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Encyclopedia > Tenggerese

The Tenggerese are the descendants of the Majapahit princes. Their population of roughly 600,000 is centered in 30 villages in the isolated Tengger mountains bear Mount Bromo within the Bromo-Tengger-Serumu national park in East-Central Java. The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Map of Java Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ...


Scattered communities of Tenggerese in Pasuruan, Probolinggo, Malang and Lumajang districts of eastern Java. Most of the Tenggerese have Tibetan-like features (with flushed faces) due to the cold weather they experience all year round. They are believed to be the descendants of Roro Anteng and Joko Seger. A Tibetan pilgrim The Tibetans speak the Tibetan language natively and form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), although in anthropological terms they include more than one ethnic group. ...

Contents

Language

The Tenggerese speak an archaic Javanese (Majapahit) dialect called Tengger. Elements of modern Javanese influences in their speeches can be seen. They have their own Kavi script based on the old Javanese Brahmi type. Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ... Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ... Kavi is the oldest script of Javanese language, and is derived from the Indic Brahmi. ... Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ... Brahmi refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 5th century BC. The best known inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka, c. ...


Religion

The Tenggerese basically profess Mahayana Buddhism as their religion, though they have imbibed many Hindu and Animist elements. Like the Balinese, they pray to God Ida Sang Hyang Widi Wasa ( Big Almighty lord) for blessing in addition to other Hindu and Buddhist gods that includes the Teri Murti, namelyShiva, Brahman, Vishnu and Buddha. Their places of worship includes the Punden, Poten and Danyang. The Poten a sacred area of ground at Mt. Bromo's Sand sea, and becomes the focus of the annual Kasada Ceremony. Within the Poten, it contains several buildings and enclosures, arranged in a specific composition called the Mandalas (Zones). Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... See: Bali, an Indonesian island Balinese language Balinese (people) Balinese (cat), a cat breed This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... For the Jewish ritual of mourning, see Shivah. ... In the Vedantic (and subsequently Yogic) schools of Hinduism, Brahman is the signifying name given to the concept of the unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality that is the Divine Ground of all being. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... A stone image of the Buddha. ...


The Tenggerese also worship a host of spirits (ancestor worship). They include cikal bakal, the spirits of the founders of the village, the rohbau rekso, the village guardian spirits and the roh leluhur, the spirits of the ancestors. Rituals to propitiate these spirits are conducted by special priests. During these rites little doll-like figures representing the spirits are clothed in batik cloth and are presented with food and drink. It is believed that the spirits partake of the essence of these offerings. The Bromo volcano is considered one of the most sacred places. If it erupts, they believe that their god is very angry.


The Tenggerese gave offerings to the gods in different forms. One of these, Sajenan,is presented to the guardian deities by the priest in formal liturgy. For different occasions different sorts of food are offered as Sajenan. For instance, during weddings a cone of rice, Tumpeng Walagara, is offered, and this is considered to be a source of blessing for the couple as well as the whole village. The second sort of food offering, called Suguhan, are those that are offered by ordinary Tengger Hindus to their ancestral spirits. The third type, Tamping, are food offerings to evil spirits so as to ward off bad luck, and typically consist of meat, rice and bananas wrapped up in leaves and placed at places considered inauspicious such as cemeteries, bridges and road intersections.


Their priests are called Dukun or Rasi Pujjanga, who play a middle role in their religious worship. They were believed to posses spiritual knowledge called Ilmu of the gods and the spirits, which they carefully guard from ordinary Tenggers.Membership of the priesthood is hereditary, and generally passes down from father, to son. Each village have only one of these three priests, together with three assistants, namely Legen, Sepuh and Dandan.


However, in the past few decades, due to over-population in Madura, many Madurese have explioted their land by clearing some of their nature reserves for land and converted 2-3% (up to 10,000 of them) of the Tenggerese to Islam in the process, particularly those living in the more accesible areas in the lowlands just outside the Tengger range. When the remainder 97-8% of the unconverted Tenggerese saw this and began to ask the Balinese or help any by reforming their culture and religion closer to the Balinese. The Indonesian government saw this and declared the Tengger mountains as the Bromo-Tengger-Serumu national park, and also have declared that any more logging in this area is an illegal act. For the rock band, see Madura Madura is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java, near the port of Surabaya. ... Islam (Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... See: Bali, an Indonesian island Balinese language Balinese (people) Balinese (cat), a cat breed This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... See: Bali, an Indonesian island Balinese language Balinese (people) Balinese (cat), a cat breed This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Both Muslim and Christian missionaries have attempted to convert the Tenggerese. However, the Christains have met with hardly any success; they only managed to convert a few hundred to Chriistianity. Even so, due to the negligible number of them, most of them either reverted back to Hinduism of convert to Islam. The Tenggerese Muslims have a more successful conversion, though they frequently mix original Hindu-Buddhist ideas and spirits to their Islam and celebrate Tenggerese festivals at the same time. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The term Christian means belonging to Christ and is derived from the Greek noun Χριστός Khristós which means anointed one, which is itself a translation of the Hebrew word Moshiach (Hebrew: משיח, also written Messiah), (and in Arabic it is pronounced Maseeh مسيح). ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Islam (Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Islam (Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Lifestyle

The Tenggerese are basically either agriculturalists or nomadic herders, similar to the Tibetans. The agriculturalists generally live on the lower altitudes, but the nomads live on the higher altitudes, riding on small little ponies.


Festivals

The main festival of the Tenggerese is the Yadnya Kasada, which lasts about a month. On the fourteenth day of the Kasada, the Tenggerese will go to Poten Bromo and ask for blessing from both the supreme God Hyang Widi Wasa and the God of the Mountain (Mount Serumu) by presenting annual offerings of rice, fruit, vegetables, flowers, live stock and other local produce. They will also see the examination of the medicine men memorizing prayers. The medicine man who passes the exam is decide to be spiritual leader of Tengger tribe.


The origin of these festival is about a legend which dates back to the Majapahit kingdom, during the reign of King Brawijaya. The queen of the Kingdom gave birth to a daughter named Roro Anteng, who married Jaka Seger, a young man from the Brahmin Caste. These are two of the many others who fled from the already tattering Majapahit kingdom during the 15th century, when the Islamic religion is increasingly getting more converts. The couple later settled in the Tengger mountains and ruled the region jointly under the title Purbawisesa Mangkurat Ing Tengger. The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Islam (Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


For a few years the Tenggerese people here flourished under the leadership of Jaka Seger and Rara Anteng, yet the king and queen were unhappy for their had no children. Desperate, they decided to climb to the top of Mt. Bromo and pray for help.


Deeply moved by the couple's depth of his faith, the god of Mt. Bromo assured them of offspring but with the conditin that the youngest child be sacrificed in the crater of the volcano. After a giving birth to 25 children, the time came for Roro Anteng and to fulfil her part of pledge. Although they were reluctant, they were threatened with catastrophe, forcing them to futfil their pledge and complying the god's wishes, they have no choice but to sacrifice their 25th child, Kesuma, by throwing him into the crater.


History

The History of the Tenggerese before the 15th century links with the Majapahit and other kingdoms from the earlier period. According to legend, Jaka Senger and Roro Anteng are the ancestors of the Tenggerese. (To know more about them, see the festivals section.) Since then, the Tenggerese have lived in near-complete isolation until the recent years. The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ...


See also

Agama Hindu Dharma is the formal name of Hinduism in Indonesia. ... See: Bali, an Indonesian island Balinese language Balinese (people) Balinese (cat), a cat breed This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Badui man General Information The Badui (also known as Kanekes) are the descendants of the Pajajaran princes. ... The Dayak people are indigenous occupants of the Kalimantan region of Borneo. ... The Indonesian Osing people are the descendants of the Majapahit princes who refused to convert to Islam in the 16th century. ... Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ... The Banyumasan language is the spoken language of the people in the western part of the Central Java of Java, in Indonesia. ... Categories: Stub | Ethnic Groups of Indonesia ...

References

  • Tourism and Conversation in the Bromo-Tengger Serumu national park (http://www.mtnforum.org/resources/library/cochj97a.htm)
  • Kasada Ceromony at Mount Bromo (http://www.petra.ac.id/english/eastjava/tourism/kasada.htm)
  • The Tengger of Java (http://www.hvk.org/hvk/articles/0599/41.html)
  • DISCOVERING EAST JAVA (http://www.eastjava.com/books/discovery/html/bromo.html)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Indonesia Attractions (600 words)
Volcanic sulphur fumes and smoke still emanate from the depths, and when the God of Bromo begins to rumble, the surrounding population quickly bring their offerings.
The annual offering ceremony of Kasada is held on the 14th day of Kasada, the twelfth month in the Tenggerese calendar year.
It is a dazzling event where villagers from the surrounding areas bring their humble offerings to the holy volcano.
Tenggerese - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1121 words)
The Tenggerese are the descendants of the Majapahit princes.
The Tenggerese Muslims have a more successful conversion, though they frequently mix original Hindu-Buddhist ideas and spirits to their Islam and celebrate Tenggerese festivals at the same time.
According to legend, Jaka Senger and Roro Anteng are the ancestors of the Tenggerese.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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