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Encyclopedia > Tennessee Valley Authority
TVA logo

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is a federally owned corporation in the United States created in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly hard hit by the Great Depression. The TVA was envisioned not only as an electricity provider, but also as a regional economic development agency that would use federal expers and electricity to rapidly modernize the region's economy and society. The TVA's jurisdiction covers most of Tennessee, parts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Kentucky, and small slices of Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. It is a political entity with a territory the size of a major state, and with some state powers (such as eminent domain), but unlike a state, it has no citizenry or elected officials. It was the first large regional planning agency of the federal government and remains the largest. Under the leadership of David Lilienthal ("Mr. TVA"), the Authority became a model for American efforts to modernize Third World agrarian societies.(Ekbladh 2005) Image File history File links US Tennessee Valley Authority logo from [1], removed jpeg artifacts, converted to PNG File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Corporate redirects here. ... May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (British English fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ... In law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning law and dicere meaning to speak) is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Eminent domain (U.S.), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to expropriate private property, or rights in private property, without the owners consent, either for its own use or... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... David Eli Lilienthal (July 8, 1899-January 13, 1981) was a capable and controversial American public official. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ...

Contents

Overview

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the act creating the TVA on May 18, 1933. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... An Act of Vaginapenis is a bill or resolution adopted by both houses of the United States Congress to which one of the following events has happened: Acceptance by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception (excluding Sundays) while the Congress is... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


As a supplier of electric power, the agency was given authority to enter into long term (twenty years) contracts for the sale of power to government agencies and private entities, to construct electric power transmission lines to areas not otherwise supplied and to establish rules and regulations for electricity retailing and distribution. The TVA is thus both a power supplier and a regulator. Power line redirects here. ... Electricity retailing is the final process in the delivery of electricity from generation to the consumer. ... 11kV/400V-230V transformer in an older suburb of Wellington, New Zealand Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. ...


Today, the TVA is the nation's largest public power company, providing electric power to nearly 8.5 million customers in the Tennessee Valley. It acts primarily as an electric power wholesaler, selling to 158 retail power distributors and sixty-one directly served industrial or government customers. Power comes from dams providing hydroelectric power, fossil fuel plants, nuclear power plants, combustion turbines, and wind turbines. In commerce, a wholesaler buys goods in large quantities from their manufacturers or importers, and then sells smaller quantities to retailers, who in turn sell to the general public. ... DAMS is a racing team from France, involved in many areas of motorsports. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... // Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal and petroleum (fuel oil or natural gas), formed from the remains of dead plants and animals. ... A nuclear power station. ... A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ... WWII era ship propulsion turbine A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow. ... A tall tower holds a wind turbine aloft where winds are consistently stronger. ...

President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the TVA Act

During the 1920s and the Great Depression years, Americans began to support the idea of government ownership of utilities, particularly hydroelectric power facilities. The concept of government-owned generation facilities selling to publicly owned distribution utilities was controversial and remains so today (Hubbard, pp 5-27). Roosevelt signing the TVA act from TVA web page. ... Roosevelt signing the TVA act from TVA web page. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ...


Many believed privately owned power companies were charging too much for power, did not employ fair operating practices, and were subject to abuse by their owners (utility holding companies), at the expense of consumers. During his presidential campaign, Roosevelt claimed that private utilities had "selfish purposes" and said, "Never shall the federal government part with its sovereignty or with its control of its power resources while I'm president of the United States." By forming utility holding companies, the private sector controlled 94 percent of generation by 1921, essentially unregulated. (This gave rise to Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA)). Many privates companies in the Tennessee Valley were bought by the federal government. Others shut down, unable to compete with the TVA. Government regulations were also passed to prevent competition with the TVA. Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA) was a law that was passed by the United States Congress to facilitate effective state regulation of electric utilities by limiting (with some exceptions) their operations to a single state. ...


On the other hand, there were conservatives who believed the government should not participate in the electricity generation business, fearing government ownership would lead to the misuse of hydroelectric sites. The TVA was one of the first federal hydropower agencies, and today most of the nation's major hydropower systems are federally managed. Attempts to create TVA-like regional agencies failed, such as a proposed Columbia Valley Authority for the Columbia River. This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ...


Regional power consumers may benefit from lower-cost electricity supplied from TVA's network of twenty-nine power-producing hydropower facilities. Supporters of the TVA, though, note that the agency's management of the Tennessee River system without appropriated federal funding saves federal taxpayers millions of dollars annually. Opponents, such as Dean Russell in The TVA Idea, in addition to condemning the project as being socialist, argued that the TVA created a "hidden loss" by preventing the creation of "factories and jobs that would have come into existence if the government had allowed the taxpayers to spend their money as they wished." Defenders note that the TVA is overwhelmingly popular in Tennessee among conservatives and liberals alike, as Barry Goldwater discovered in 1964, when he proposed selling the agency.[1] Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ...


One study says that public utilities are inadequate on maintenance. They note that federally owned power systems spend significantly less than private systems on this. They report that the TVA "spends only five percent of its revenues on maintenance." And, they say that as a consequence, ability to produce power suffers. Privately owned dams produce twenty percent more electricity than federally owned dams. They also report that TVA charges more to its preferred customers (publicly owned utilities and cooperatives) than private utilities charge to the same class of customers. Also, they note when the public purchases bond issues from the TVA, they do not have an eye on the viability of the project but are, rather, basing their investment decision on the fact that repayment is guaranteed via taxation. (CBO, Should the Federal Government Sell Electricity)


The Supreme Court ruled the TVA constitutional in Ashwander v. TVA, 297 U.S. 288 (1936). The Court noted that regulating commerce among the states includes regulation of streams, and that controlling floods is required for keeping streams navigable. The war powers also authorized the project. The argument before the Court was that electricity generation was a by-product of navigation and flood control and therefore could be considered constitutional. ...


1930s

Norris Dam was the first TVA constructed dam, completed 1936.

Even by Depression standards, the Tennessee Valley was in sad shape in 1933. Thirty percent of the population were affected by malaria, and the income was only $639 per year.[citation needed] Much of the land had been farmed too hard for too long, eroding and depleting the soil. Crop yields had fallen along with farm incomes. The best timber had been cut, with another 10% of forests being burnt each year.[citation needed] The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Tennessee Valley Authority Norris Dam Categories: Tennessee Valley Authority images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Tennessee Valley Authority Norris Dam Categories: Tennessee Valley Authority images ... Norris Dam is a Tennessee Valley Authority hydorelectric and flood control structure located on the Clinch River in East Tennessee. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement... In agriculture, crop yield (also known as agricultural output) is a measure of the yield per unit area of land under cultivation. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


The TVA was designed to modernize the region, using experts and electricity to combat human and economic problems.[2] TVA developed fertilizers, taught farmers ways to improve crop yields and helped replant forests, control forest fires, and improve habitat for fish and wildlife. The most dramatic change in Valley life came from TVA-generated electricity. Electric lights and modern appliances made life easier and farms more productive. Electricity also drew industries into the region, providing desperately needed jobs.[citation needed] Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (British English fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... Most of the industrialized world is lit by electric lights, which are used both at night and to provide additional light during the daytime. ... The term Appliance refers to two classes of objects: One class of objects includes items that are custom-fitted to an individual for the purpose of correction of a physical problem, such as prosthetic and energy input. ...


None of this was easy. The development of the dams displaced more than 15,000 families. Naturally, this caused resentment and anti-TVA sentiment in some rural communities.[citation needed] Many local landowners were suspicious of government agencies. But the TVA successfully introduced new agricultural methods into traditional farming communities by blending in and finding local champions. Development Induced Displacement is the forcing of communities and individuals out of their homes, often also their homelands, for the purposes of economic development. ...

Carpenter (wearing a union badge) at work during the 1942 construction of the Douglas Dam in East Tennessee.
Carpenter (wearing a union badge) at work during the 1942 construction of the Douglas Dam in East Tennessee.

A Tennessee farmer would not take advice from an official in a suit and tie, so TVA officials had to find leaders in the communities and convince them that crop rotation and the judicious application of fertilizers could restore soil fertility. Once they had convinced the leaders, the rest followed. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 458 × 599 pixels Full resolution (6387 × 8358 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 458 × 599 pixels Full resolution (6387 × 8358 pixel, file size: 2. ... Carpenter at work in Tennessee, June 1942. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on January 18 1815 (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Douglas Dam satellite view from NASA World Wind Douglas Dam is a man-made dam on the French Broad River in Sevier County in East Tennessee in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ... East Tennessee is a name given to approximately the eastern third of the state of Tennessee. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ...


Beginning with its inception, the TVA was based in Knoxville, Tennessee in the old Federal Customs House at the corner of Clinch Avenue and Market Street. The building is now a museum. [1] Nickname: Location within the U.S. State of Tennessee Coordinates: Cities in Tennessee Tennessee Government  - Mayor Bill Haslam (R) Area  - City 254. ...


Employment policy

The TVA hired 200,000 local workers who were given primarily manual labor jobs in the construction of the dams.[citation needed] The unemployed were hired for conservation, economic development, and social programs such as a library service that operated for the surrounding area. The professional staff headquarters was composed of experts from outside the region. The workers were categorized into the usual racial and gender lines of the day. The TVA hired a few African-Americans for janitorial positions. The TVA recognized labor unions; its skilled and semi-skilled blue collar employees were unionized, a breakthrough in an area known for corporations hostile to[miners' unions and textile unions. Women were excluded from construction work, although the TVA's cheap electricity attracted textile mills that hired mostly women. [Long 1999] Manual labor is a term used for physical work done with the hands, especially in an unskilled manual job such as fruit and vegetable picking, road building, or any other field where the work may be considered hard or arduous, which has as its objective the production of goods. ... == == == == [[Media:Conservation may refer to the following: Politics and policy Conservation movement, movement seeking to protect plant and animal species as well as the habitats they live in Conservation ethic in relation to preserving ecosystems Energy conservation, reduheck yea cing non-renewable energy consumption Water conservation Wildlife conservation Conservation authority... Economic development is a sustainable increase in living standards that implies increased per capita income, better education and health as well as environmental protection. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a public body, institution, or private individual. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... A blue-collar worker is a working class employee who performs manual or technical labor, such as in a factory or in technical maintenance trades, in contrast to a white-collar worker, who does non-manual work generally at a desk. ... The cotton mill is a type of factory that was created to house spinning and weaving machinery. ...


1940s

The Douglas Dam early in its construction in 1942.
The Douglas Dam early in its construction in 1942.

During World War II, the United States needed aluminum to build airplanes, and aluminum plants required huge amounts of electricity. To provide the power, the TVA engaged in one of the largest hydropower construction programs ever undertaken in the United States. Early in 1942, when the effort reached its peak, 12 hydroelectric projects and a steam plant were under construction at the same time, and design and construction employment reached a total of 28,000. The largest project of this period was the Fontana Dam Project in North Asian Land. After negotiations led by Harry Truman ("I want aluminum. I don't care if I get it from Alcoa or Al Capone."), TVA purchased the land from Nantahala Power and Light, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Alcoa, and built Fontana Dam. Electricity from Fontana was intended for Alcoa factories. By the time the dam generated power in early 1945, the electricity was used for another purpose in addition to aluminum manufacturing. TVA also provided much of the electricity needed for uranium separation using Calutrons at the Y-12 National Security Complex at Oak Ridge, as required for the Manhattan Project. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1601 × 2088 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1601 × 2088 pixel, file size: 1. ... Douglas Dam satellite view from NASA World Wind Douglas Dam is a man-made dam on the French Broad River in Sevier County in East Tennessee in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on January 18 1815 (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Fontana Dam Fontana Dam is a Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) hydroelectric dam on the Little Tennessee River in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Schematic diagram of uranium isotope separation in the calutron. ... Y-12 National Security Complex Operated by BWX Technologies Y‑12 for the National Nuclear Security Administration, Y‑12 plays a vital role in the U.S. Department of Energys Nuclear Weapons Complex. ... This page is about the World War II nuclear project. ...


1950s

By the end of the war, TVA had completed a 650-mile (1,050-kilometer) navigation channel the length of the Tennessee River and had become the nation's largest electricity supplier. Even so, the demand for electricity was outstripping TVA's capacity to produce power from hydroelectric dams. This does not cite its references or sources. ...


1960s

The 1960s were years of unprecedented economic growth in the Tennessee Valley. Electric rates were among the nation's lowest and stayed low as TVA brought larger, more efficient generating units into service. Expecting the Valley's electric power needs to continue to grow, TVA began building nuclear reactors as a new source of cheap power. During this decade (and the 1970s), TVA was engaged in what was up to that time its most controversial project - the Tellico Dam Project. The project was initially conceived in the 1940s but not completed until 1979. The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


1970s and 1980s

Significant changes occurred in the economy of the Tennessee Valley and the nation, prompted by an international oil embargo in 1973 and accelerating fuel costs later in the decade. The average cost of electricity in the Tennessee Valley increased fivefold from the early 1970s to the early 1980s. With energy demand dropping and construction costs rising, TVA canceled several nuclear plants, as did other utilities around the nation. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... At the height of the crisis in the United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


Marvin T. Runyon became chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority in January 1988. He claimed to reduce management layers, cut overhead costs by more than 30%, achieve cumulative savings and efficiency improvements of $1.8 billion. He said he revitalized the nuclear program, and instituted a rate freeze that continued for ten years. Marvin T. Runyon (September 16, 1924 – May 3, 2004) was an American business executive. ...


The 1970s saw the last and most controversial of the TVA's large dam-reservoir projects, Tellico Dam. Tellico Dam impounded Tellico Reservoir by the Tennessee Valley Authorityis located in Loudon County, Tennessee in eastern Tennessee, southwest of Knoxville, on the Little Tennessee River. ...


1990s

As the electric-utility industry moved toward restructuring and deregulation, TVA began preparing for competition. It cut operating costs by nearly $800 million a year, reduced its workforce by more than half, increased the generating capacity of its plants, stopped building nuclear plants, and developed a plan to meet the energy needs of the Tennessee Valley through to the year 2020. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Deregulation is the process by which governments remove, reduce, or simplify restrictions on business and individuals in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ...


2000s

May 2005 map of TVA sites; Key: red: dam purple: nuclear orange: fossil

TVA has recently made news by again reducing its workforce and by beginning new campaigns to improve its public image. It has also received acclaim from pro-nuclear organizations for its work to restart a previously mothballed nuclear reactor at Brown's Ferry (unit 1). In 2005 the TVA announced its intention to construct an Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor at its Bellefonte site in Alabama. (As of 2006, TVA is the owner and operator of the Browns Ferry, Sequoyah and Watts Bar nuclear power plants.) In 2004, TVA implemented recommendations from the Reservoir Operations Study (ROS) in how it operates the Tennessee River system (the nation's fifth largest). The 2000s are the current decade, spanning from 2000 to 2009. ... Map of Tennessee Valley Authority sites. ... Map of Tennessee Valley Authority sites. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A nuclear power station. ... // Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal and petroleum (fuel oil or natural gas), formed from the remains of dead plants and animals. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is located on the Tennessee river near Decatur, AL. It houses 3 Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear generating units and is owned entirely by the Tennessee Valley Authority. ... Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor is a type of nuclear reactor which is an improved version of existing Pressurized Water Reactor types. ... The Tennessee Valley Authoritys unfinished Bellefonte nuclear power plant is located in Hollywood, Alabama, abandoned in 1988 after a $6 billion investment. ... The Browns Ferry nuclear power plant is located on the Tennessee River near Decatur, Alabama. ... The Sequoyah nuclear power plant is located on 525 acres (2. ... The Watts Bar nuclear power plant is located between Chattanooga, Tennessee and Knoxville, Tennessee on a 1,770 acre (7. ... A nuclear power plant (NPP) is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors. ...


TVA is one of the largest producers of electricity in the United States and acts as a regional grid reliability coordinator. TVA's power mix as of 2004 was 11 fossil-powered plants, 29 hydroelectric dams, three nuclear power plants (with five reactors and one restarting), and six combustion turbine plants. Fossil fuel plants produced 62% of TVA’s total generation in fiscal year 2005, nuclear power 28%, and hydropower 10%. [2]. TVA's Watts Bar reactor produces tritium as a byproduct for the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration, which requires tritium for nuclear weapons (see Watts Bar Nuclear Generating Station). Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... The United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is part of the United States Department of Energy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The Watts Bar nuclear power plant is located between Chattanooga, Tennessee and Knoxville, Tennessee on a 1,770 acre (7. ...


TVA's current headquarters are located in downtown Knoxville. TVA also maintains large administrative offices in Chattanooga and Nashville, Tenn.; and Muscle Shoals, Ala.


TVA as National Symbol and Political Football

The (TVA) was heralded by New Dealers and the New Deal Coalition not only as a successful economic development program for a depressed area but also as a democratic nation-building effort overseas because of its alleged grassroots inclusiveness as articulated by director David Lilienthal. The TVA was controversial in the 1930s. Historian Thomas McGraw concludes (1971 p 157) that Roosevelt "rescued the [power] industry from its own abuses" but "he might have done this much with a great deal less agitation and ill will." New Dealers hoped to build numerous other TVAs around the country but were defeated by Wendell Willkie and the Conservative coalition in Congress. The valley authority model did not replace the limited-purpose water programs of the Bureau of Reclamation and the Army Corps of Engineers. State-centered theorists hold that reformers are most likely to succeed during periods such as the New Deal era, when they are supported by a democratized polity and when they dominate Congress and the administration. However (O'Neill 2002) shows that in river policy the strength of opposing interest groups also mattered. The TVA bill was passed in 1933 because reformers like Norris skillfully coordinated action at potential choke points and weakened the already disorganized opposing electric power industry lobbyists.(Hubbard 1961) In 1936, however, after regrouping, opposing river lobbyists and [Conservative coalition] Congressmen took advantage of the New Dealers' spending mood by expanding the Army Corps' flood control program. They also helped defeat further valley authorities, the most promising of the New Deal water policy reforms. The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs initiated between 1933–1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocks who supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, which made the Democratic Party the majority party during the Fifth Party System. ... David Eli Lilienthal (July 8, 1899-January 13, 1981) was a capable and controversial American public official. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ...


When Democrats after 1945 proclaimed the TVA as a model for Third World countries to follow, conservative critics charged it was a top-heavy, centralized, technocratic venture that displaced locals and did so in insensitive ways. Thus, when the program was used as the basis for modernization programs in various parts of the Third World during the Cold War, such as in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, its failure brought a backlash of cynicism toward modernization programs that has persisted. (Ekbladh 2002) When Barry Goldwater attacked the TVA in his 1964 presidential campaign, the backlash among Republicans in Tennessee weakened the party; later conservative candidates avoided the issue. Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ...


Bibliography

  • Richard A. Colignon. Power Plays: Critical Events in the Institutionalism of the Tennessee Valley Authority (1997)
  • Creese, Walter L. TVA's Public Planning: The Vision, the Reality. U. of Tennessee Press, 1990. stresses utopian goals
  • David Ekbladh, "'Mr. TVA': Grass-Roots Development, David Lilienthal, and the Rise and Fall of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a Symbol for U.S. Overseas Development, 1933–1973" Diplomatic History Summer 2002 Vol. 26 Issue 3 pp 335-374
  • Erwin C. Hargrove and Paul H. Conkin, eds. TVA Fifty Years of Grass-Roots Bureaucracy (1963)
  • Erwin E. Hargrove, Prisoner of Myth: The Leadership of the Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933-1990 (1994)
  • Preston J. Hubbard, Origins of the TVA: The Muscle Shoals Controversy, 1920-1932 Vanderbilt University Press, 1961
  • David Lilienthal. TVA: Democracy on the March (1944) promoted TVA for cheap power, grassroots regional democracy, environmental conservation, and the peaceful use of energy. Called it model for rest of USA and Europe.
  • Jennifer Long; "Government Job Creation Programs-Lessons from the 1930s and 1940s" Journal of Economic Issues. Volume: 33. Issue: 4. 1999. pp 903+ on TVA in Knoxville
  • Michael J. McDonald and John Muldowny. TVA and the Dispossessed: The Resettlement of Population in the Norris Dam (1982), highly critical of TVA
  • Thomas K McCraw. TVA and the power fight, 1933-1939 (1971)* Arthur E. Morgan. The Making of the TVA (1974) by its first chairman
  • Steven M. Neuse. "TVA at Age Fifty- Reflections and Retrospect" Public Administration Review, Vol. 43, No. 6 (Nov. - Dec., 1983) , pp. 491-499 online at JSTOR
  • Steve M. Neuse. David E. Lilienthal: The Journey of an American Liberal (1996).
  • O'Neill, Karen M. "Why the TVA Remains Unique: Interest Groups and the Defeat of New Deal River Planning." Rural Sociology 2002 67(2): 163-182. ISSN 0036-0112
  • Russell, Dean. The TVA Idea, The Foundation for Economic Education, Irving-On-Hudson, New York, 1949.
  • Philip Selznick. TVA and the Grass Roots: A Study in the Sociology of Formal Organization (1949)
  • Edward Shapiro. "The Southern Agrarians and the Tennessee Valley Authority," American Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 4. (Winter, 1970), pp. 791-806. online at JSTOR shows that these conservatives supported TVA as a counterpoint to northern big business

See also

Areas included within the Appalachian Regional Commissions charter The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) is a United States federal-state partnership that works with the people of Appalachia to create opportunities for self-sustaining economic development and improved quality of life. ... American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ... American liberalism—that is, liberalism in the United States of America—is a broad political and philosophical mindset, favoring individual liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty, whether they come from established religion, from government regulation, from the existing class structure, or from multi-national corporations. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs initiated between 1933–1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tennessee Valley Authority: Information from Answers.com (4245 words)
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is a federally-owned corporation in the United States that was created in 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee River Valley, a region that was particularly hard hit by the Great Depression.
The TVA recognized labor unions; its skilled and semi-skilled blue collar employees were unionized, a breakthrough in an area known for corporations hostile to miners' unions and textile unions.
TVA is one of the largest producers of electricity in the United States and acts as a regional grid reliability coordinator.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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