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Encyclopedia > Ten thousand years
Ten thousand years
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese: 萬歲
Simplified Chinese: 万岁
Japanese name
Kanji: 万歳 (Shinjitai)
萬歳 (Kyūjitai)
Kana: ばんざい
Romaji: banzai
Korean name
Hangul: 만세
Hanja: 萬歲
Vietnamese name
Quoc Ngu: vạn tuế (Sino-Viet.)
muôn năm (native)
Han Tu: 萬歲(Sino-Viet.)
(native)


The use of the phrase ten thousand years in various East Asian languages originated in ancient China as an expression used to wish long life to the Emperor, and is typically translated as "long live" in English. Due to the political and cultural influence of China in the area, and in particular of the Chinese language, cognates with similar meanings and usage patterns appeared in many East Asian languages (see the table to the right for an overview of these). In recent times, the term has been associated with Imperial Japan (due to a Meiji-era reintroduction of the term as banzai) and with the Cultural Revolution in Mainland China, where it was used to laud Mao Zedong. Although its usage in both countries is now less common, it nevertheless does not engender a negative connotation and, especially in the greater China area, continues to be used in historical contexts and occasionally informally. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Shinjitai (in Shinjitai: ; in KyÅ«jitai: æ–°å­—é«”; meaning new character form), are the forms of Kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946. ... Look up KyÅ«jitai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary KyÅ«jitai (旧字体, きゅうじたい) is the traditional form of the Japanese kanji used before 1947. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Manyogana 万葉仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters, in collating order: Vietnamese also uses the 10 digraphs and 1 trigraph below. ... Sino-Vietnamese (Hán Việt) are the elements in the Vietnamese language derived from Chinese. ... Hán tá»± (漢字, lit. ... Sino-Vietnamese (Hán Việt) are the elements in the Vietnamese language derived from Chinese. ... Image File history File links Muon_Nam_(Vietnamese_Chu_Nom). ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Meiji (明 bright, brilliant æ²» reign, government) may refer to: Meiji Restoration, the revolution that ushered in the Meiji Era Meiji period - the period in Japanese history when the Meiji Emperor reigned Emperor Meiji of Japan - Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor, who reigned during Meiji Era Meiji Constitution - ie. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the... “Mao” redirects here. ... Greater China in dark green, and areas with strong Chinese cultural influence in light green Greater China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or simply 大华/大華, is a term referring collectively to both the territories administered by the Peoples Republic of China as well as Hong Kong and Macau, and territories...

Contents

China

The phrase was once used casually, much like "cheers to your health". During the Tang Dynasty, it came to be used exclusively to address the emperor as a prayer for his long life and reign. Then, during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, its use was temporarily extended to include certain higher ranking members of the imperial court,[1] but this tradition was relatively short-lived: in later imperial history, using it to address someone other than the emperor was considered an act of sedition and was consequently highly dangerous. During the Ming Dynasty, especially during the reign of weak emperors (such as the Tianqi emperor), powerful eunuchs such as Liu Jin and Wei Zhongxian circumvented this restriction by styling themselves with "jiǔ qiān suì" (九千歲, literally "9000 years") so as to display their high positions, which were close to or even exceeded the emperor's. China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: Wǔdàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... The Tianqi Emperor (1605-1627) was Emperor of China (Ming dynasty) from 1620 to 1627. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) A eunuch is a castrated man; the term usually refers to those castrated in order to perform a specific social function, as was common in many societies of the past. ... Wei Zhongxian (魏忠賢) (1568-October 19, 1627) is considered by most historians as the most powerful and notorious eunuch in Chinese history. ...


Usage

Classically, the phrase is repeated multiple times following a person's name or title. For example, in ancient China, the Emperor would be thus addressed: "Wú huáng wànsuì, wànsuì, wànwànsuì" (Traditional Chinese: 吾皇萬歲,萬歲,萬萬歲; Simplified Chinese: 吾皇万岁,万岁,万万岁), literally "May my Emperor [live and reign for] ten thousand years, ten thousand years, ten thousand of ten thousands years"). An important distinction made in Chinese but not in English is the use of suì to mean year, rather than the equally common nián (年) which is also translated as year. The former is used as a counter for years of life, whereas the latter is used for periods of time and calendar years. Thus the phrase "ten thousand years" in its original sense refers to ten thousand years of life, and not a period of ten thousand years. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The significance of "ten thousand" in this context is only that "ten thousand" in Chinese (and in many East Asian languages) represents the largest discrete unit in the counting system, in a manner analogous to "thousand" in English. Thus 100,000 in Chinese is expressed as 10 ten-thousands; similarly, whereas a million is "a thousand thousands", the analog in Chinese, yì, is ten-thousand ten-thousands. Because of this, Chinese people often use wàn in a manner analogous to "thousand" -- whereas an English speaker might exclaim "there are thousands of ants on the ground", the Chinese speaker would substitute ten thousand in his description. So in the context of wànsuì, a literally incorrect but culturally appropriate translation might be, "may you live for thousands of years". The number simply denotes innumerability, in a manner etymologically similar to the Greek myriad (although the current usage of that word differs). Look up myriad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Modern use

The two slogans that contain the term "wànsuì" on the Tiananmen gatehouse in Beijing, China.
The two slogans that contain the term "wànsuì" on the Tiananmen gatehouse in Beijing, China.

One of the most conspicuous uses of the phrase is at the Tiananmen gate in Beijing, where large placards are affixed to the gatehouse reading "Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó wànsuì" (Traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國萬歲; Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国万岁; literally "Long live the People's Republic of China") and "Shìjiè rénmín dàtuánjié wànsuì"(Traditional Chinese: 世界人民大團結萬歲; Simplified Chinese: 世界人民大团结万岁; literally "Long live the Great Unity of the world's people"). During the Cultural Revolution, the saying "Máo Zhǔxí wànsuì!" (Traditional Chinese: 毛主席萬歲; Simplified Chinese: 毛主席万岁; literally "Long live Chairman Mao!") was also common. Apart from these special cases, the phrase is almost never used in political slogans today. In casual conversation, however, the phrase is used simply as an exclamation of joy. For example, CCTV commentator Huang Jianxiang shouted "Long live Italy!" (意大利万岁) during a game of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3601x2415, 2920 KB) Summary The Forbidden City Imperial Palace in Beijing, China Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tiananmen User:Calton/Pictures ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3601x2415, 2920 KB) Summary The Forbidden City Imperial Palace in Beijing, China Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tiananmen User:Calton/Pictures ... The Tiananmen The Gate of Heavenly Peace is the front entrance into the Imperial City A close-up of the rooftop The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānānmén; Manchu: Abkai elhe obure duka), is the main entrance to the Imperial City, the... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Tiananmen The Gate of Heavenly Peace is the front entrance into the Imperial City A close-up of the rooftop The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānānmén; Manchu: Abkai elhe obure duka), is the main entrance to the Imperial City, the... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Great unity (大同, py. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV (Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the major broadcast television network in Mainland China. ... Huang Jianxiang (Simplified: 黄健翔; Pinyin:Huáng Jiànxiáng; January 20, 1968 - ), was formerly one of the best-known sports commentators in China until his resignation on November 16, 2006. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international football competition contested by the mens national football teams of the member nations of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA...


Japan

The Chinese term was introduced to Japan as banzei (Kana: ばんぜい) in the 8th century. It expressed respect for the emperor in Japan as well. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ...


Banzei was revived as banzai after the Meiji Restoration. Banzai as a formal ritual was established in the promulgation of the Meiji Constitution in 1889 when university students shouted banzai in front of the emperor's carriage. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ...


During WWII, banzai became the battle cry of sorts for Japanese soldiers, with kamikaze pilots reportedly shouting banzai as they rammed their planes into enemy ships.[2] Banzai charge (or banzai attack) has become a common term in English during WWII. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A battle cry is a yell or chant taken up in battle, usually by members of the same military unit. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ... Banzai charge (or banzai attack) is a term related to the Japanese samurai spirit and ideology of not accepting the shame of defeat. ...


At the same time, banzai also came to be used unrelated to the emperor. The supporters of freedom and people's rights movements began to shout "Jiyū banzai" (Kanji: 自由万歳; Kana: じゆうばんざい, literally "Long Live Freedom") in 1883. Today banzai has become a word of congratulation.


Korea

The same term is pronounced manse in Korean. In Silla of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, it was used as a casual exclamation. It was a part of the era name of Taebong, one of the Later Three Kingdoms, declared by the king Gung Ye in 911. During the Joseon dynasty, Korea used cheonse (Hanja: 千歲; Hangul: 천세, literally "one thousand years") in deference to the Chinese emperor. Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... An era name was assigned as the name of each year by the leader (emperor or king) of the East Asian countries of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam during some portion of their history. ... Taebong was a state established by Gung Ye(궁예, 弓裔) on the Korean peninsula in 901, during the Later Three Kingdoms period. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... gung ho is derived from the sunny king of ancient Korea known as Gung Ye. ... Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong Capital Hanseong Language(s) Korean Religion Neo-Confucianism Government Monarchy Wang  - 1392 - 1398 Taejo (first)  - 1863 - 1897 Gojong (last)1 Yeong-uijeong  - 1431 - 1449 Hwang Hui  - 1466 - 1472 Han Myeonghoe  - 1592 - 1598 Ryu Seongryong  - 1894 Kim Hongjip Historical era 1392-1897...


In the 20th century, various protests against Japanese occupation used the term in their names, including a pro-independence newspaper established in 1906, the March 1st Movement of 1919, and the June 10th Movement of 1926. Flag of the Japanese Resident General of Korea Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi... The March First Movement, or the Samil Movement, was one of the earliest displays of Korean nationalism during the Japanese rule. ...


Today, in North Korea, manse is used to wish Kim Jong Il a long life, and is also used for his father, Kim Il Sung, despite the fact that he died in 1994. Kim Jong-il (born February 16, 1942) has been the leader of North Korea since 1994. ... Kim Il-sung (April 15, 1912–July 8, 1994) was a Korean Communist politician and the ruler of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea) from 1948 until his death. ...


Vietnam

The chữ Nôm characters used to write "muôn năm" in antiquity, a native Vietnamese word not cognate to the original Chinese but nonetheless having the same meaning.

In Vietnamese, "vạn tuế" is the phrase cognate to the Chinese wàn suì and is the proper Vietnamese reading of the hán tự "萬歲". However, this word is rarely used in the modern language, appearing instead only in China-related contexts (such as in "vạn tuế, vạn tuế, vạn vạn tuế" -- compare to Chinese usage, above). In other situations, "muôn năm" is used instead, and is frequently heard in communist slogans, such as "Hồ Chí Minh muôn năm!" (Long life to Ho Chi Minh) and "Đảng cộng sản muôn năm!" (Long live the Communist party). Image File history File links Muon_Nam_(Vietnamese_Chu_Nom). ... Image File history File links Muon_Nam_(Vietnamese_Chu_Nom). ... Chữ nôm (𡦂喃 lit. ... Hán tá»± (漢字, lit. ... Banzai redirects here. ... Hồ Chí Minh   (May 19, 1890 – September 2, 1969) was a Vietnamese revolutionary and statesman, who later became Prime Minister (1946–1955) and President (1946–1969) of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. ...


Because "muôn năm" is native Vietnamese and not of Chinese origin, chữ Nôm characters were created to write it and were used before the Latin-based quốc ngữ script became standard. "Muôn" is a sound-meaning compound consisting of a gate for the sound part (its pronunciation, "môn", approximates "muôn") and the character for "ten thousand" (vạn) for the semantic part. The character for "năm", also a sound-meaning compound, uses "south" (pronounced "nam") for the phonetic portion of the character and "year" (niên) for the meaning. These characters, while archaic, are nonetheless part of Unicode and are mapped to U+28DC8 and U+221A5, respectively, and with the right fonts installed may actually display: 𨷈𢆥. Chữ nôm (𡦂喃 lit. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ...


See also

This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
  • Sto lat, a similar Polish phrase and song meaning "one hundred years"

Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Sto lat (One Hundred Years) is a traditional Polish song that is sung to express good wishes to a person. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ouyang, Xiu. Davies, Richard L. [2004] (2004). Historical Records of the Five Dynasties. Columbia university press. ISBN 0231128266
  2. ^ p.3, The Cambridge history of Japan, by John Whitney Hall, 1988 Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521223520

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ten thousand years - definition of Ten thousand years in Encyclopedia (515 words)
It can be repeated multiple times (in China, it was customary to pay respects to the Emperor by saying "Wansui, wansui, wanwansui"; the last one indicates ten thousand ten thousands, or 100 million years).
Although it was once used casually like "Cheers to your health", it came to be used by the emperor during the Tang Dynasty.
The Thousand Years Reich purported by Adolf Hitler.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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