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Encyclopedia > Ten plagues

The book of Exodus (שמות), chapters 7:14 - 12:42, recounts the story of ten plagues (Eser Ha-Makot עשר המכות in Hebrew): 10 disasters, executed against Egypt by God, in order to convince Pharaoh to let the Hebrews go. Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the five books of Moses) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and Christian Old Testament. ... The term God is capitalized in the English language as a proper noun when used to refer to a specific monotheistic concept of a Supreme Being in accordance with Christian, Jewish (sometimes as G-d - cf. ... Pharaoh (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה (without niqqud: פרעה), Standard Hebrew ParÊ¿o, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh, Arabic فرعون) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... Hebrews (syns. ...


According to the Torah, the plagues were manifestations of God's great power which he had caused to be declared among the nations (Ex 9:14, 16), and which other peoples would discuss for generations afterward (Jos 2:9-11; 9:9; Isa 4:8; 6:6). In this view, the plagues were proof that the gods of Egypt were powerless (Ex 12:12; Nu 33:4).

Contents


Brief summary

The plagues were:

  1. rivers turned to blood (Exodus 7:14-25)
  2. a plague of frogs (Exodus 8:1-25)
  3. lice (Exodus 8:16-19)
  4. flies (Exodus 8:20-32)
  5. pestilence on livestock (Exodus 9:1-7)
  6. boils (Exodus 9:8-12)
  7. hail (Exodus 9:13-35)
  8. locusts (Exodus 10:13-14,19)
  9. three days of darkness (Exodus 10:21-29)
  10. death of the firstborn (Exodus 12:29-36)

Genera Afrana Amietia Amnirana Amolops Aubria Batrachylodes Ceratobatrachus Chaparana Conraua Discodeles Euphlyctis Fejervarya Hildebrandtia Hoplobatrachus Huia Indirana Ingerana Lankanectes Lanzarana Limnonectes Meristogenys Micrixalus Minervarya Nannophrys Nanorana Nyctibatrachus Occidozyga Paa Palmatorappia Platymantis Pseudoamolops Pterorana Ptychadena Pyxicephalus Rana Sphaerotheca Staurois Strongylopus Tomopterna Frogs are amphibians in the Order Anura, which includes true... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... The Mediterranean fruit fly, or medfly, Ceratitis capitata A fly (plural flies) is any species of insect of the order Diptera, some of which can land on food and transmit bacteria to humans. ... Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the inflammation of hair follicles, thus resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissues. ... A large hailstone Hail is a type of graupel (a form of precipitation) composed of spears or irregular lumps of ice. ... Desert locust For other meanings of the word Locust, see Locust (disambiguation). ...

Context

The main reason for the plagues was Pharaoh's repeated refusal to release the Jewish people from slavery. Moses, acting as a messenger, and his brother Aaron, who spoke for Moses due to his speech impediment, requested leave for the people to "sacrifice to God in the desert". Although Pharaoh usually promised to let them go after each plague, he usually withdrew his permission shortly afterwards. Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Musa), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ... AARON is a program written by artist Harold Cohen that creates original artistic images. ... Speech disorders are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ...


The third, sixth and ninth plague came without warning, suggesting that the plagues came in three iterations of three. Indeed, Biblical commentators point out parallels between individual plagues.


Prophecy

Several characteristics mark the account of the plagues. They were predicted and came precisely as indicated. Advance warnings enabled those who heeded them to escape certain plagues (Ex 9:18-21; 12:1-13). God could be selective as to the plagues' effect, causing some to leave a specific area exempt, thereby identifying who were his approved servants (Ex 8:22, 23; 9:3-7, 26). He could start and stop the plagues at will (Ex 8:8-11; 9:29).


Though Pharaoh's magic-practicing priests appeared to duplicate the first two plagues (perhaps even trying to credit them to their Egyptian deities), their secret arts soon failed them, and they were obliged to acknowledge "the finger of God" in the execution of the third plague (Ex 7:22; 8:6, 7, 16-19). They could not reverse the plagues and were themselves affected (Ex 9:11).


God "proved himself God to Israel" and "near to them" by reclaiming them with "an outstretched arm and with great judgments" (Ex 6:6, 7; De 4:7). Following the destruction of Pharaoh's hosts in the Red Sea, the people of Israel "began to fear God and to put faith in God and in Moses his servant" (Ex 14:31). Conshelf II in the Red Sea (Sudan) Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea (Arabic البحر الأحمر Baḥr al-Aḥmar, al-Baḥru l-’Aḥmar; Hebrew ים סוף Yam Suf; Tigrigna ቀይሕ ባሕሪ QeyH baHri) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


Egyptian gods

Some authorities say that the teaching purpose of the plagues is to demonstrate the powerlessness of the Egyptian deities, affirming God's uniqueness and power. If God triumphed over the gods of Egypt, a world-leading nation, then the people of God would be strengthened in their faith although they are a small people, and would not be tempted to follow the deities that God put to shame. Although some have advanced theories as to which of the Egyptian gods was affected by which plague, this is only scantily supported by Midrashic sources, and these attempts have generally produced widely divergent results. Midrash (pl. ...


The plagues

Blood (7:19 - 7:25) דם

The first plague was blood. Its main purpose was to give Pharaoh a taste of God's might and strength, and to demonstrate Moses's confidence in God. According to the Hebrew Bible, Aaron touched the river Nile with Moses's staff, and all the water turned into blood. It says specifically Aaron, because Moses was not allowed to. This is because the Nile saved him when he was a baby and he had to appreciate what it did. This is called Ha-koras ha-tov. As a result of the blood, the fish of the Nile died, and Egypt was filled with stench. Other water resources used by the Egyptians were turned to blood as well (7:19). This plague lasted for seven days. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Pharaoh (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה (without niqqud: פרעה), Standard Hebrew ParÊ¿o, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh, Arabic فرعون) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible refers to the common portions of the Jewish and Christian canons. ... The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin  Africa Mouth  the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The Nile (Arabic: النيل an-nÄ«l), in Africa, is one of the two... In botany and horticulture, the popular name given to various tall flowering plants : Common mullein or great mullein (Verbascum thapsus), a biennal medicinal herb used in Amerindian medicine as a tonic for lung problems, such as cough, asthma or bronchitis; Snapdragon or Figwort family (Scrophulariaceae)(other common names: shepherds... 7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8. ...


Frogs (7:26 - 8:11) צפרדע

The second plague of Egypt was frogs. Hordes of frogs overran Egypt and forced Pharaoh to call upon Moses, to ask him to remove the frogs. Moses agreed and told him that the next day the frogs would be gone, as proof of God's might. The next day all the frogs in the Egyptian courts and houses died. Nevertheless, Pharaoh refused to let the Hebrews worship their God in the desert, according to the biblical account. Genera Afrana Amietia Amnirana Amolops Aubria Batrachylodes Ceratobatrachus Chaparana Conraua Discodeles Euphlyctis Fejervarya Hildebrandtia Hoplobatrachus Huia Indirana Ingerana Lankanectes Lanzarana Limnonectes Meristogenys Micrixalus Minervarya Nannophrys Nanorana Nyctibatrachus Occidozyga Paa Palmatorappia Platymantis Pseudoamolops Pterorana Ptychadena Pyxicephalus Rana Sphaerotheca Staurois Strongylopus Tomopterna Frogs are amphibians in the Order Anura, which includes true...


Fleas or Lice (8:12 - 8:15) כינים

The third plague of Egypt was fleas. This came about when Aaron was commanded to hold a handful of his own dust and a handful of Moses' dust, fling it into the air, and it became fleas (Moses could not initiate this plague, since the dust of the earth helped him when he killed an Egyptian guard who was beating a fellow Jew to death. See the Plague of Blood for the term Ha'karas Ha'Tov). According to the Bible, the dust of the earth became many fleas which the Egyptians could not get rid of. It was in regards to this plague that the Egyptian priests claimed that this act was "the finger of God", since their magic could not affect anything smaller than a barley. Families Tungidae - Sticktight and Chigoe fleas (Chiggers) Pulicidae - Common fleas Coptopsyllidae Vermipsyllidae - Carnivore fleas Rhopalopsyllidae - Marsupial fleas Hypsophthalmidae Stephanocircidae Pygiopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae - Rat and mouse fleas Leptopsyllidae - Bird and rabbit fleas Ischnopsyllidae - Bat fleas Ceratophyllidae Amphipsyllidae Malacopsyllidae Dolichopsyllidae - Rodent fleas Ctenopsyllidae Flea is the common name for any of the small... Families Tungidae - Sticktight and Chigoe fleas (Chiggers) Pulicidae - Common fleas Coptopsyllidae Vermipsyllidae - Carnivore fleas Rhopalopsyllidae - Marsupial fleas Hypsophthalmidae Stephanocircidae Pygiopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae - Rat and mouse fleas Leptopsyllidae - Bird and rabbit fleas Ischnopsyllidae - Bat fleas Ceratophyllidae Amphipsyllidae Malacopsyllidae Dolichopsyllidae - Rodent fleas Ctenopsyllidae Flea is the common name for any of the small... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ...


Beasts or Flies (8:16 - 8:28) ערוב

The fourth plague of Egypt was Arov. Commentaries usually render this word as flies, but others as beasts, capable of harming people and livestock. The Bible emphasizes that the arov only came against Egypt, and that the Land of Goshen (where the Hebrews dwelt) was clean from it. Pharaoh asked Moses to remove this plague and promised to allow the Hebrews to worship God in the desert. However, after the plague was gone, Pharaoh "hardened his heart" and refused to keep his promise... The Land of Goshen (Hebrew גֹּשֶׁן, Standard Hebrew Góšen, Tiberian Hebrew Gōšen) is a place in Egypt, as referenced in the Biblical story of Joseph. ...


Livestock (9:1 - 9:7) דבר

The fifth plague of Egypt was a disease which exterminated the Egyptian livestock; that is, horses, donkeys, camels, cattle, sheep and goats. The Hebrew cattle were unharmed. Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


Boils (9:8 - 9:12) שחין

The sixth plague of Egypt was Shkhin. The Shkhin was a kind of skin disease, known as boils. The Hartum priests of Egypt could not heal this disease. Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the inflammation of hair follicles, thus resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissues. ...


Storm (9:13 - 9:25) ברד

John Martin's engraving of the seventh plague
John Martin's engraving of the seventh plague

The seventh plague of Egypt was a destructive storm. The storm was a powerful shower of hail, combined with fire burning onto the ground. The storm heavily damaged Egyptian shrubbery and crops, as well as men and livestock. The storm struck all Egypt, except for the land of Goshen. Pharaoh asked Moses to remove this plague and promised to allow the Hebrews to worship God in the desert, saying "I have sinned: God is righteous, I and my people are evil". However, after the storm ceased, Pharaoh "hardened his heart" and refused to keep his promise. John Martin, engraving The Seventh Plague of Egypt (1828) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... John Martin, engraving The Seventh Plague of Egypt (1828) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Great Day of His Wrath, c. ... A rolling thundercloud over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... A large hailstone Hail is a type of graupel (a form of precipitation) composed of spears or irregular lumps of ice. ... A large bonfire Fire is a form of combustion. ... A farmer in Germany working the land in the traditional way, with a horse and plough Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... The Land of Goshen (Hebrew גֹּשֶׁן, Standard Hebrew Góšen, Tiberian Hebrew Gōšen) is a place in Egypt, as referenced in the Biblical story of Joseph. ...


Locusts (10:1 - 10:20) ארבה

The eighth plague of Egypt was locusts. The locusts swarmed Egypt and consumed all Egyptian crops, leaving no tree or plant standing on the face of Egypt. The swarm of locusts covered the sky and created darkness in Egypt. After Moses' threats and Egyptian pleas Pharaoh agreed to let only Hebrew men to go out to the desert, while women, children and livestock are to remain in Egypt. Moses demanded that all shall go, and when Pharaoh refused, this plague struck Egypt. Pharaoh again asked Moses to remove this plague and promised to allow all the Hebrews to worship God in the desert. However, after the locusts went away, Pharaoh "hardened his heart" and refused to keep his promise. Desert locust For other meanings of the word Locust, see Locust (disambiguation). ... Pharaoh (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה (without niqqud: פרעה), Standard Hebrew Parʿo, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh, Arabic فرعون) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ...


Darkness (10:21 - 10:29) חושך

The ninth plague of Egypt was complete darkness, lasting for three days. Pharaoh called upon Moses, agreeing to let the Hebrews go out to the desert, but leaving their livestock in Egypt. Moses refused this condition, and in addition required that Pharaoh would donate a sacrifice. This outraged Pharaoh, and he threatened Moses with death. Pharaoh (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה (without niqqud: פרעה), Standard Hebrew Parʿo, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh, Arabic فرعون) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ...


Death of Firstborn (11:1 - 12:42) מכת בכורות

The tenth and final plague of Egypt was the death of all Egyptian first born - from the king's first born to the widow's first born, including first born of livestock. This was the hardest and cruelest blow upon Egypt and the plague that finally convinced Pharaoh to submit, and let the Hebrews go.


God told Moses that this plague would cause Pharaoh to send the Hebrews away, and ordered him to prepare the people for leaving. He also ordered Moses to teach the ritual of Pesah sacrificing a lamb for God, and eating Matzot ("Poor's Bread" לחם עוני). God told Moses to order the Hebrews to mark their doorstep with the lamb's blood, in order that the plague of death would pass over them. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In the middle of the night, God himself (in the form of the angel of death) came upon Egypt and took the life of all the Egyptian first born sons, including Pharaoh's own. There was a great cry in Egypt, such as had never been heard before. No Hebrew first born was killed, as God passed over Hebrew houses.


After this, Pharaoh, furious and sad, ordered the Hebrews to go away, taking whatever they want. The Hebrews don't hesitate; and at the end of that night Moses led them out of Egypt. Jews celebrate this plague with redemption of the firstborn, as detailed in Exodus (13), and fast of the firstborn. Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the five books of Moses) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and Christian Old Testament. ... Fast of the Firstborn (or Taanit Bchorot/Bchorim) is a unique Jewish fast day which usually falls on the day before Passover. ...


Discussions on the plagues

Did the plagues happen?

The vast majority of scientists and secular thinkers believe the plague stories are simply mythical or allegorical, or inspired by passed-down accounts of natural disasters. Some, however, have speculated on the possible "natural" inspirations behind the plague stories.


There is archaeological material that some archaeologists, such as William F. Albright, have considered historical evidence of the Ten Plagues. Another artifact, an ancient water-trough found in El Arish bears hieroglyphic markings detailing a plague of darkness. Albright has stated that evidence such as the above, as well as careful study of the areas ostensibly travelled by the Israelites after the Exodus, make discounting the biblical account untenable. Importance and applicability Most of human history is not described by any written records. ... William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... El Arish (alternate spelling Al Arish) is an Egyptian city on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula. ... Hieroglyphs are a system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians, using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ...


The Egyptian Admonitions of Ipuwer describe a series of calamities befalling Egypt, including a river turned to blood, men behaving as wild ibises, and the land generally turned upside down . The document is usually dated to the end of the Middle Kingdom (more rarely, to its beginning), long before the usual theorized dates for the Exodus. Immanuel Velikovsky decided that this papyrus did, in fact, describe the events of Exodus, along with the major natural catastrophes that he thought preceded it; it was the conventional chronologies of Egypt that were wrong by several hundred years.[1] His theory has never gained credibility among Egyptologists. Genera Threskiornis Pseudibis Nipponia Bostrychia Theristicus Cercibis Mesembrinibis Phimosus Lophotibis Eudocimus Plegadis Geronticus Ibises are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae. ... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth dynasty, roughly between 1986 BC and 1633 BC. The Beginning The Middle Kingdom is usually dated to when Pharaoh Mentuhotep II from Thebes defeated... Immanuel Velikovsky (June 10, 1895 – November 17, 1979). ... Catastrophism is the theory that Earth has been affected by sudden, short-lived, violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Speculations on natural disasters

As noted above, some science writers and bible researchers have suggested that the plagues were passed-down accounts of natural disasters, and not supernatural miracles. Natural explanations have been suggested for most of the phenomena: the blood in the Nile (1) could have actually been pollution caused by volcanic activity. Abnormal algae rapid growth could have caused frogs (2) to leave the river, which in turn could have brought hordes of insects (3,4) which spread diseases (5,6). The hail and fire (7) killed almost all the crops so the locusts (8) swarmed to eat the rest. They also suggest other explanations for the locusts, and speculate that the darkness (9) was caused by a solar eclipse or sandstorm. This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Photo taken by John Walker during the Zambia 2001 eclipse A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of the Sun and obscures it totally or partially. ... A sandstorm is a low-level atmospheric disturbance caused by a strong wind carrying sand particles through the air. ...


A candidate for a volcanic eruption that could have inspired the stories of the ten plagues is the eruption of the Thera volcano 650 miles to the northwest of Egypt. Controversially dated to about 1628 BC, this eruption is one of the largest on record, rivaling that of Tambora, which resulted in 1816's Year Without a Summer. Records of the enormous global impact of this eruption have been recorded in an ash layer deposit found in the Nile delta, tree ring frost scars in the bristlecone pines of the western United States, and a coating of ash in the Greenland ice caps, all dated to the same time and with the same chemical fingerprint as the ash from Thera. According to the theory, the volcanic ash could have then polluted the Nile red (1), leading to frogs leaving the river (2). The ash also would have impacted the ecology of the Eastern Mediterranean, possibly resulting in plagues 3, 4, 5, and 8. Hot ash coming into contact with skin could have caused plague 6, and storms caused by the Theran ash cloud could have resulted in plague 7, and the ash would have subsequently blotted out the sun (well documented in the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens) to make day into night for plague 9. However, all the proposed dates for this eruption are hundreds of years before the proposed dates of the Exodus; thus only a radical revision of the chronology, like Velikovsky's, can link the two. View from the top of Thira Santorini is a small, circular group of volcanic islands located in the Aegean Sea, 75 km south-east of the Greek mainland, (latitude: 35. ... Mount Tamborais a volcano on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa, nearly in a right line to the eastward of Java. ... The Year Without a Summer, also known as the Poverty Year and Eighteen hundred and froze to death was 1816, in which severe summer climate abnormalities destroyed crops in Northern Europe and the American Northeast. ... Species Pinus aristata Pinus longaeva Pinus balfouriana The bristlecone pines are a small group of pine trees (Family Pinaceae, genus Pinus, subsection Balfourianae) that can reach an age far greater than that of any other living thing known - up to nearly 5,000 years. ... Mount St. ...


These explanations do not account for the selectiveness of the plagues: according to the Hebrew Bible the plagues damaged only Egyptians, while the Hebrews remained untouched. The double-selectiveness of the last plague (10) - only first born dies - also does not have a naturalistic explanation. (But there was a hypothesis told that the food left in storage was polluted by the excrement of locusts, and Cladosporium,or black mold, grew in the crops. Because the first son, by tradition, might have received double food rations, they would have taken in more mildew than others. In result, allergies could have occurred and killed those first-born.) Typically, skeptics and other modern writers account for details of the account which do not accord with these natural explanations as being pious exaggerations intended to encourage faith. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible refers to the common portions of the Jewish and Christian canons. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


An alternative interpretation of "firstborn" has come to mean the cream of the crop of Egyptian society instead of literal firstborns in every household.


Following the assumption that at least some of the details are accurately reported, many modern Jews agree that some of the plagues were indeed natural disasters, but argue from the fact that they followed one another with such uncommon rapidity, that God's hand was behind them.


Indeed, several Biblical commentators (Nachmanides and, more recently, Rabbi Yaakov Kamenetzky) have pointed out that for the plagues to be a real test, they had to contain an element leading to doubt. For example, the splitting of the Red Sea in Exodus appeared to be caused by "a strong eastern wind", providing the Egyptian pursuers, and also those who later recount the story, grounds to doubt the Divine origin of the plague. 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also spelt Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Nahmanides is the common name for Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi; the name is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Ben Nahman, meaning Son of Nahman. He is also commomly known as Ramban, being an acronym of his Hebrew name and title, Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman, and by his Catalan name... Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbī;; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbī) in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root-word RaV, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished,. In the ancient Judean schools the sages were addressed as רִבִּי (Ribbi or Rebbi... Conshelf II in the Red Sea (Sudan) Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea (Arabic البحر الأحمر Baḥr al-Aḥmar, al-Baḥru l-’Aḥmar; Hebrew ים סוף Yam Suf; Tigrigna ቀይሕ ባሕሪ QeyH baHri) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the five books of Moses) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and Christian Old Testament. ...


Was the tenth plague moral?

The last plague has seemed to many to be a very cruel and unjustifiable punishment for the Egyptians, and is criticised for promoting an unethical delight in the suffering of others. A common and widely accepted Jewish Midrash explains the dreadful plague by expanding upon 10:28, where Pharaoh threatens to kill Moses: Midrash (pl. ...

When Moses went to Pharaoh to demand of him that he let the people go, the whole event is happening in front of Pharaoh's first born son who teases and mocks his father for allowing the Hebrew shepherd to humiliate him. Enraged by the insult and mad with pride, Pharaoh resolved to have revenge for the plagues, and told Moses that he shall deal with the Hebrews in such a manner that a great cry will be heard in Egypt, such that has never been heard before. This was an allusion to the crimes of his father, who ordered the drowning of the male children of the Hebrews. Therefore, Pharaoh brought this harsh punishment upon his own people. His cruel plan was turned back upon him, so that what Pharaoh wanted to do to the Hebrews, God made to happen to him.

This Midrash justifies the last plague with two main arguments: Pharaoh (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה (without niqqud: פרעה), Standard Hebrew Parʿo, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh, Arabic فرعون) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... Pride logo PRIDE or PRIDE Fighting Championships is a mixed martial arts organization based in Japan. ...

  • Mida ke-neged mida מידה כנגד מידה ("retribution in kind") principle: in the Bible the punishment fits to the crime (sin), not only in severity, but also in symbolism. This is for a pedagogic reason: so that everyone, including the sinner himself, shall know why he has been punished by God.
  • Ha-kam le-horgecha hashkem le-horgo הקם להרגך, השכם להורגו Self defense: Pharaoh planned to slaughter all Hebrew children. By inflicting upon Pharaoh the same thing he planned for the Hebrews, his evil plan was thwarted.

Sin has been a term most usually used in a religious context, and today describes any lack of conformity to the will of God; especially, any willful disregard for the norms revealed by God is a sin. ... Pedagogy is the art or science of teaching. ...

The Plagues in Popular Culture

The Ten Plagues of Egypt were dramatized by the heavy metal group Metallica in their song "Creeping Death", on their 1984 release Ride the Lightning. Late bassist Cliff Burton came up with the title of the song while watching the 1956 Biblical epic The Ten Commandments, specifically when the Angel of Death moved among Egyptians, killing the firstborn in each family. The plagues were also dramatized as part of a modern horror film in The Abominable Dr. Phibes (1971). Heavy metal is a form of rock music characterized by aggressive, driving rhythms and highly amplified distorted guitars, generally with grandiose lyrics and virtuosic instrumentation. ... Old logo, as used in Master Of Puppets, circa 1986. ... Ride the Lightning is Metallicas second album, released November 16, 1984 on Elektra Records // Impact and Acclaim Though often overshadowed by its groundbreaking predecessor Kill Em All and classic follow-up Master of Puppets, Ride the Lightning was the vital bridge between these two albums, pushing the thrash metal... Cliff Burton Clifford Lee Burton (February 10, 1962–September 27, 1986) was the second bassist in the band Metallica, joining the band in late 1982 replacing Ron McGovney. ... This article is about the list of religious and moral imperatives. ... Angel of Death can refer to several things: The Biblical Angel of death, Azrael The Nazi doctor, Josef Mengele The song by Slayer The Grim Reaper: the scythe-wielding skeleton, personification of death, common in fantasy and science fiction literature and films: Death (Discworld) of Terry Pratchetts Discworld This... The Abominable Dr. Phibes (1971) is a horror film starring Vincent Price. ...


See also

Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the five books of Moses) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and Christian Old Testament. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Musa), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Seder (pronounced say-der, meaning order in Hebrew) is a special Jewish ceremonial dinner revolving around the story of Exodus. ... In botany and horticulture, the popular name given to various tall flowering plants : Common mullein or great mullein (Verbascum thapsus), a biennal medicinal herb used in Amerindian medicine as a tonic for lung problems, such as cough, asthma or bronchitis; Snapdragon or Figwort family (Scrophulariaceae)(other common names: shepherds...

External Links

Exodus - relevant chapters

  • Hebrew: ch 7 - ch 8 - ch 9 - ch 10 - ch 11 - ch 12 .
  • English: ch7 - ch8 - ch9 - ch10 - ch11 - ch12.

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Ten plagues - definition of Ten plagues in Encyclopedia (2078 words)
The fifth plague of Egypt was a disease which exterminated the Egyptian livestock; that is, horses, donkeys, camels, cattle, sheep and goats.
The seventh plague of Egypt was a destructive storm.
The Ten Plagues of Egypt were dramatized by the heavy metal group Metallica in their song "Creeping Death", on their 1983 release Ride the Lightning.
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