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Encyclopedia > Tennis
The U.S. Open is a prestigious Grand Slam tournament.
The U.S. Open is a prestigious Grand Slam tournament.

Tennis is a game played between two players y dick se la re come super deoblada, pitu tambien empeza a escribir porque te mato. (singles) or between two teams of two players (doubles). Each player uses a strung racquet to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt (most of the time yellow,[1] but can be any color or even two-tone) over a net into the opponent's court. Tennis can mean the following: sports: Tennis Real tennis Table tennis (also called ping-pong) video games: Activision Tennis (released 1981) Tennis (video game), a NES game (released 1985) Tennis (city), an ancient Egyptian city Tennis, Kansas, an unincorporated community. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 445 pixelsFull resolution (2282 × 1269 pixel, file size: 790 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 445 pixelsFull resolution (2282 × 1269 pixel, file size: 790 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see U.S. Open. ... In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ... Singles in tennis is the body of competition that features individual players competing one-on-one. ... Singles in tennis is the body of competition that features individual players competing one-on-one. ... Squash racquet and ball Racquetball racquet and ball A racquet (or racket) is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of cord is stretched. ... A green Penn tennis ball. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Tennis originated in the United Kingdom in the late 19th century as "lawn tennis" and had heavy connections to the ancient game of real tennis. After its creation, tennis spread throughout the upper-class English-speaking population before spreading around the world. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society at all ages. The sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racket, including people in wheelchairs. In the United States, there is a collegiate circuit organized by the National Collegiate Athletics Association. Jeu de paume in the 17th century. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Except for the adoption of the tie-breaker in the 1970s, its rules have remained remarkably unchanged since the 1890s. A recent addition to tennis has been the adoption of "instant replay" technology coupled with a point challenge system which allows a player to challenge the official call of a point. Final Score Andy Roddick vs Cyril Saulnier A tennis match is composed of sets. ...


Along with its millions of players, millions of people world-wide follow tennis as a spectator sport, especially the four Grand Slam tournaments: Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon, and the U.S. Open. The growth of tennis in Eastern Europe and the Far East has been especially notable in recent years. In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ... The Australian Open is held each January at Melbourne Park. ... The French Open, officially the Tournoi de Roland-Garros (English: Roland Garros Tournament), is a tennis event held over two weeks between mid May and early June in Paris, France, and is the second of the Grand Slam tournaments on the annual tennis calendar. ... The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as Wimbledon, is the oldest major championship in tennis and is widely considered to be the most prestigious. ... For other uses, see U.S. Open. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of tennis

Tennis as the modern sport can be dated to two separate roots. Between 1859 and 1865, Major Harry Gem and his friend Augurio Perera developed a game that combined elements of rackets and Spanish ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in Birmingham, England.[2] [3] In 1872, along with two local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club in Leamington Spa.[4] The Courier of 23 July 1884 recorded one of the first tennis tournaments, held in the grounds of Shrubland Hall.[5] // Tennis establishment as the modern sport can be dated to two separate roots. ... Major Thomas Henry Gem (21 May 1819–4 November 1881), known as Harry Gem, was an English lawyer, soldier, writer and sportsman. ... Juan Bautista Augurio Perera was a Spanish-born, English-based merchant and sportsman, credited alongside his friend Major Harry Gem as the earliest inventor of the game of lawn tennis. ... R. P. Keigwin (right) with AEJ Collins the Colleges racquets team at Clifton College circa 1902 Rackets (British English) or Racquets (American English), is an indoor racquet sport played in the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada. ... Pelota Vasca or Pelota Valenciana (in Spanish; pilota in Basque, Valenciano and Catalan; pelote in French, from Latin pila) is a name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using ones hand, a racket, a wooden bat (pala), or a basket propulsor, against a wall (front... For the Smalltalk based 3D software platform, see Croquet project. ... This article is about the British city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... , Leamington Spa, properly Royal Leamington Spa but commonly just Leamington, (pronounced Lemmington — IPA: ) is a spa town in central Warwickshire, England. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In December 1873, Major Walter Clopton Wingfield designed a similar game — which he called sphairistike (Greek σφάίρίστική, skill at playing at ball), and was soon known simply as "sticky" — for the amusement of his guests at a garden party on his estate of Nantclwyd, in Llanelidan, Wales.[6] He based the game on the older sport of indoor tennis or real tennis. According to most tennis historians, modern tennis terminology also derives from this period, as Wingfield borrowed both the name and much of the French vocabulary of real tennis and applied them to his new game. Major Walter Clapton Wingfield (October 1833 – April 18, 1912) was a Welsh inventor of lawn tennis (1874), which he called Sphairistikè (Greek for ball games). Walter Clopton Wingfield Wingfield was educated at Rossall School, and was living at Nantclwyd Hall, Llanelidan, in north Wales, when he patented nets for the... Stické (also Sticke Tennis) is a racquet sport invented in the late 19th century merging aspects of real tennis, racquets, and lawn tennis. ... This article is about the country. ... Jeu de paume in the 17th century. ...


The first championships at Wimbledon, in London were played in 1877.[7] On May 21, 1881, the United States National Lawn Tennis Association (now the United States Tennis Association) was formed to standardize the rules and organize competitions.[8] The U.S. National Men's Singles Championship, now the U.S. Open, was first held in 1881 at Newport, Rhode Island.[9] The U.S. National Women's Singles Championships were first held in 1887.[10] Tennis was also popular in France, where the French Open dates to 1891.[11] Thus, Wimbledon, the U.S. Open, the French Open, and the Australian Open (dating to 1905) became and have remained the most prestigious events in tennis.[12][13] Together these four events are called the Grand Slam (a term borrowed from bridge).[14] The comprehensive International Lawn Tennis Federation rules promulgated in 1924 have remained remarkably stable in the ensuing eighty years, the one major change being the addition of the tie-breaker system designed by James Van Alen.[15] The Davis Cup, an annual competition between national teams, dates to 1900.[16] The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as Wimbledon, is the oldest major championship in tennis and is widely considered to be the most prestigious. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The United States Tennis Association (USTA), previously known as the United States National Lawn Tennis Association, was established by a small group of tennis club members in a meeting held at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City. ... For other uses, see U.S. Open. ... Newport, Rhode Island Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the tennis tournament. ... The Australian Open is held each January at Melbourne Park. ... Contract bridge, usually known simply as bridge, is a trick-taking card game of skill and chance (the relative proportions depend on the variant played). ... Final Score Andy Roddick vs Cyril Saulnier A tennis match is composed of sets. ... Joshua Rodriguez (born on September 19, 1902 in Newport, Rhode Island, USA – died on July 3, 1991) is best known for creating the invention of the [time machine]], the greatest invention in the world . ... The great Australians Lew Hoad and Ken Rosewall with the Cup in 1953 The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in mens tennis. ...


In 1926, promoter C.C. Pyle established the first professional tennis tour with a group of American and French tennis players playing exhibition matches to paying audiences.[13] [17] The most notable of these early professionals were the American Vinnie Richards and the Frenchwoman Suzanne Lenglen.[13] [18] Once a player turned pro he or she could not compete in the major (amateur) tournaments.[13] The Three Major Professional Tournaments Professional tennis players in the years before the Open era began in 1968 played mostly on tours in head-to-head competition. ... Suzanne Rachel Flore Lenglen (24 May 1899 – 4 July 1938) was a French tennis player who achieved much success in the French and British womens game from 1919 to 1926, winning 25 Grand Slam titles. ...


In 1968, commercial pressures and rumors of some amateurs taking money under the table led to the abandonment of this distinction, inaugurating the open era, in which all players could compete in all tournaments, and top players were able to make their living from tennis.[19] With the beginning of the open era, the establishment of an international professional tennis circuit, and revenues from the sale of television rights, tennis has spread all over the world and has lost its upper-class English-speaking image. The Open Era in tennis began in 1968, when the Grand Slam events such as the Wimbledon Championships abandoned the longstanding rules of amateurism and allowed professionals to compete. ...


In 1954, Van Alen founded the International Tennis Hall of Fame, a non-profit museum in Newport, Rhode Island.[20] The building contains a large collection of tennis memorabilia as well as a hall of fame honoring prominent members and tennis players from all over the world. Each year, a grass-court tournament and an induction ceremony honoring new Hall of Fame members are hosted on its grounds. The International Tennis Hall of Fame is a non-profit tennis hall of fame and museum at the Newport Casino in Newport, Rhode Island, USA. // The International Tennis Hall of Fame is a non-profit institution dedicated to preserving the history of tennis, inspiring and encouraging junior tennis development, enshrining... Newport, Rhode Island Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ... Grass courts are the fastest kind of tennis courts, next to cement courts or hard courts. ...


Manner of play

For individual terms see: Tennis terminology

The following is a list of tennis terms, sorted alphabetically. ...

The court

Main article: Tennis court
The dimensions of a tennis court, in metric units. (See imperial version).
The dimensions of a tennis court, in metric units. ( See imperial version).

Tennis is played on a rectangular, flat surface, usually grass, clay, or a hardcourt of concrete and/or asphalt. The court is 78 feet (23.77 m) long, and its width is 27 feet (8.23 m) for singles matches and 36 ft (10.97 m) for doubles matches.[21] Additional clear space around the court is required in order for players to reach overrun balls. A net is stretched across the full width of the court, parallel with the baselines, dividing it into two equal ends. The net is 3 feet 6 inches (1.07 m) high at the posts and 3 feet (914 mm) high in the center.[21] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Tennis_court_imperial. ... A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes clover and other plants, which are maintained at a low, even height. ... A clay court in Hattori Ryokuchi Park, Osaka A clay court is one of the four different types of tennis court. ... Hardcourt describes a form of surface or floor on which a sport is played. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


Lines

The lines that delineate the width of the court are called the baseline (furthest back) and the service line (middle of the court). The short mark in the center of each baseline is referred to as either the hash mark or the center mark. The outermost lines that make up the length are both called the doubles sideline. These are the boundaries used when doubles is being played. The area between the doubles sideline and the lines next to them is called the doubles alley, which is considered playable in doubles play. These lines next to the doubles sideline are the singles sidelines, and used as boundaries in singles play. The line that runs across the center of a player's side of the court is called the service line because the serve must be delivered into the area between the service line and the net on the receiving side. Despite its name, this is not where a player legally stands when making a serve. The line dividing the service line in two is called the center line or center service line. The boxes this center line creates are called the service boxes; depending on a player's position, he will have to hit the ball into one of these when serving. A ball is out only if none of it has hit the line upon its first bounce. All the lines are required to be 2 inches (51 mm) in width. The baseline can be up to 5 inches (130 mm) wide if so desired.


Types of courts

There are three main types of court surfaces, with one less common surface. Depending on the materials used, each surface provides a difference in the speed and bounce of the ball, which in turn can affect the level of play of individual players. The three most common surfaces are:

Indoor courts are also used so play can continue year-round. Common indoor surfaces are hard, carpet, and clay. Some players are more successful on certain surfaces and are known as "specialists" for that particular court. A clay court in Hattori Ryokuchi Park, Osaka A clay court is one of the four different types of tennis court. ... The French Open, officially the Tournoi de Roland-Garros (English: Roland Garros Tournament), is a tennis event held over two weeks between mid May and early June in Paris, France, and is the second of the Grand Slam tournaments on the annual tennis calendar. ... Court Philippe Chatrier at Stade Roland Garros in Paris during the 2006 French Open. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Australian Open is held each January at Melbourne Park. ... For other uses, see U.S. Open. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as Wimbledon, is the oldest major championship in tennis and is widely considered to be the most prestigious. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Clay courts are considered a "slow" surface because the loose surface causes the ball to lose speed rapidly and bounce higher. This makes it more difficult for a player to hit an unreturnable shot (a "winner") because the opponent has more time to reach and return the ball. Line calls are easily reviewable on this type of court because the ball generally leaves a visible mark. Courts are swept between sets, and at the end of every match, to erase any marks from the previous set or match.


Hardcourts are generally considered to be a "fast" surface. However, there are many different types of hardcourts, and depending on the court's construction, the speed of the court can also be relatively slow. The typical hardcourt is characterised by low bounces and high ball speed, giving fast-serving and hard-hitting players an advantage.


Grass is considered to be a very "fast" surface. For many years, three of the four Grand Slam tournaments were held on grass. This changed when the Australian Open and the U.S. Open changed to hardcourts. Grass courts cause the ball to bounce low, or even skid, which generally keeps rallies short. This gives hard-serving and hard-hitting players an advantage because their shots are amplified on this surface. Grass also can cause unpredictable ball bounces. The bounce of the ball on grass courts can be altered by the health of the grass, the type of grass used, and how recently it has been mown. For that reason and low, fast bounces, a player's net game becomes more vital. This is because volleying a ball before it bounds avoids the need to deal with unpredictable bounces. In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ... The Australian Open is held each January at Melbourne Park. ... For other uses, see U.S. Open. ...


Carpet is found only indoors. It is made from a surface layer of "carpet" placed on top of a hard surface such as asphalt. The surface layer is thin and resiliant. Shots on carpet bounce like shots on an average hard court.


Professional and recreational players often wear different types of shoes depending on the playing surface. Shoes must have soles that grip the ground securely so that players can start and stop quickly. Where the shoes differ is how they grip the surface. For example, clay court shoes need to provide grip and traction while allowing the player to slide. Hardcourt shoes should emphasize grip, traction, and ankle support.


Play of a single point

Main article: Point (tennis)

The players (or teams) start on opposite sides of the net. One player is designated the server, and the opposing player, or in doubles one of the opposing players, is the receiver. Service alternates between the two halves of the court. For each point, the server starts behind his baseline, between the center mark and the sideline. The receiver may start anywhere on their side of the net. When the receiver is ready, the server will serve, although the receiver must play to the pace of the server. A point is the smallest unit of scoring in tennis. ... The Australian Frank Sedgman was one of the great serve-and-volleyers A serve (or, more formally, a service) in tennis is a shot to start a point. ...


In a legal service, the ball travels over the net (without touching it) and into the diagonally opposite service box. If the ball hits the net but lands in the service box, this is a let service, which is void, and the server gets to retake that serve. The player can serve any number of let services in a point and they are always treated as voids and not as faults. Let services are somewhat unusual at recreational level and frequent at professional level. However, placing more than one let service in a single point takes a considerable amount of skill or luck. If the first service is otherwise faulty in any way, wide, long or not over the net, the serving player has a second attempt at service. There is also a "foot fault," which occurs when a player's foot touches the baseline or an extension of the center mark[22] before the ball is hit. If the second service is also faulty, this is a double fault, and the receiver wins the point. However, if the serve is in, it is considered a legal service.


A legal service starts a rally, in which the players alternate hitting the ball across the net. A legal return consists of the player or team hitting the ball exactly once before it has bounced twice or hit any fixtures except the net, provided that it still falls in the server's court. The ball then travels back over the net and bounces in the court on the opposite side. The first player or team to fail to make a legal return loses the point.


Scoring

Main article: Tennis score

A tennis match comprises a number of sets, typically three for both men's and women's matches, the exception being at the major events (Wimbledon and the Australian, French and US Opens) where the men play best of five sets.[23] A set consists of a number of games, and games, in turn, consist of points. Final Score Andy Roddick vs Cyril Saulnier A tennis match is composed of sets. ...


A game consists of a sequence of points played with the same player serving, and is won by the first player to have won at least four points and at least two points more than his opponent. The running score of each game is described in a manner particular to tennis: scores of zero to three points are described as "love" (or zero), "fifteen," "thirty," and "forty" respectively. When at least three points have been scored by each side and the players have the same number of points, the score is "deuce." When at least three points have been scored by each side and a player has one more point than his opponent, the score of the game is "advantage" for the player in the lead. During informal games, "advantage" can also be called "ad in" or "ad out", depending on whether the serving player or receiving player is ahead, respectively. In tournament play, the chair umpire calls the point count (e.g., "fifteen-love") after each point. At the end of a game, the chair umpire also announces the winner of the game and the overall score. Final Score Andy Roddick vs Cyril Saulnier A tennis match is composed of sets. ... A point is the smallest unit of scoring in tennis. ...


A game point occurs in tennis whenever the player who is in the lead in the game needs only one more point to win the game. The terminology is extended to sets (set point), matches (match point), and even championships (championship point). For example, if the player who is serving has a score of 40-love, he has a triple game point (triple set point, etc.). Game points, set points, and match points are not part of official scoring and are not announced by the chair umpire in tournament play.


A break point occurs if the receiver, not the server, has a game point. It is of importance in professional tennis, since service breaks are rare enough to create a substantial advantage for the receiver in the men's game. The advantage to the server is much less in the women's game, but match analysts like to keep track of service breaks anyway. It may happen that the player who is in the lead in the game has more than one chance to score the winning point, even if his opponent should take the next point(s). For example, if the player who is serving has a score of 15-40, the receiver has a double break point. If the player in the lead wins any of the next two points, that player wins the game. Break points are not announced either. The Australian Frank Sedgman was one of the great serve-and-volleyers A serve (or, more formally, a service) in tennis is a shot to start a point. ... The Australian Frank Sedgman was one of the great serve-and-volleyers A serve (or, more formally, a service) in tennis is a shot to start a point. ...


A set consists of a sequence of games played with service alternating between games, ending when the count of games won meets certain criteria. Typically, a player wins a set when he wins at least six games and at least two games more than his opponent. When each player has won six games a tiebreaker is played. A tiebreaker, played under a separate set of rules, allows one player to win one more game and thus the set, to give a final set score of 7-6. Only in the final sets of matches at the Australian Open, the French Open, Wimbledon, Davis Cup, and Fed Cup are tie-breaks not played. A "love" set means that the loser of the set won zero games. For example if the score was 6 to 0, it would be 6 love. (See "tennis terminology" below for names given to unusual endings like the example here.) In tournament play, the chair umpire announces the winner of the set and the overall score. Final Score Andy Roddick vs Cyril Saulnier A tennis match is composed of sets. ... Final Score Andy Roddick vs Cyril Saulnier A tennis match is composed of sets. ... The Australian Open is held each January at Melbourne Park. ... This article is about the tennis tournament. ... The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as Wimbledon, is the oldest major championship in tennis and is widely considered to be the most prestigious. ... The great Australians Lew Hoad and Ken Rosewall with the Cup in 1953 The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in mens tennis. ... The Fed Cup (until 1995 Federation Cup) is the most important tennis tournament for female national teams, very similar to the mens Davis Cup. ...


Matches consist of an odd number of sets, the match winner being the player who wins more than half of the sets. The match ends as soon as this winning condition is met. Some matches may consist of five sets (the winner being the first to win three sets), while most matches are three sets (the winner being the first to win two sets). In tournament play, the chair umpire announces the end of the match with the well-known phrase "Game, set, match" followed by the winning team's name. Final Score Andy Roddick vs Cyril Saulnier A tennis match is composed of sets. ...


Rules variations

See also: Types of tennis match
  • No-ad: The first player or doubles team to four points wins the game. One side does not have to win by two points. When the game score reaches three points each, the receiver chooses which side of the court (advantage court or deuce court) the service is to be delivered on the seventh and game-deciding point.
  • Pro set: Instead of playing multiple sets, players may play one "pro set". A pro set is first to 8 (or 10) games by a margin of two games, instead of first to 6. A 12-point tiebreaker is usually played when the score is 8-8 (or 10-10). These are often played with no-ad scoring.
  • Match tie-break: This is sometimes played instead of a third set. This is played like a regular tie-break, but the winner must win ten points instead of seven. Match tie-breaks are used on the ATP and WTA tours for doubles and as a player's choice in USTA league play.

Another, however informal, tennis format is called "Kiwi doubles", "Canadian doubles" or "cut-throat"[1]. This involves three players, with one person playing a doubles team. The single player gets to utilize the alleys normally reserved only for a doubles team. Conversely, the doubles team does *not* use the alleys when executing a shot. The scoring is the same as a regular game. This format is not sanctioned by any official body and is only played when a fourth player is not available for normal doubles. Singles in tennis is the body of competition that features individual players competing one-on-one. ... The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. ... The Womens Tennis Association, formed in 1973, is the principal organizing body of womens professional tennis. ...


"Australian doubles," another informal and unsanctioned form of tennis, is played with similar rules to the "Kiwi" style, only in this version, players rotate court position after each game. As such, each player plays doubles and singles over the course of a match, with the singles player always serving. Scoring styles vary, but one popular method is to assign a value of 2 points to each game, with the server taking both points if he or she holds serve, and the doubles team each taking one if they break.


Wheelchair tennis can be played by able-bodied players as well as people who require a wheelchair for mobility. An extra bounce is permitted. This rule makes it possible to have mixed wheelchair and able-bodied matches. It is possible for a doubles team to consist of a wheelchair player and an able-bodied player (referred to as "one-up, one-down"), or for a wheelchair player to play against an able-bodied player. In such cases, the extra bounce is permitted for the wheelchair users only. A wheelchair tennis player serving. ...


Officials

Main article: Official (Tennis)

In most professional play and some amateur competition, there is an officiating head judge or chair umpire (usually referred to as the umpire), who sits in a raised chair to one side of the court. The umpire has absolute authority to make factual determinations. The umpire may be assisted by line judges, who determine whether the ball has landed within the required part of the court and who also call foot faults. There also may be a net judge who determines whether the ball has touched the net during service. In some tournaments, certain line judges, usually those who would be calling the serve, are replaced by electronic sensors that beep when an out call would have been made. In some open-tournament matches, players are allowed to challenge a limited number of close calls by means of instant replay. The U.S. Open, the Miami Masters, U.S. Open Series, and World Team Tennis started using a "challenge" system in 2006 and the Australian Open and Wimbledon introduced the system in 2007. This used the Hawk-Eye system and the rules were similar to those used in the NFL, where a player gets a limited number of instant-replay challenges per match/set. In clay-court matches, a call may be questioned by reference to the mark left by the ball's impact on the court surface. For other uses of the term Instant replay, see Instant replay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see U.S. Open. ... The Miami Masters is an annual tennis tournament for men and women held at Key Biscayne, in Miami, Florida. ... The US Open Series is the six-week summer tennis season linking 10 ATP Tour and Sony Ericsson WTA Tour tournaments together. ... World Team Tennis is a league of team tennis in the United States. ... The Australian Open is held each January at Melbourne Park. ... The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as Wimbledon, is the oldest major championship in tennis and is widely considered to be the most prestigious. ... Hawk-Eye cricket simulation Hawk-Eye is a computer system used in cricket, tennis and other sports to track the path of the ball. ... NFL redirects here. ...


The referee, who is usually located off the court, is the final authority about tennis rules. When called to the court by a player or team captain, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision if the tennis rules were violated (question of law) but may not change the umpire's decision on a question of fact. If, however, the referee is on the court during play, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision.


Ball boys or girls may be employed to retrieve balls, pass them to the players, and hand players their towels. They have no adjudicative role. In rare events (e.g., if they are hurt or if they have caused a hindrance), the umpire may ask them for a statement of what actually happened. The umpire may consider their statements when making a decision. In some leagues, especially junior leagues, players make their own calls, trusting each other to be honest. This is the case for many school and university level matches. However, the referee or referee's assistant can be called on court at a player's request, and the referee or assistant may change a player's call. In unofficiated matches, a ball is out only if the player entitled to make the call is sure that the ball is out. Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbiter or judge reviews evidence and argumentation including legal reasoning set forth by opposing parties or litigants to come to a decision or judgment which determines rights and obligations between the parties involved. ...


Juniors

Main article: Junior Tennis

In tennis, a junior is a player under the age of 18 who is still legally protected by a parent or guardian. Players on the main adult tour who are under 18 must have documents signed by a parent or guardian. These players, however, are still eligible to play in junior tournaments. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


The International Tennis Federation (ITF) conducts a junior tour that allows juniors to establish a world ranking and an Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) or Women's Tennis Association (WTA) ranking. Most juniors who enter the international circuit do so by progressing through ITF, Satellite, Future, and Challenger tournaments before entering the main circuit. The latter three circuits also have adults competing in them. Some juniors, however, such as Australian Lleyton Hewitt and Frenchman Gael Monfils, have catapulted directly from the junior tour to the ATP tour by dominating the junior scene or by taking advantage of opportunities given to them to participate in professional tournaments. The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, made up of 202 national tennis associations. ... The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. ... The Womens Tennis Association, formed in 1973, is the principal organizing body of womens professional tennis. ... Phil Magroinz (born 24 February 1981) is a former World No. ... Gaël Monfils (born September 1, 1986) is a professional male tennis player from France. ...


In 2004, the ITF implemented a new rankings scheme to encourage greater participation in doubles, by combining two rankings (singles and doubles) into one combined tally. Junior tournaments do not offer prize money except for the Grand Slams, which are the most prestigious junior events. Juniors may earn income from tennis by participating in the Future, Satellite, or Challenger tours. Tournaments are broken up into different tiers offering different amounts of ranking points, culminating with Grade A. In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ...


Leading juniors are also allowed to participate for their nation in the Junior Fed Cup and Davis Cup competitions as well. To succeed in tennis often means having to begin playing at a young age. To facilitate and nurture a junior's growth in tennis, almost all tennis playing nations have developed a junior development system. Juniors develop their play through a range of tournaments on all surfaces, accommodating all different standards of play. Talented juniors may also receive sponsorships from governing bodies or private institutions.


Match play

A tennis match is intended to be continuous.[24] Stamina is a relevant factor, so arbitrary delays are not permitted. In most cases, service is required to occur no more than 20 (ITF events)[24] or 25 (ATP and WTA events) seconds after the end of the previous point. This is increased to 90 seconds when the players change ends (after every odd-numbered games), and a 120 second break is permitted between sets. Other than this, breaks are permitted only when forced by events beyond the players' control, such as rain, damaged footwear, damaged racquet, or the need to retrieve an errant ball. Should a player be determined to be stalling repeatedly, the chair umpire may initially give a warning followed by subsequent penalties of "point," "game," and default of the match for the player who is consistently taking longer than the allowed time limit.[citation needed] The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, made up of 202 national tennis associations. ...


In the event of a rain delay or other such proponent, the match must be resumed at a later time. On junior professional circuits the matches are to be resumed at the score which was at the time of the delay. However, as per new revisions beginning with the 2006 Australian Open, the ATP and WTA govern different regulations regarding delays; in the event of a rain delay, the match will resume while only the end of the previously completed set before the delay is official.


Balls wear out quickly in serious play and, therefore, in ATP and WTA tournaments, they are changed after every nine games with the first change occurring after only seven games, because the first set of balls is also used for the pre-match warm-up.[citation needed][25] However, in ITF serious tournaments like Fed Cup the balls are changed in a 9-11 style.[citation needed] Continuity of the balls' condition is considered part of the game,[citation needed] so if a re-warm-up is required after an extended break in play (usually due to rain), then the re-warm-up is done using a separate set of balls, and use of the match balls is resumed only when play resumes.[citation needed] The Womens Tennis Association, formed in 1973, is the principal organizing body of womens professional tennis. ... The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, made up of 202 national tennis associations. ... The Fed Cup (until 1995 Federation Cup) is the most important tennis tournament for female national teams, very similar to the mens Davis Cup. ...


It has recently been proposed to allow coaching on court during a match on a limited basis.[citation needed] Also, technological review of official calls made its debut in a major tournament at the 2006 U.S. Open.[citation needed]


Shots

Main article: Tennis shots

A competent tennis player has eight basic shots in his or her repertoire: the serve, forehand, backhand, volley, half-volley, overhead smash, drop shot, and lob. There are eight basic shots in the game of tennis: the serve, forehand, backhand, volley, half volley (pick-up ball), overhead smash, drop shot, and lob. ...


Serve

Main article: Serve (tennis)
Tim Henman preparing to hit a serve.
Tim Henman preparing to hit a serve.

A serve (or, more formally, a "service") in tennis is a shot to start a point. The serve is initiated by tossing the ball into the air and hitting it (usually near the apex of its trajectory) into the diagonally opposite service box without touching the net. The serve may be hit under- or overhand. The Australian Frank Sedgman was one of the great serve-and-volleyers A serve (or, more formally, a service) in tennis is a shot to start a point. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 147 KB) en: Timothy Tim Henman, an English tennis player. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 147 KB) en: Timothy Tim Henman, an English tennis player. ... Timothy Henry Tim Henman OBE (born 6 September 1974 in Oxford) is a former English tennis player. ...


Experienced players strive to master the conventional overhand serve to maximize its power and placement. The server may employ different types of serve including flat serve, topspin serve, slice serve and kick (American twist) serve. A reverse type of spin serve is hit in a manner that spins the ball opposite the natural spin of the server, the spin direction depending upon right- or left-handedness. If the ball is spinning counterclockwise, it will curve right from the hitter's point of view and curve left if spinning clockwise.


Some servers are content to use the serve simply to initiate the point; however, advanced players often try to hit a winning shot with their serve. A winning serve that is not touched by the opponent is called an "ace." If the receiver manages to touch it but fails to successfully return it, it is called a "service winner."


Grips

Main article: Grip (Tennis)

Players may use the continental, eastern, semi-western, or western grips during play. Different grips generally are used for different types of spin and shots. The grip, in tennis, is how the racquet is held in order to hit shots during a match. ...


Forehand

Main article: Forehand
Roger Federer preparing to hit a forehand. Much can be learned from this photograph. Note how he is "loading" his body weight on his back (right) foot and coiling his shoulders with the help of his left hand. From this position, he will "uncoil" his body beginning with his legs, progressing to his hips and then on to his arms. This is how the "modern" forehand utilizing the open stance is executed.

For a right-handed player, the forehand is a stroke that begins on the right side of the body, continues across the body as contact is made with the ball, and ends on the left side of the body. There are various grips for executing the forehand and their popularity has fluctuated over the years. The most important ones are the continental, the eastern, the semi-western, and the western. For a number of years the small, apparently frail 1920s player Bill Johnston was considered by many to have had the best forehand of all time, a stroke that he hit shoulder-high using a western grip. Few top players used the western grip after the 1920s, but in the latter part of the 20th century, as shot-making techniques and equipment changed radically, the western forehand made a strong comeback and is now used by many modern players. No matter which grip is used, most forehands are generally executed with one hand holding the racquet, but there have been fine players with two-handed forehands. In the 1940s and 50s, the Ecuadorian/American player Pancho Segura used a two-handed forehand to devastating effect against larger, more powerful players. Currently, France's Fabrice Santoro uses a two-handed forehand. Some females such as Monica Seles and France's Marion Bartoli also use a two-handed forehand. For information on the forehand of a horse, see forehand (horse) A forehand. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Federer_Wimbledon2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Federer_Wimbledon2005. ... Federer redirects here. ... The grip, in tennis, is how the racquet is held in order to hit shots during a match. ... William (Little Bill) Johnston (2 November 1894 - 1 May 1946) was an American tennis champion. ... Pancho Segura hitting his famous two-handed forehand Pancho Segura, born Francisco Olegario Segura (June 20, 1921) was a leading tennis player of the 1940s and 1950s, both as an amateur and as a professional. ... Fabrice Vetea Santoro (born December 9, 1972) is a French professional male tennis player known for using both hands for every possible shot. ... Monica Seles (born December 2, 1973) is a former world No. ... Marion Bartoli (born October 2, 1984) is a French professional tennis player. ...


Backhand

Main article: Backhand
Li Na hitting a two-handed backhand.
Li Na hitting a two-handed backhand.

For right-handed players, the backhand is a stroke that begins on the left side of their body, continues across their body as contact is made with the ball, and ends on the right side of their body. It can be executed with either one hand or with both and is generally considered more difficult to master than the forehand. For most of the 20th century, the backhand was performed with one hand, using either an eastern or a continental grip. The first notable players to use two hands were the 1930s Australians Vivian McGrath and John Bromwich, but they were lonely exceptions. The two-handed grip gained popularity in the 1970s as Björn Borg, Chris Evert, Jimmy Connors, and later Mats Wilander used it to great effect, and it is now used by a large number of the world's best players, including Andre Agassi and Venus Williams. Andy Roddick uses the extreme western grip to create massive amounts of top spin. It is difficult to do this and could possibly cause injury if done incorrectly. Two hands give the player more power, while one hand can generate a slice shot, applying backspin on the ball to produce a low trajectory bounce. The player long considered to have had the best backhand of all time, Don Budge, had a powerful one-handed stroke in the 1930s and 1940s that imparted topspin onto the ball. Ken Rosewall, another player noted for his one-handed backhand, used a deadly accurate slice backhand through the 1950s and 1960s. A small number of players, notably Monica Seles, use two hands on both the backhand and forehand sides. Justine Henin has one of the best one-handed backhands in todays tennis The backhand in tennis is a stroke hit by swinging the racquet away from ones body in the direction of where the player wants the ball to go. ... Vivian McGrath (center) in 1934 Vivian Viv McGrath was an Australian tennis champion of the 1930s who, along with another Australian, John Bromwich was one of the first great players to use a two-handed backhand. ... John Bromwich (1918-1999) was an Australian male tennis player. ...   (born June 6, 1956, in Stockholm, Sweden) is a former World No. ... Christine Marie Evert (born December 21, 1954) is a former World No. ... James Scott (Jimmy) Connors (born September 2, 1952 in East St. ... Mats Wilander (born August 22, 1964, in Vaxjo, Sweden) is a former World No. ... Andre Kirk Agassi (born April 29, 1970) is a former World No. ... Venus Ebone Starr Williams (born June 17, 1980 in Lynwood, California) is an American professional tennis player. ... Andrew Stephen Andy Roddick (born August 30, 1982) is an American professional tennis player and a former World No. ... Don Budge hitting a backhand as an amateur in 1935 John Donald (Don or Donnie) Budge (June 13, 1915 – January 26, 2000) was an American tennis champion who was a World No. ... Ken Rosewall and Lew Hoad in a 1952 Davis Cup doubles match Ken Robert Rosewall (born November 2, 1934 in Sydney, Australia) is a former champion tennis player with a renowned backhand who enjoyed an exceptionally long career at the highest levels, from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. ... Monica Seles (born December 2, 1973) is a former world No. ...


Other shots

Justine Henin performing a backhand volley.
Justine Henin performing a backhand volley.

A volley is made in the air before the ball bounces, generally near the net, and is usually made with a stiff-wristed punching motion to hit the ball into an open area of the opponent's court. The half volley is made by hitting the ball on the rise just after it has bounced, once again generally in the vicinity of the net. The swinging volley is hit out of the air as the player approaches the net. It is an offensive shot used to take preparation time away from the opponent. From a poor defensive position on the baseline, the lob can be used as either an offensive or defensive weapon, hitting the ball high and deep into the opponent's court to either enable the lobber to get into better defensive position or to win the point outright by hitting it over the opponent's head. If the lob is not hit deeply enough into the other court, however, the opponent may then hit an overhead smash, a hard, serve-like shot, to try to end the point. Finally, if an opponent is deep in his court, a player may suddenly employ an unexpected drop shot, softly tapping the ball just over the net so that the opponent is unable to run in fast enough to retrieve it. No matter what shot it is, a forehand, backhand, serve or volley, putting spin on the ball, knowing how to use spin to its best advantage, is what separates the top players from the rest. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1598x1173, 1721 KB) Summary Justine Henin-Hardenne at the 2006 Medibank International on 12 January 2006 Photo taken by myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1598x1173, 1721 KB) Summary Justine Henin-Hardenne at the 2006 Medibank International on 12 January 2006 Photo taken by myself. ... Justine Henin; ( ) (born June 1, 1982 in Liège) is a Belgian professional tennis player from the Walloon (French-speaking) region of Belgium. ... Justine Henin has one of the best one-handed backhands in todays tennis The backhand in tennis is a stroke hit by swinging the racquet away from ones body in the direction of where the player wants the ball to go. ... Arguably the best volleyer in the game now, Tim Henman is well-known around the tennis community for his excellent touch. A volley in tennis is a shot that is hit before the ball bounces on the ground. ... A half volley in tennis is a shot that is hit immediately after the ball bounces. ... A lob in tennis is hitting the ball high and deep into the opponents court. ... An overhead smash in tennis is a shot that is hit above the head with a serve-like motion. ... A drop shot in tennis is tapping the ball just over the net so that the opponent is unable to run fast enough to retrieve it. ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ...


Tournaments

See also: List of tennis tournaments

Tournaments are often organized by gender and number of players. Common tournament configurations include men's singles, women's singles, and doubles, where two players play on each side of net. Tournaments may be arranged for specific age groups, with upper age limits for youth and lower age limits for senior players. Example of this include the Orange Bowl and Les Petits As. There are also tournaments for players with disabilities, such as wheelchair tennis and deaf tennis.[26] In the four Grand Slam tournaments, the singles draws are limited to 128 people for each gender. List of tennis tournaments: Tournaments played in 2006: Grand Slams: Australian Open, Melbourne, Australia French Open, Paris, France Wimbledon, London, England U.S. Open, New York, U.S. Team Cups: Davis Cup Fed Cup Hopman Cup Team Cups: ARAG World Team Cup Tour Championship: Tennis Masters Cup ATP Masters Series... The Orange Bowl is an ITF World Junior championships event, and is widely recognized as one of the most important junior tennis championships in the world[1]. The tournament consists of Boys and Girls 12 and 14-year-old age divisions, and takes place during December in varying locations in... A wheelchair tennis player serving. ... In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ...


Players may also be matched by their skill level. According to how well a person does in sanctioned play, a player is given a rating that is adjusted periodically to maintain competitive matches. For example, the United States Tennis Association administers the National Tennis Rating Program, which rates players between 1.0 and 7.0 in 1/2 point increments. Average club players under this system would rate 3.0-4.5 while world class players would be 7.0 on this scale. The United States Tennis Association (USTA), previously known as the United States National Lawn Tennis Association, was established by a small group of tennis club members in a meeting held at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City. ...


Grand Slam tournaments

The four Grand Slam tournaments are considered to be the most prestigious tennis tournaments in the world. They are held annually and include, in chronological order, the Australian Open, the French Open, Wimbledon, and the US Open. Apart from Davis Cup, Fed Cup, and Hopman Cup, they are the only tournaments regulated by the International Tennis Federation (ITF).[27] The ITF's national associations, Tennis Australia (Australian Open), the French Tennis Federation (French Open), the United States Tennis Association (US Open), and the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club and Lawn Tennis Association (Wimbledon), are delegated the responsibility to organize these events.[27] In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ... The Australian Open is held each January at Melbourne Park. ... The French Open, officially the Tournoi de Roland-Garros (English: Roland Garros Tournament), is a tennis event held over two weeks between mid May and early June in Paris, France, and is the second of the Grand Slam tournaments on the annual tennis calendar. ... Wimbledon logo The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as simply Wimbledon, is the oldest and arguably most prestigious event in the sport of tennis. ... For other uses, see U.S. Open. ... The great Australians Lew Hoad and Ken Rosewall with the Cup in 1953 The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in mens tennis. ... The Fed Cup (until 1995 Federation Cup) is the most important tennis tournament for female national teams, very similar to the mens Davis Cup. ... The Hopman Cup is an annual international team tennis tournament held in Perth, Western Australia in early-January (sometimes commencing in late-December) each year. ... The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, made up of 202 national tennis associations. ... The Tennis Australia is the governing body for the sport of tennis in Australia. ... The Fédération française de tennis (French tennis federation), also known as the FFT is an organisation set up in 1920 that takes charge of the organisation, co-ordination and promotion of tennis in France. ... The United States Tennis Association (USTA), previously known as the United States National Lawn Tennis Association, was established by a small group of tennis club members in a meeting held at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City. ... The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is based at Wimbledon in the London Borough of Merton, at grid reference TQ242721. ... The Lawn Tennis Association (LTA) is the governing body of tennis in the United Kingdom. ...


Aside from the historical significance of these events, they also carry larger prize funds than any other tour event and are worth double the number of ranking points to the champion than in the next echelon of tournaments, the Tennis Masters Series (men) and Tier I events (women).[28] [29] Another distinguishing feature is the number of players in the singles draw, 128, more than any other professional tennis tournament. This draw is composed of 32 seeded players, other players ranked in the world's top 100, qualifiers, and players who receive invitations through wild cards. Grand Slam men's tournaments have best-of-five set matches throughout. Grand Slam tournaments are among the small number of events that last two weeks, the others being the Pacific Life Open in Indian Wells, California and the Sony Ericsson Open in Key Biscayne, Florida. Currently, the Grand Slam tournaments are the only tour events that have mixed doubles contests. Grand Slam tournaments are held in conjunction with wheelchair tennis tournaments (with the exception being Wimbledon, where the grass surface prevents this) and junior tennis competitions. Grand Slam tournaments are often seen as the culmination of a particular season, such as the US Open Series. These tournaments also contain their own idiosyncrasies. For example, players at Wimbledon are required to wear predominantly white, a rule that has made certain players, such as Andre Agassi, skip the tournament.[30] The Tennis Masters Series is a series of nine tennis tournaments held throughout the year in Europe and North America. ... In North American professional sports leagues, the term wild card refers to a team that qualifies for the championship playoffs without winning their specific subdivision (usually called a conference or division) outright. ... Indian Wells Tennis Garden, Indian Wells, California The Indian Wells Masters is an annual tennis tournament held at Indian Wells, California. ... Indian Wells is a city located in Riverside County, California, in the Palm Springs area, in between Palm Desert and La Quinta. ... The Miami Masters is an annual tennis tournament for men and women held at Key Biscayne, in Miami-Dade County, Florida. ... Location in Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Miami-Dade Established 1991 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Bob Oldakowski Area  - Village 3. ... Singles in tennis is the body of competition that features individual players competing one-on-one. ... Grass courts are the fastest kind of tennis courts, next to cement courts or hard courts. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The US Open Series is the six-week summer tennis season linking 10 ATP Tour and Sony Ericsson WTA Tour tournaments together. ... Andre Kirk Agassi (born April 29, 1970) is a former World No. ...

Period Tournament Location Surface
January Australian Open Melbourne Hard (Plexicushion)
May-June French Open Paris Clay
June-July Wimbledon London Grass
August-September US Open New York Hard (DecoTurf)


For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... The Australian Open is held each January at Melbourne Park. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Plexicushion is a tennis surface made by Plexipave, a company based in Massachussetts, USA. According to a technical manual found on Tennis Australias website, it is one of a number of so called Wet lay systems which include Rebound Ace Pro, Laykold and DecoTurf. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... The French Open, officially the Tournoi de Roland-Garros (English: Roland Garros Tournament), is a tennis event held over two weeks between mid May and early June in Paris, France, and is the second of the Grand Slam tournaments on the annual tennis calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... A clay court in Hattori Ryokuchi Park, Osaka A clay court is one of the four different types of tennis court. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Wimbledon logo The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as simply Wimbledon, is the oldest and arguably most prestigious event in the sport of tennis. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Grass courts are the fastest kind of tennis courts, next to cement courts or hard courts. ... For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see U.S. Open. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Used at the US Open as well the US Open Series tournaments, DecoTurf is a tennis hardcourt comprised of layers of Acrylic, rubber, silica, and other materials on top of an asphalt base. ...


Tennis Masters Series

The ATP Masters Series logo

The Tennis Masters Series is a group of nine tournaments that form the second-highest echelon in men's tennis. Each event is held annually, and a win at one of these events is worth 500 ranking points. When the Association of Tennis Professionals, led by Hamilton Jordan, began running the men's tour in 1990, the directors designated the top nine tournaments, outside of the Grand Slam events, as "Super Nine" events.[31] These eventually became the Tennis Masters Series. In November at the end of the tennis year, the world's top eight players compete in the Tennis Masters Cup, a tournament with a rotating locale. It is currently held in Shanghai, China, and will move to London in 2009.[32] Image File history File links Tennis_Masters_Series. ... Image File history File links Tennis_Masters_Series. ... The Tennis Masters Series is a series of nine tennis tournaments held throughout the year in Europe and North America. ... The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. ... Hamilton Jordan William Hamilton McWhorter Jordan (born September 21, 1944) is best known as Jimmy Carters Chief of Staff. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ... The Tennis Masters Cup is a tennis tournament played annually at the end of each year, involving the top eight players in the mens tennis world rankings. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2009, the Tennis Masters Series will undergo several changes. The series will be renamed again, this time as the "1,000 Series," a reference to the number of points the champion of each event will garner. (All other tournaments will have their ranking points adjusted proportionately.)[33] The Tennis Masters Cup, in addition to its relocation, will be renamed the ATP World Tour Final. However, Shanghai will host a new 1,000 Series event. The Monte Carlo and Hamburg events were originally downgraded; however, the Monte Carlo tournament was eventually granted 1,000 Series status, with the exception being that the event would not be mandatory.[33] The ATP also plans to be more stringent in its examination of players who withdraw from 1,000 Series events. Each player who withdraws will be examined by a medical panel. The ATP plans to fine, and even suspend, players who disregard these rules.[34] The Monte Carlo Masters is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players held in Monte Carlo, Monaco. ... The Hamburg Masters is one of the Association of Tennis Professionals Tennis Masters Series tennis tournaments. ...


Current Tennis Masters Series tournaments

Period Tournament Location Surface
March Pacific Life Open Indian Wells, California, U.S. Hard
March-April Sony Ericsson Open Key Biscayne, Florida, U.S. Hard
April Masters Series Monte Carlo Monte Carlo, Monaco Clay
May Internazionali d'Italia Rome, Italy Clay
May Masters Series Hamburg Hamburg, Germany Clay
August Rogers Cup Montreal/Toronto, Canada Hard
August Western & Southern Financial Group Masters Cincinnati, U.S. Hard
October Mutua Madrileña Masters Madrid, Spain Hard (indoor)
October-November BNP Paribas Masters Paris, France Carpet (indoor)


For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... The Indian Wells Masters is an annual tennis tournament held in the small city of Indian Wells, California. ... Indian Wells is a city located in Riverside County, California, in the Palm Springs area, in between Palm Desert and La Quinta. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... The Miami Masters is an annual tennis tournament for men and women held at Key Biscayne, in Miami, Florida. ... Location in Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Miami-Dade Established 1991 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Bob Oldakowski Area  - Village 3. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... The Monte Carlo Masters is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players held in Monte Carlo, Monaco. ... Monte Carlo is a very wealthy section of the city-state of Monaco known for its casino, gambling, beaches, glamour, and sightings of famous people. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... The Rome Masters is an annual tennis tournament held in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... The Hamburg Masters is one of the Association of Tennis Professionals Tennis Masters Series tennis tournaments. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... The Canada Masters is an annual tennis tournament held in Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... The Cincinnati Masters is an annual tennis event held in the Cincinnati suburb of Mason, Ohio, USA. The event started on September 18, 1899 and is today the oldest tennis tournament in the United States played in its original city. ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... The Mutua Madrileña Masters Madrid is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... The BNP Paribas Masters is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players held in Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


International Series

The International Series for men is split in to two categories, both run by the ATP: the International Series and International Series Gold. Like the Tennis Masters Series, these events offer various amounts of prize money, and some regular International Series events offer larger prize monies than International Series Gold tournaments.[28] The Barclays Dubai Tennis Championships offer the largest financial incentive to players, with total prize money of US$1,426,000. The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. ... The International Series is a series of professional tennis tournaments held internationally that are part of the ATP Tour. ... International Series Gold is a series of professional tennis tournaments held internationally that are part of the ATP Tour. ... The Tennis Masters Series is a series of nine tennis tournaments held throughout the year in Europe and North America. ... The Dubai Tennis Championships is a professional tennis tournament held in Dubai, U.A.E. on outdoor hardcourts. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Challenger Series and Futures Tournaments

The Challenger Series logo

The Challenger Series for men is the lowest level of tournament administered by the ATP. It is composed of roughly 160 events and, as a result, features a more diverse range of countries hosting events.[35] The majority of players use the Challenger Series to work their way up the rankings, including World No. 1s Pete Sampras, Marcelo Ríos, Patrick Rafter, and Gustavo Kuerten. Andre Agassi, between winning Grand Slam titles, plummeted to World No. 141 and used Challenger Series events for match experience and to progress back up the rankings.[36] The Challenger Series offers prize funds of between US$25,000 to US$150,000. Image File history File links ATP_Challenger. ... Image File history File links ATP_Challenger. ... The ATP Challenger Series is a series of international mens professional tennis tournaments that allow players to win enough ranking points to earn an entry into an ATP-level main draw or qualifying draw. ... The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. ... Petros “Pete” Sampras (born 12 August 1971), is a former World No. ... Marcelo Andrés Ríos Mayorga (born December 26, 1975) is a former world number one tennis player from Chile. ... Patrick Michael Rafter (born 28 December 1972) is an Australian former World No. ... Gustavo Kuerten (born September 10, 1976 in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina) is a former World No. ... Andre Kirk Agassi (born April 29, 1970) is a former World No. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Below the Challenger Series are the Futures Tournaments, the main events on the ITF Men's Circuit. These tournaments also contribute towards a player's ATP rankings points. Futures Tournaments offer prize funds of between US$10,000 and US$15,000; however, futures status is granted only to events offering a total of US$30,000, meaning that two or three tournaments are played.[37] Approximately 400 Futures Tournaments are played each year. Futures tournaments are tennis tournaments that are events held by the ITF Mens Circuit. ... THe ITF Mens Circuit is a series of professional tennis tournaments held around the world that are organized by the International Tennis Federation. ... The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional Tennis players. ...


Tier I events

Tier I events for women form the most prestigious level of events on the Women's Tennis Association Tour (WTA Tour) after the Grand Slam tournaments. These events offer the largest rewards in terms of points and prize money. The tiering system in women's tennis was introduced in 1988. At the time of its creation, only two tournaments, the Sony Ericsson Open in Key Biscayne, Florida and the Qatar Telecom German Open in Berlin, comprised the Tier I category. In 1990, the category was expanded to include six tournaments, and subsequent additions to the category have resulted in nine events comprising the category today. Currently, two of these events (the Pacific Life Open in Indian Wells, California and the Sony Ericsson Open) are held concurrently with men's Tennis Masters Series tournaments. In 2009, six Tennis Masters Series events will be combined with Tier I WTA Tour tournaments.[38] The WTA Tier I tournaments are ten Womens Tennis Association (WTA) tennis tournaments held throughout the year in various locations around the world, chiefly in Europe and North America. ... WTA stands for Womens Tennis Association, and is also known as the WTA Tour, and is to womens tennis what the ATP is to mens tennis. ... In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Miami Masters is an annual tennis tournament for men and women held at Key Biscayne, in Miami-Dade County, Florida. ... Location in Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Miami-Dade Established 1991 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Bob Oldakowski Area  - Village 3. ... The Qatar Telecom German Open is a WTA Tour affiliated professional tennis tournament for women played in Berlin, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Indian Wells Tennis Garden, Indian Wells, California The Indian Wells Masters is an annual tennis tournament held at Indian Wells, California. ... Indian Wells is a city located in Riverside County, California, in the Palm Springs area, in between Palm Desert and La Quinta. ... The Tennis Masters Series is a series of nine tennis tournaments held throughout the year in Europe and North America. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Grand Slam winners

See also: Tennis statistics

Male players who have played at least part of their careers during the open era and who have won at least two Grand Slam singles titles are as follows: Pete Sampras (14), Roger Federer (12), Roy Emerson (12), Rod Laver (11), Björn Borg (11), Ken Rosewall (8), Jimmy Connors (8), Ivan Lendl (8), Andre Agassi (8), John Newcombe (7), John McEnroe (7), Mats Wilander (7), Boris Becker (6), Stefan Edberg (6), Jim Courier (4), Guillermo Vilas (4), Arthur Ashe (3), Jan Kodes (3), Gustavo Kuerten (3), Rafael Nadal (3), Stan Smith (2), Ilie Năstase (2), Johan Kriek (2), Lleyton Hewitt (2), Yevgeny Kafelnikov (2), Patrick Rafter (2), Sergi Bruguera (2), and Marat Safin (2). It has been suggested that Tennis world champions named by the International Tennis Federation, Female tennis players with most singles major championship wins, Male tennis players with most singles major championship wins be merged into this article or section. ... The Open Era in tennis began in 1968, when the Grand Slam events such as the Wimbledon Championships abandoned the longstanding rules of amateurism and allowed professionals to compete. ... In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ... Petros “Pete” Sampras (born 12 August 1971), is a former World No. ... Federer redirects here. ... Roy Stanley Emerson (born November 3, 1936) is a former champion Australian tennis player. ... For the arena in Melbourne Park used for show matches in the Australian Open, see Rod Laver Arena Rodney George (Rod) Laver MBE (born August 9, 1938, in Rockhampton, Australia) is a former tennis player from Australia who was the World No. ...   (born June 6, 1956, in Stockholm, Sweden) is a former World No. ... Ken Rosewall and Lew Hoad in a 1952 Davis Cup doubles match Ken Robert Rosewall (born November 2, 1934 in Sydney, Australia) is a former champion tennis player with a renowned backhand who enjoyed an exceptionally long career at the highest levels, from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. ... James Scott (Jimmy) Connors (born September 2, 1952 in East St. ... Ivan Lendl (IPA: ) (born March 7, 1960, in Ostrava, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic)) is a former World No. ... Andre Kirk Agassi (born April 29, 1970) is a former World No. ... John Newcombe. ... John Patrick McEnroe Jr. ... Mats Wilander (born August 22, 1964, in Vaxjo, Sweden) is a former World No. ... Boris Franz Becker (born November 22, 1967) is a former World No. ... Stefan Bengt Edberg (born January 19, 1966 in Västervik, Sweden) is a former World No. ... James Spencer Jim Courier, Jr. ... Guillermo Vilas (born August 17, 1952 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is a former Argentine professional tennis player. ... Arthur Robert Ashe, Jr. ... Jan KodeÅ¡ (born March 1, 1946, in Prague, Czechoslovakia) was a right-handed Czech tennis player who won three Grand Slam events in the early-1970s. ... Gustavo Kuerten (born September 10, 1976 in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina) is a former World No. ... Rafael Nadal Parera (IPA: ) (born June 3, 1986, in Manacor, Mallorca) is a Spanish professional tennis player. ... For other persons named Stan Smith, see Stan Smith (disambiguation). ... Ilie Năstase (born July 19, 1946, in Bucharest) is a former Romanian professional tennis player and one of the top players of the 1970s. ... Johan Kriek (born April 5, 1958) is a South African / American professional male tennis player and founder of the Global Water Foundation, a non-profit organization dedicated to delivering clean water to the worlds neediest communities. ... Phil Magroinz (born 24 February 1981) is a former World No. ... Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Kafelnikov (born 18 February 1974; Russian: , yev-GHE-neey KAH-fill-nee-coff) is a former World No. ... Patrick Michael Rafter (born 28 December 1972) is an Australian former World No. ... Sergi Bruguera Torner (born on January 16, 1971, in Barcelona, Spain) is a retired professional tennis player from Spain. ... Marat Mikhailovich Safin (Tatar: ; Russian: ; b. ...


Female players who have played at least part of their careers during the open era and who have won at least two Grand Slam singles titles are as follows: Margaret Court (24), Steffi Graf (22), Chris Evert (18), Martina Navrátilová (18), Billie Jean King (12), Monica Seles (9), Serena Williams (8), Justine Henin (7), Evonne Goolagong Cawley (7), Venus Williams (6), Martina Hingis (5), Hana Mandlíková (4), Arantxa Sánchez Vicario (4), Maria Sharapova (3), Virginia Wade (3), Lindsay Davenport (3), Jennifer Capriati (3), Nancy Richey Gunter (2), Tracy Austin (2), Mary Pierce (2), and Amélie Mauresmo (2). Margaret Smith Court (pre-marital name: Margaret Jean Smith) (born July 16, 1942) is a retired Australian professional tennis player. ... For the Austrian runner, see Stephanie Graf. ... Christine Marie Evert (born December 21, 1954) is a former World No. ... Martina Navrátilová (b. ... Billie Jean Moffitt King (born November 22, 1943 in Long Beach, California) is a retired tennis player from the United States. ... Monica Seles (born December 2, 1973) is a former world No. ... Serena Jameka Williams, (born September 26, 1981) is an American former World No. ... Justine Henin; ( ) (born June 1, 1982 in Liège) is a Belgian professional tennis player from the Walloon (French-speaking) region of Belgium. ... Evonne Fay Goolagong Cawley, born July 31, 1951 at Griffith, New South Wales, Australia, was a professional tennis player. ... Venus Ebone Starr Williams (born June 17, 1980 in Lynwood, California) is an American professional tennis player. ... Martina Hingis (pronounced: ) (born September 30, 1980 in KoÅ¡ice, Slovakia) is a former World No. ... Hana Mandlíková, a professional tennis player, was born on February 19, 1962, in Prague, Czech Republic. ... Aranzazu (Arantxa) Isabel Maria Sánchez Vicario1 (born December 18, 1971, in Barcelona, Spain) is a former World No. ... Maria Sharapova at Indian Wells in 2005. ... Sarah Virginia Wade (born July 10, 1945, in Bournemouth, England) is a former tennis player from the United Kingdom. ... Lindsay Ann Davenport (born June 8, 1976 in Palos Verdes, California) is a former World No. ... Jennifer Marie Capriati (born March 29, 1976, in New York City) is a former World No. ... Nancy Richey Gunter (born August 23, 1942 in San Angelo, Texas, United States) is a former tennis player from the U.S. During her career, she won two Grand Slam singles titles (1967 Australian Championships and 1968 French Open) and four Grand Slam womens doubles titles (1965 U.S... Tracy Ann Austin Holt (b. ... Mary Pierce (born on January 15, 1975, in Montreal, Canada) is a French-American womens professional tennis player on the WTA and one of the leading women in professional sports with multiple Grand Slam tennis championships to her name. ... Amélie Simone Mauresmo ( in French) (born on 5 July 1979) is a French professional tennis player. ...


The greatest male singles players of all time

Further information: Tennis male players statistics, World number one male tennis player rankings

A frequent topic of discussion among tennis fans and commentators is who was the greatest male singles player of all time. No consensus has ever existed, however. By a large margin, an Associated Press poll in 1950 named Bill Tilden as the greatest player of the first half of the 20th century.[39] From 1920-1930, Tilden won singles titles at Wimbledon three times and the U.S. Championships seven times. In 1938, however, Donald Budge became the first person to win all four Grand Slam singles titles during the same calendar year and won six consecutive Grand Slam singles titles in 1937 and 1938. Tilden called Budge "the finest player 365 days a year that ever lived."[40] And in his 1979 autobiography, Jack Kramer said that, based on consistent play, Budge was the greatest player ever.[41] Some observers, however, also felt that Kramer deserved consideration for the title. Kramer was among the few who dominated amateur and professional tennis during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Tony Trabert has said that of the players he saw before the start of the open era, Kramer was the best male champion.[42] // Before the start of the open era in 1968, the professional circuit was much less popular than the traditional amateur circuit. ... World number one male tennis player rankings is a year-by-year listing of both the male tennis player who, at the end of a full year of play, has generally been considered to be the best overall player for the entire year, and of the runner-up for that... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as Wimbledon, is the oldest major championship in tennis and is widely considered to be the most prestigious. ... For other uses, see U.S. Open. ... John Donald Budge (June 13, 1915 - January 26, 2000) was a champion tennis player who became famous as the first man to win in a single year the four tournaments that the Grand Slam of tennis comprises. ... In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ... Jack Kramer can refer to: Jack Kramer: a Major League Baseball player Jack Kramer: a tennis player This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Marion Anthony Trabert (born August 16, 1930 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is a former star tennis player and longtime tennis author, TV commentator, instructor, and motivation speaker. ... The Open Era in tennis began in 1968, when the Grand Slam events such as the Wimbledon Championships abandoned the longstanding rules of amateurism and allowed professionals to compete. ...


By the latter half of the 1950s and 1960s, Budge and others had added Pancho Gonzales and Lew Hoad to the list of contenders. Budge reportedly believed that Gonzales was the greatest player ever.[43] Gonzales said about Hoad, "When Lew's game was at its peak nobody could touch him.  ... I think his game was the best game ever. Better than mine. He was capable of making more shots than anybody. His two volleys were great. His overhead was enormous. He had the most natural tennis mind with the most natural tennis physique."[44] Ricardo Alonso González or Richard Gonzalez, (May 9, 1928 – July 3, 1995), who was generally known as Pancho Gonzales or, less often, as Pancho Gonzalez, was the World No. ... Lewis Alan Hoad, born November 23, 1934 in Glebe, New South Wales, Australia - died July 3, 1994 in Fuengirola, Spain, was a champion tennis player. ...


During the open era, first Rod Laver and then more recently Björn Borg and Pete Sampras were regarded by many of their contemporaries as among the greatest ever. Cliff Drysdale has said that Laver is the greatest player ever.[45] Mats Wilander said, "The greatest player ever is not necessarily the player who has won the most. I would say that Björn Borg is the greatest player ever because he won Wimbledon five times in a row. And out of those five times, he won the French Open all of those five years, plus another year."[46] Laver has said that Sampras is "equal to anyone who has ever played the game."[47] John McEnroe has said that either Laver or Sampras is the greatest player ever.[48] Roger Federer is now considered by many observers to have the most "complete" game in modern tennis, with the potential to challenge the achievements of these past greats. Many experts of tennis, former tennis players and some of his own tennis peers believe Federer may become the greatest player in the history of the game.[49][50][51][52][53] The tennis historian Raymond Lee did a statistical analysis account of the question, counting tournament wins totals and percentages of career match wins and wins in a 5 year period. His alltime list ranks Laver ahead of Borg and Tilden (tie), Federer, Gonzales, Rosewall, Budge, Lendl, Connors, Sampras in the top ten.[54] For the arena in Melbourne Park used for show matches in the Australian Open, see Rod Laver Arena Rodney George (Rod) Laver MBE (born August 9, 1938, in Rockhampton, Australia) is a former tennis player from Australia who was the World No. ...   (born June 6, 1956, in Stockholm, Sweden) is a former World No. ... Petros “Pete” Sampras (born 12 August 1971), is a former World No. ... The Three Major Professional Tournaments Professional tennis players in the years before the Open era began in 1968 played mostly on tours in head-to-head competition. ... Mats Wilander (born August 22, 1964, in Vaxjo, Sweden) is a former World No. ... John Patrick McEnroe Jr. ... Federer redirects here. ...


See also

General

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tennis Portal

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... In tennis, a player uses different strategies that both enhance his own strengths and exploit his opponents weaknesses in order to gain the advantage and win more points. ... A tennis net Tennis games are often used to help players of all abilities to practice the different strokes involved in tennis. ...

Other forms

Paddle tennis is a racquet sport invented in 1898 by Mr. ... Platform tennis is unique as the only racquet sport that is played outdoors in cold weather. ... Jeu de paume in the 17th century. ... Turbo extra Tennis is a shortened form of tennis invented in the Africa in which players play in a fast knockout tournament which consists of five matches of 30 minutes each taking place over the course of a single afternoon. ... Singles in tennis is the body of competition that features individual players competing one-on-one. ...

Statistics

It has been suggested that Tennis world champions named by the International Tennis Federation, Female tennis players with most singles major championship wins, Male tennis players with most singles major championship wins be merged into this article or section. ... // Before the start of the open era in 1968, the professional circuit was much less popular than the traditional amateur circuit. ... // The Three Major Professional Tournaments Professional tennis players in the years before the Open era began in 1968 played mostly on tours in head-to-head competition. ... World number one male tennis player rankings is a year-by-year listing of both the male tennis player who, at the end of a full year of play, has generally been considered to be the best overall player for the entire year, and of the runner-up for that... The ATP Rankings is the Association of Tennis Professionals historical objective merit-based method used for determining entry and seeding in mens tennis tournaments. ... This is a list of all the female tennis player who have been or are ranked World No. ... This is a list of the male and female tennis players who have won thirty or more official events on the tennis tour in the Open Era (singles and doubles combined). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tennis statistics. ... Note: Players in bold are active players. ... When completed, this article will present in a tabular form the career tennis Grand Slam singles results of every man who has reached the singles final of at least one Grand Slam tournament during his career. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

References

  1. ^ History of Rule 3 - The Ball. ITF. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  2. ^ Tyzack, Anna, The True Home of Tennis Country Life, 22 June 2005
  3. ^ "Lawn Tennis and Major T. H. Gem" Birmingham Civic Society
  4. ^ Leamington Tennis Club. Retrieved on 2008-03-18.
  5. ^ Introduction to Tennis. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  6. ^ The History of Tennis - Mary Bellis
  7. ^ The Start of Something Special - BBC Sport
  8. ^ History of United States Tennis Association. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  9. ^ Fact & History of Rhodes Island. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  10. ^ Leading The Way - BBC Sport
  11. ^ History of the French Open. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  12. ^ Grand Slam - Australian Open
  13. ^ a b c d Suzanne Lenglen and the First Pro Tour. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  14. ^ Originality of the phrase "Grand Slam". Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  15. ^ James Henry Van Alen in the Tennis Hall of Fame. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  16. ^ Davis Cup by BNP Paribas. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  17. ^ History of the Pro Tennis Wars Chapter 2, part 1 1927-1928. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  18. ^ Open Minded - Bruce Goldman
  19. ^ Tennis, professional tournaments before the open era
  20. ^ International Tennis Hall of Fame Information. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  21. ^ a b Tennis court dimensions. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  22. ^ Another theoretical foot fault would be incurred by touching a sideline; however this has probably never been called because a player in such an extreme position would be giving her or himself a definite disadvantage
  23. ^ In the 1990s women played best of five sets for several years in the final of the year-ending championships, but the practice was abandoned.
  24. ^ a b The ITF states this in Rule No. 29
  25. ^ As a courtesy to the receiver, the server will often signal to the receiver before the 1st serve of the game in which new balls are used as a reminder that they are using new balls.
  26. ^ Lawn Tennis Association Deaf tennis. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  27. ^ a b Grand Slams. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  28. ^ a b ATP rankings. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  29. ^ WTA Tour Rankings. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  30. ^ "What not to wear at Wimbledon", BBC SPORT, Sarah Holt, 2008-06-15. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. 
  31. ^ History of Tennis. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  32. ^ "London to host World Tour Final", BBC SPORT, Piers Newbery, 2007-07-03. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. 
  33. ^ a b "ATP Revise Masters Series for 2009", Inside Tennis, Chris Gilbert, 2007-09-01. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. 
  34. ^ "ATP Unveils New Top Tier Of Events For 2009", Core Tennis, ATP, 2007-08-31. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. 
  35. ^ "About the Challenger Circuit", Association of Tennis Professionals. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. 
  36. ^ "An appreciation of Andre Agassi", ESPN, Matt Wilansky, 2006-07-01. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. 
  37. ^ About the ITF Men's Circuit. Retrieved on 2008-03-18.
  38. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Core
  39. ^ Tilden brought theatrics to tennis
  40. ^ Don Budge's Comments After 1937 Davis Cup Semi-final Match Against Baron Gottfried von Cramm (1:07). Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  41. ^ The Game, My 40 Years in Tennis (1979), Jack Kramer with Frank Deford (ISBN 0-399-12336-9)
  42. ^ Richard Pagliaro (February 26, 2004). The Tennis Week Interview: Tony Trabert Part II. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  43. ^ Will Grimsley, Tennis: Its History, People, and Events (1971)
  44. ^ www.jamesbuddell.com/files/hoad.pdf (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  45. ^ www.steveflink.com/great.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  46. ^ A conversation with Mats Wilander. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  47. ^ www.steveflink.com/great.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  48. ^ A Rivalry To Remember: Courier Analyzes Agassi vs. Sampras. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  49. ^ "Roddick: Federer might be greatest ever", The Associated Press, 2005-07-03. Retrieved on 2007-03-02. 
  50. ^ "Federer inspires comparisons to all-time greats", The Associated Press, 2004-09-12. Retrieved on 2007-03-02. 
  51. ^ "4-In-A-Row For Federer", The Associated Press, 2006-07-09. Retrieved on 2007-03-02. 
  52. ^ Sarkar, Pritha. "Greatness beckons Federer", Reuters, 2005-07-04. Retrieved on 2007-03-02. 
  53. ^ Collins, Bud. "Federer Simply In a League of His Own", MSNBC Website, MSNBC.COM, 2005-07-03. Retrieved on 2007-04-09. 
  54. ^ Greatest Player Of All Time: A Statistical Analysis

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Before the beginning of the Open era in 1968 only amateurs were allowed to compete in mainstream tennis tournaments, including the four Grand Slams. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC Sport is the sports division of the BBC. It became a fully dedicated division of the BBC in 2000. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC Sport is the sports division of the BBC. It became a fully dedicated division of the BBC in 2000. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Robert Gilbert (born April 16, 1984, Scarborough, Yorkshire) is a cricketer who represented England at various age levels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ESPN, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American cable television network dedicated to broadcasting and producing sports-related programming 24 hours a day. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • We Have Come a Long Way. King, Billie Jean and Starr, Cynthia. (1998) McGraw-Hill ISBN 0-07024-625-9
  • http://www.tennis.com - Tennis.com


  Results from FactBites:
 
TENNIS.com - The Official Site of TENNIS Magazine (179 words)
Justine Henin continued her march through the WTA Championships at Madrid, defeating Ana Ivanovic in two relatively untroubled sets to reach the final.
IN THE SPOTLIGHT: Tennis players grabbed plenty of headlines and airtime during the US Open.
TENNIS Magazine is published 10 times per year.
eBay Guides - Tennis Buying Guide (2165 words)
These tennis racquets typically measure between 27 inches (standard tennis racquets) and 29 inches (longest regulation tennis racquets) long, weigh 8 to 9.5 ounces, and have an oversized head of at least 100 square inches.
Control tennis racquets have an 80- to 105-inch midsize head or midplus head, usually have a 1- to 1.5-inch head-light balance, and weigh between 11.5 and 13 ounces.
However, tennis racquets with smaller heads are easier to control, especially for players who produce a lot of power on their own.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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