Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples of Central America. ... Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ... The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ...


The city was destroyed in 1521 by Spanish conquistadors. Mexico City was erected on top of the ruins and, over the ensuing centuries, most of Lake Texcoco has gradually been drained. Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Conquistador (Spanish: []) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement established in the modern-day Bahamas... Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ...

Contents

Geography

Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 8 to 13.4 square kilometers, situated on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco. It was connected to the mainland by causeways leading north, south, and west of the city. These causeways were interrupted by bridges that allowed canoes and other traffic to pass freely. The bridges could be pulled away if necessary to defend the city. The city itself was interlaced with a series of canals, so that all sections of the city could be visited either on foot or via canoe. Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ...


Lake Texcoco was the largest of the five interconnected lakes. An endorheic lake with no outlet, Lake Texcoco was brackish. During the reign of Moctezuma I, the "dike of Nezahualcoyotl" was constructed, reputedly designed by Nezahualcoyotl himself. Estimated to be between 12 and 16 kilometers in length, the dike was completed circa 1450; the dike kept the spring-fed fresh water in the waters around Tenochtitlan and kept the brackish waters beyond the dike, to the east. Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or... Brackish water is water that is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as sea water. ... Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, or Moctezuma I (also known as Montezuma I) (the surname meaning solitary one who shoots an arrow into the sky) was born to Huitzilihuitl, the second Aztec Emperor. ... This article is about the Texcocan philosopher-king. ...


Two double aqueducts, each more than four kilometres long and made of terra cotta[1], provided the city with fresh water from the springs at Chapultepec. This was intended mainly for cleaning and washing. For drinking, water from mountain springs was preferred. Most of the population liked to bathe twice a day; Moctezuma was said to take four baths a day. As soap they used the root of a plant called copalxocotl (saponaria americana); to clean their clothes they used the root of metl, the maguey. Also, the upper classes and pregnant women enjoyed the temazcalli, which was similar to a sauna bath and is still used in the south of Mexico; this was also popular in other Mesoamerican cultures. Pont du Gard, France, a Roman aqueduct built circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions and a World Heritage Site. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... Chapultepec Park with Polanco at the right, as seen from Torre Mayor observation deck. ... A Finnish wood-heated sauna A sauna (IPA pronunciation: or , Finnish ) (also sweathouse, sudatory, steambath) is a small room or house designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these and auxiliary facilities. ...


City plan

And when we saw all those towns and villages built in the water, and other great towns on dry land, and that straight and level causeway leading to Mexico, we were eating pussy These great towns . . . and buildings rising from the water, all made of stone, seemed like an enchanted vision. . . . Indeed some of our soldiers asked whether it was not all a dream . . . It was all so wonderful that I do not know how to describe this first glimpse of things never heard of, seen, or dreamed of before.

Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Conquest of New Spain Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés. ...

The city was divided into four zones or campan, each campan was divided on 20 districts (calpullis (nahuatl calpōlli)), and each calpulli was crossed by streets or tlaxilcalli. There were three main streets that crossed the city, each leading to one of the three causeways to the mainland; Bernal Díaz del Castillo reported that they were wide enough for ten horses. The calpullis were divided by channels used for transportation, with wood bridges that were removed at night. It was in trying to cross these channels that the Spaniards lost most of the gold on La Noche Triste. Calpulli is the Nahuatl term for a group of families (or a single large family) that usually had a particular function in the Pre-Columbian society (such as priests, warriors, etc. ... Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ...


Each calpulli had some specialty in arts and craft. When each calpulli offered some celebration, they tried to outdo the other calpullis. Even today, in the south part of Mexico City, the community organizations in charge of church festivities are called "calpullis".


Marketplaces

Each calpulli had its own tiyanquiztli (marketplace), but there was also a main marketplace in Tlatelolco. Cortés estimated it was twice the size of the city of Seville with about 60,000 people, trading daily. Bernardino de Sahagún provides a more conservative population estimate of 20,000 on ordinary days and 40,000 on feast days. Tlaltelolco is an area in Mexico City, centered on the Plaza de las Tres Culturas, a square surrounded on three sides by an excavated Aztec pyramid, the 17th century church Templo de Santiago, and the modern office complex of the Mexican foreign ministry. ... NO8DO (I was not abandoned) Location Coordinates : ( ) Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Sevilla (Spanish) Spanish name Sevilla Founded 8th-9th century BC Postal code 41001-41080 Website http://www. ... Bernardino de Sahagún (1499-1590) was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Náhua) people of Mexico. ...


There were also specialized tianquiztli in the other central Mexican cities. In Cholula, there were jewels, fine stones, and feathers; in Texcoco there were clothes; in Acolman was the dog market. [2] The Roman Catholic church of Nuestra Señora de los Remedios overlooks the town of Cholula from atop the Great Pyramid. ... Texcoco was a major site and city-state in the central Mexican plateau region of Mesoamerica during the Late Postclassic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology. ... Acolman - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Public buildings

In the center of the city were the public buildings, temples and schools. Inside a walled square, 300 meters to a side, was the ceremonial center. There were about 45 public buildings including: the main temple, the temple of Quetzalcoatl, the ball game, the tzompantli or rack of skulls, the temple of the sun, the platforms for the gladiatorial sacrifice, and some minor temples. Outside was the palace of Moctezuma with 100 rooms, each one with its own bath, for the lords and ambassadors of allies and conquered people. Also located nearby was the cuicalli or house of the songs, and the calmecac. The Great Pyramid or Templo Mayor was the main temple of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City). ... A stake used to display the heads of victims or defeated Mesoamerican ball game opponents. ... In the Aztec empire, children of nobility would attend special schools, called Calmecacs, where they would receive very rigorous religious and military training that would prepare them to be future leaders. ...


The city had a great symmetry. All constructions had to be approved by the calmimilocatl, a functionary in charge of the city planning.


Palace of Moctezuma

The palace of Moctezuma also had two houses or zoos, one for birds of prey and another for other birds, reptiles and mammals. About three hundred people were dedicated to the care of the animals. There was also a botanical garden and an aquarium. The aquarium had ten ponds of salt water and ten ponds of clear water, containing fish and aquatic birds. Places like this also existed in Texcoco, Chapultepec, Huaxtepec (now called Oaxtepec) and Texcotzingo. Texcoco was a major site and city-state in the central Mexican plateau region of Mesoamerica during the Late Postclassic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology. ... Chapultepec Park with Polanco at the right, as seen from Torre Mayor observation deck. ...


Inhabitants

Sahagún reported that the city also had beggars (only crippled people were allowed to beg), thieves and prostitutes. At night, in the dark alleys one could find scantily clad ladies with heavy makeup (they also painted their teeth), chewing tzictli (chicle, the original chewing gum) noisily to attract clients. There seems to have been another kind of women, ahuianis, who had sexual relations with warriors. The Spaniards were surprised because they did not charge for their work. Binomial name Manilkara chicle (Pittier) Gilly Chicle is the gum from Manilkara chicle, a species of sapodilla tree. ...


Bernal Díaz del Castillo was amazed to find latrines in private houses and a public latrine in the tiyanquiztli and main streets. Small boats went through the city collecting garbage, and excrement was collected to be sold as fertilizer. About 1,000 men were dedicated to cleaning the city's streets. Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés. ...


For public purposes, and to be able to set the pace of official business, trumpets were sounded from the tops of the temples six times a day: at sunrise, later on in the morning, at midday, again in the mid-afternoon, after sunset, and at midnight.


History

Mexico City statue commemorating the foundation of Tenochtitlan.
See also: Siege of Tenochtitlan

Tenochtitlan was the capital city of the Aztec Empire, comprised of the Mexica [meh-SHEE-kah) peoples, founded in 1325 C.E. The state religion of the Aztec Empire awaited the fulfillment of an ancient prophecy: that the wandering tribes would find the destined site for a great city whose location would be signaled by an eagle eating a snake while perched atop a cactus. The Aztecs saw this vision on what was then a small swampy island in Lake Texcoco, a vision that is now immortalized in Mexico's coat of arms and on the Mexican flag. Not deterred by the unfavourable terrain, they set about building their city, using the chinampa system (misnamed as "floating gardens") for agriculture and to dry and expand the island. Statue commemorating the foundation of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlán (modern day Mexico City), in Mexico City. ... Statue commemorating the foundation of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlán (modern day Mexico City), in Mexico City. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... Combatants Spain Tlaxcallān Aztec Empire Commanders Hernán Cortés Pedro de Alvarado Cuitláhuac Cuauhtémoc Strength 86 cavalry 900 infantry 80,000 natives 100,000- 300,000 warriors[1] Casualties 20,000 natives dead 100,000 dead 100,000 civilian dead The Siege of Tenochtitlan ended in... The Coat of Arms of Mexico has been an important symbol of Mexican politics and culture for centuries. ... Flag ratio: 4:7 The flag of Mexico was first introduced in 1821 as a basic green, white, and red tricolor. ... Chinampas is an Aztec term referring to a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture through floating gardens—small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico. ...


A thriving culture developed, and the Aztec Empire came to dominate other tribes all around Mexico. The small natural island was perpetually enlarged as Tenochtitlan grew to become the largest and most powerful city in Mesoamerica. Commercial routes were developed that brought goods from places as far as the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific Ocean and perhaps even the Inca Empire. The cultural areas of Mesoamerica Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Spanish: Mesoamérica) was a geographical culture area extending from central Honduras and northwestern Costa Rica on the south, and, in Mexico, from the Soto la Marina River in Tamaulipas and the Rio Fuerte in Sinaloa on the north. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ...


After a flood of Lake Texcoco, the city was rebuilt under Emperor Ahuitzotl in a style that made it one of the grandest ever in Mesoamerica. Auítzotl (sometimes rendered as Ahuitzotl) was the Aztec ruler of the city of Tenochtitlán. ...


Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés arrived in Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519. At this time it is believed that the city was one of the largest in the world; in Europe, only Paris, Venice and Constantinople were larger. Some of the conquistadores had traveled as widely as Venice and Constantinople, and many said that Tenochtitlan was as large and fine a city as any they had seen. Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Map of Constantinople. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Map of Constantinople. ...


The most common estimates put the population at over 200,000 people. One of the few comprehensive academic surveys of Mesoamerican city and town sizes arrived at a population of 212,500 living on 13.5 square kilometres,[3] although some popular sources put the number as high as 350,000. [4]


Cortés and his men, aided in particular by the Confederacy of Tlaxcala, eventually conquered the city on August 13, 1521, after a siege that lasted months in which much of the city was destroyed. The rest of the city was either destroyed, dismantled or buried as Mexico City. Picture from the History of Tlaxcala showing Cortés meeting with the Tlaxcallan messengers. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Combatants Spain Tlaxcallān Aztec Empire Commanders Hernán Cortés Pedro de Alvarado Cuitláhuac Cuauhtémoc Strength 86 cavalry 900 infantry 80,000 natives 100,000- 300,000 warriors[1] Casualties 20,000 natives dead 100,000 dead 100,000 civilian dead The Siege of Tenochtitlan ended in...


Ruins of Tenochtitlan

Some of the remaining ruins of Tenochtitlan's main temple, the Templo Mayor, were uncovered during the construction of a metro line in the 1970s. A small portion has been excavated and is now open to visitors. Mexico City's Zócalo, the Plaza de la Constitución, is located at the location of Tenochtitlan's original central plaza and market, and many of the original calzadas still correspond to modern streets in the city. The Great Pyramid or Templo Mayor was the main temple of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... The Zócalo, Mexico City Catedral Metropolitana Zócalo is a Mexican Spanish term for a town square or town center where social and business transactions take place. ... The Zócalo, Mexico City Flag in center of the Zócalo Catedral Metropolitana La Plaza de la Constitución, informally called El Zócalo, is a square in Mexico City. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Cortés, H.
  2. ^ The Aztecs had three special breeds of dogs with no hair, of which only one survives. They were the tepezcuintli, the itzcuitepotzontli and the xoloitzcuintli. These hairless dogs were mainly for eating and also were offerings for sacrifice. The Aztecs also had normal dogs for company.
  3. ^ Smith (2005), p. 411
  4. ^ Stannard, D. (1992)

Common nicknames Xolo Country of origin Mexico Classification Breed Standards (external links) FCI, UKC Notes The AKC foundation stock service (FSS) is a registration service for breeds not yet recognised by the AKC. A Xoloitzcuintli or Xoloitzcuintle (the initial x is pronounced as an sh), also known as Tepeizeuintli or...

References

  • Tenochtitlan is a map used in the popular PC strategy game; Age of Empires: The Conquerors Expansion.
  • Cortés, Hernan; translated and ed. Baynard, Morris J. (1969) Five Letters of Cortés to the Emperor.
  • Smith, Michael E. (2005); "City Size in Late Post-Classic Mesoamerica", in Journal of Urban History, Vol. 31 No. 4, May 2005, pp. 403-434.
  • Stannard, David E. (1992) American Holocaust: Columbus and the conquest of the New World


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Mexica / Aztecs (2761 words)
As a result, Tenochtitlan grew dramatically: not only did the city increase in size, precipitating the need for an aqueduct system to bring water from the mainland, it grew culturally as well as the Tenochcas assimilated the gods of the region into their religion.
   The economy of Tenochtitlan was built off of one overwhelming fact: the urban population on the island required high levels of economic support from surrounding areas.
In its earliest history, Tenochtitlan was self-supporting; the village was small and agriculture was managed through the chinampa method of architecture, practiced widely throughout Mesoamerica.
Common-place: Imperial city of the Aztecs: Mexico-Tenochtitlan (2524 words)
While their dreams were of an ordered urbanity (a dream later partially realized in conquered Tenochtitlan), their experience was of public streets and spaces foul with rubbish ejected from houses and shops, and mired in the ordure of horses and, in the darker alleys, of men.
In Tenochtitlan cleanliness was a demonstration of respect for the gods, not for men, and constant sweeping a sign of devotion.
Tenochtitlan’s precarious, dynamic order was held together by a passionate devotion to religion and the discharging of the Aztecs' special and ever-expanding obligation to the gods.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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