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Encyclopedia > Ten Years' War
Ten Years War
Date October 10, 18681878
Location Cuba
Result Spanish victory. Pact of Zanjón
Belligerents
Flag of Cuba Cuba Flag of Spain Kingdom of Spain
Commanders
Carlos Manuel de Céspedes
Máximo Gómez
Antonio Maceo Grajales
Arsenio Martínez Campos
Strength
12,000 rebels, 40,000 supporters 100,000
Casualties and losses
+300,000 rebels and civilian  ??

The Ten Years' War (Spanish: Guerra de los Diez Años, (1868-1878), also known as the Great War, began on October 10, 1868 when sugar mill owner Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and his followers proclaimed Cuba's independence from Spain. It was the first of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Little War (1879-1880) and the Cuban War of Independence (1895-1898). The final three months of the last conflict escalated to become the Spanish-American War. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Pact of Zanjón was the treaty that ended the Cuban Ten Year War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Carlos Céspedes. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Antonio Maceo in uniform Lt. ... Arsenio Martínez Campos in his later years Arsenio Martínez Campos was a Spanish officer, who rose against the First Spanish Republic and was later Captain General of Cuba. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Carlos Céspedes. ... // Pre-Columbian Cuba The archeological record and evidence from mitochondrial DNA studies indicate that Cuba and the Antilles have been inhabited by peoples ancestral to the indigenous inhabitants for at least several thousand years. ... Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Manuel Macías y Casado Ramón Blanco y Erenas Casualties and losses 385 KIA USA 5,000...

Contents

Background

The failure of the latest Reformist efforts, the demise of the ‘’’Information Board’’’ and an economic crisis in 1866/67 gave way to a new scenario. In spite of the crisis, the colonial administration continued to make huge profits which were not invested on the island but either went into military expenditures (44% of the revenue), paid for the colonial governments expenses (41%) or sent to Spain and Fernando Poo (12%). The Spaniards with 8% of the population appropriated over 90% of the island’s wealth. In addition, the majority of the Cuban population still had no political rights giving rise to underground movements, especially in the eastern part of the country. [1] Bioko is an island off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, formerly called Fernando Po or Fernando Poo. ...


In July 1867, the ‘’’Revolutionary Committee of Bayamo’’’ was founded under the leadership of a one of Cuba’s wealthiest plantation owners, Francisco Vicente Aguilera. The conspiracy rapidly spread to Oriente’s lager towns, most of all Manzanillo where Carlos Manuel de Céspedes became the main protagonist of the uprising. Originally from Bayamo, Céspedes owned an estate and sugar mill known as ‘’’La Demajagua’’’. The Spanish, aware of Céspedes’ anti-colonial intransigence, tried to force him into submission by imprisoning his son Oscar. Céspedes refused to negotiate and Oscar was executed. [2] Manzanillo could refer to Manzanillo, Cuba Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico Manzanillo, Panama This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Carlos Céspedes. ...


Tactics

The date for the uprising was moved up, because the Spaniards had discovered the plans in early October. In the early morning of October 10 Céspedes issued the independence cry ‘’’10th of October Manifesto’’’ at La Demajagua, starting the war against Spanish rule in Cuba. As a first step, Céspedes freed his slaves, asking them to join the struggle. However, many questioned Céspedes's plans for manumission, notably the rate at which slaves were to be freed, or disagreed with his call for U.S. annexation of Cuba. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 580 pixelsFull resolution (391 × 580 pixel, file size: 39 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Carlos Manuel de Céspedes (April 18, 1819-Feb. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 580 pixelsFull resolution (391 × 580 pixel, file size: 39 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Carlos Manuel de Céspedes (April 18, 1819-Feb. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Carlos Céspedes. ... Manumission is the act of freeing a slave, done at the will of the owner. ...


During the first few days, the uprising almost failed. Céspedes intended to occupy the nearby town of Yara on October 11, from which this revolution took its name, but suffered numerous casualties and was dispersed by a Spanish Army column on the way. Céspedes escaped with only 12 men. The October 10 date is commemorated in Cuba as a national holiday under the name Grito de Yara ("Cry of Yara"). In spite of this defeat, the uprising of Yara was supported in various regions on Oriente and continued to spread throughout the eastern region of Cuba. On October 13, the rebels took eight towns in the province favouring enrolment and acquisition of arms. By the end of October, the insurrection had some 12,000 volunteers. , Yara is a small town in the Granma Province of Cuba, located halfway between the cities of Bayamo and Manzanillo, in the Golf of Guanacayabo. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


That same month, Máximo Gómez, a former cavalry officer for the Spanish Army in the Dominican Republic, with his extraordinary military skills, taught the Cuban forces what would be their most lethal tactic: the machete charge. [1]. The machete charge was particularly lethal because it involved firearms as well. If the Spanish were caught on the march, the machetes would cut through their ranks. When the Spaniards (following then-standard tactics) formed a square, rifle fire from infantry under cover and pistol and carbine fire from charging cavalry would cause many losses. However, as it would be in wars such as these, yellow fever caused the heaviest losses because the Spanish had not acquired the childhood immunity that the Cuban troops had. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... modern factory-made Machete For other uses, see Machete (disambiguation). ...


Progress of the War

The rebels proceeded to seize the important city of Bayamo after a 3-day-combat. It was in the enthusiasm of this victory when the poet and musician, Pedro Figueredo comosed Cuba’s national anthem, the “Bayamo”. The first government of the Republic in Arms, headed by Céspedes, was established in Bayamo. The city was retaken by the Spanish after 3 months on January 12, but it had been burned to the ground.[3]


Nevertheless, the war spread in Oriente: On November 4, 1868, Camagüey rose up in arms and, in early February1869, Las Villas followed. The uprising was not supported in the westernmost provinces Pinar del Rio, Havana and Matanzas and, with few exceptions (Vuelta Abajo) remained clandestine. A staunch supporter of the rebellion was José Martí Pérez who, at the age of 16, was detained and condemned to 16 years of hard labour, later deported to Spain and became Cuba’s national hero. Camagüey (founded as Santa María del Puerto del Príncipe around 1515) is a city in central Cuba and is the nations third largest city. ... Pinar del Río is a city in Cuba. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Matanzas is the capital of the Cuban Province Matanzas. ...


After some initial victories, and then defeats, Céspedes replaced Gomez with General Thomas Jordan, who brought a well-equipped force, as head of Cuban army. However, General Jordan's regular tactics, although initially effective, left the families of Cuban rebels far too vulnerable to the "ethnic cleansing" tactics of the ruthless Blas Villate, Count of Valmaceda (also spelled Balmaceda). Valeriano Weyler, who would reach notoriety as the "Butcher Weyler" in the 1895-1898 War, fought along the Count of Balmaceda. General Jordan then left, Máximo Gómez was returned to his command and a new generation of skilled battle-tested Cuban commanders rose from the ranks, these including Antonio Maceo, José Maceo, and Calixto Garcia Iñiguez and Vicente Garcia González [2]. Other war leaders of note fighting on the Cuban Mambí side included: Donato Mármol, Luis Marcano-Alvarez, Carlos Roloff, Enrique Loret de Mola, Sanguily, Domingo Goicuría, Guillermon Moncada, Quintin Bandera, Benjamín Ramirez, and Julio Grave de Peralta. Thomas Jordan (September 30, 1819 – November 27, 1895), born in Luray Valley, Virginia, was a Confederate spy in the American Civil War. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... General Valeriano Weyler Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau, marqués de Tenerife (17 September 1838 - 20 October 1930) was a Spanish soldier. ... This biographical article needs to be wikified. ... Calixto Garcia was born on August 4, 1839 in Holguin. ... Marcano family name originated in Spain. ... Born in Santiago on June 25 1841[1], Guillermo Moncada (nicknamed Guillermón since his childhood, due to his large size) was one of 29 Cuban generals in the Cuban War of Independence. ...


On April 10, 1869, a constitutional assembly took place in the town of Guáimaro (Camagüey), with the purpose of providing the revolution with greater organizational and juridical unity and with representatives from the areas that had joined the uprising. A major topic of the discussions was whether a centralized leadership should be in charge of both military and civilian affairs or if there should be a seperation between civilian government and military leadership, the latter being subordinate to the first. The overwhelming majority voted for the seperation option. Céspedes was elected president of this assembly and General Ignacio Agramonte y Loynáz and Antonio Zambrana, principal authors of the proposed Constitution, were elected Secretaries.[4] After completing its work, the Assembly reconstituted itself as the House of Representatives as the state’s supreme power, electing Salvador Cisneros Betancourt as its president, Miguel Gerónimo Gutiérrez as vice-president, and Agramonte and Zambrana as Secretaries. Céspedes was then elected, on April 12, 1869, as the first president of the Republic in Arms and General Manuel de Quesada (who had fought in Mexico under Benito Juárez during the French invasion of that country), as Chief of the Armed Forces. is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The statue of Ignacio Agramonte on the Plaza de Revolución in Camagüey Ignacio Agramonte y Loynáz (1841—1873) was a Cuban revolutionary, and played an important part in the Ten Years War. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


After failing to reach an agreement with the insurrection forces in early 1869, the Spanish responded by unleashing a war of extermination. The colonial government passed several laws: all arrested leaders and collaborators would be executed on the spot, ships carrying weapons would be seized and all on board immediately executed, males 15 and older caught outside of their plantations or places of residence without justification would be summarily executed, all towns were ordered to raise the white flag, otherwise burnt to the ground, any woman caught away from her farm or place of residence would be concentrated in cities. Apart from its own army the government could rely on the Voluntary Corps which had been created a few years earlier to face the announced invasion by Narcisco López and which became notorious for its barbaric and bloody acts. One infamous incident was the execution of eight students from the University of Havana on November 27, 1871. [5] Another one was the seizure of the steamship Virginius in international waters on October 31, 1873 , and, starting on November 4, serial execution of 53 persons, including the captain, most of the crew and a number of Cuban insurgents on board. The serial executions were only stopped by the intervention of a British man-of-war under the command of Sir Lambton Lorraine. In another incident, the so-called "Creciente de Valmaseda", farmers (Guajiros), and the families of Mambises were killed or captured en masse and sent to concentration camps. The University of Havana or UH (in Spanish, Universidad de La Habana) is a university located in Havana, Cuba. ... The Virginius Affair (sometimes called the Virginius Incident) was a diplomatic dispute that occurred in the 1870s between the United States, the United Kingdom and Spain, then proprietor of Cuba. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Mambises fought using guerrilla warfare and their efforts had much more impact on the eastern side of the island than on the western, due in part to a lack of supplies. Ignacio Agramonte was killed by a stray bullet on May 11, 1873 and was replaced in the command of the central troops by Máximo Gómez. Due to political and personal disagreements and Agramonte's death, the Assembly deposed Céspedes as president, who was replaced by Cisneros. Agramonte had come to realize that his dream Constitution and government were ill suited to the Cuban Republic in Arms, which was the reason he quit as Secretary and assumed command of the Camaguey region. By being curtailed by the Congress, he understood Cespedes' plight, thus becoming a supporter. Céspedes was later surprised and killed by a swift-moving patrol of Spanish troops on February 27, 1874. The new Cuban government had left him with only one escort and denied him permission to leave Cuba for the US, where he wanted to help to prepare and send armed expeditions. is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Activities in the Ten Years War peaked in the years 1872 and 1873, but after the death of Agramonte and destitution of Céspedes, Cuban operations were limited to the regions of Camagüey and Oriente. Gómez began an invasion of Western Cuba in 1875, but the vast majority of slaves and wealthy sugar producers in the region did not join the revolt. After his most trusted general, the American Henry Reeve, was killed in 1876, the invasion was over. Statistics Capital: Santiago de Cuba Area: 6,170km² Inhabitants: 1,016,600 Population Density: 164. ... Henry Reeve (1850—1876) was a Brigadier General in Cubas Ejercito Libertador - more commonly known as the Ejercito Mambi - during the Ten Years War (1868-1878). ...


Spain's efforts to fight were hindered by the civil war (Third Carlist War),that broke out in Spain in 1872. When the civil war ended in 1876, more Spanish troops were sent to Cuba until they numbered more than 250.000. The impact of the Spanish measures on the liberation forces was severe. Neither side in the war was able to win a single concrete victory, let alone crush the opposing side to win the war, but in the long run Spain gained the upper hand.[6] Restoration promiss During the Third Carlist War (1872-1876), the carlist forces managed to occupy some cities in the interior Catalonia. ...


Conclusion of the War

From the very onset of the war there were deep divisions with respect its organisation which became even more pronounced after the Assembly of Guáimaro with the dismissal of Céspedes and Quesada in 1873. The Spanish were able to exploit regionalist sentiments and fears that the slaves of Matanzas would break the weak existing balance between whites and blacks. They changed their policy towards the Mambises offering amnesties and reforms. The Mambises did not prevail for a variety of reasons; lack of organization and resources; lower participation by whites; internal racist sabotage (against Maceo and the goals of the Liberating Army); the inability to bring the war to the western provinces (Havana in particular); and opposition by the US government to Cuban independence. The US sold the latest weapons to Spain, but not to the Cuban rebels. [7]


Tomás Estrada Palma succeeded Cisneros as president of the Republic in Arms. Estrada Palma was captured by Spanish troops on October 19, 1877. As a result of successive misfortunes, on February 8, 1878, the constitutional organs of the Cuban government were dissolved and negotiations for peace were started in Zanjón, Puerto Príncipe. Tomás Estrada Palma (1835 - 1908) was a Cuban political figure, [[1]]. He served as the first president of Cuba between 1902 and 1906. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


General Arsenio Martínez Campos, in charge of applying the new policy, arrived in Cuba, but it took him almost two years to convince most of the rebels to accept the Pact of Zanjón on February 10, 1878, signed by a negotiating committee. The document contained most of the promises made by Spain. The Ten Years' War came to an end, except for the resistance of a small group in Oriente led by General Garciá and Antonio Maceo, who protested in Los Mangos de Baraguá on March 15. Even a constitution and a provisional government was set up but the revolutionary élan was gone. The provisional government convinced Maceo to give up, thus ending the war in May 28, 1878.[8] Many of the graduates of Ten Year War, however, became central players in Cuba's war of independence started in 1895. These include the Maceo brothers, Maximo Gómez, Calixto Garcia and others. [9] Arsenio Martínez Campos in his later years Arsenio Martínez Campos was a Spanish officer, who rose against the First Spanish Republic and was later Captain General of Cuba. ... The Pact of Zanjón was the treaty that ended the Cuban Ten Year War. ... This biographical article needs to be wikified. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Pact of Zanjón promised various reforms throughout the island which would improve the financial situation of Cuba. Perhaps the most significant was to free all slaves who had fought Spain. A major conflict throughout the war was the abolition of the slavery. Both the rebels and the people loyal to Spain wanted to abolish slavery. In 1880, a law was passed by the Spanish government that freed all of the slaves. However, the slaves were required by law to work for their masters for a number of years but the masters had to pay the slaves for their work. The wages were so low the slaves could barely afford to live off of them. The Spanish government lifted the law before it was to expire because neither the land owners nor the freed men appreciated it.[citation needed]


After the war ended, there were 17 years of tension between the people of Cuba and the Spanish government, a time called ‘’’The Rewarding Truce’’’, including the Little War (La Guerra Chiquita) between 1879-1880. These separatists would go on to follow the lead of José Martí, the most passionate of the rebels chose exile over Spanish rule. There was also a severe depression throughout the island. Overall, about 200,000 people lost their lives in the conflict. The war also devastated the coffee industry and American tariffs badly damaged Cuban exports. For other persons named José Martí, see José Martí (disambiguation). ...


References

  • Perez Jr., Louis A (1988). Cuba: Between Reform and Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Navarro, José Cantón: History of Cuba. The Challenge of the Yoke and the Star. Editorial SI-MAR S. A., Havana, Cuba, 1998, ISBN 959-7054-19-1

Further reading

Portions of this article were extracted from CubaGenWeb.


Perhaps the most detailed source for information on the Ten Years' War is still Antonio Pirala's Anales de la Guerra en Cuba, (1895, 1896 and some from 1874) Felipe González Rojas (Editor), Madrid.


See also

Cuba Portal
  • History of Cuba
  • Ana Betancourt A female "Mambisa" who used the war to campaign for women's equality in Cuba
Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Map of the West Indies, Mexico and New Spain with Cuba in the center drawn by Herman Moll in 1736. ... Ana Betancourt (born 14th December 1832 , Cuba - died 7th February 1901, Madrid) was a Cuban woman who took a leading role in the war of independence from Spain. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ten Years War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (698 words)
The Ten Years War began on 10 October 1868 under the leadership of the attorney Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and seconded by a group of patriots in the sugar mill La Demajagua, calling for liberty and independence of the island.
Activities in the Ten Years War peaked in the years 1872 and 1873, but after the death of Agramonte and destitution of Céspedes, operations were limited to the regions of Camagüey and Oriente, due in part to a lack of supplies.
On 10 February 1878, the peace terms were accepted by the Cuban and Spanish governments and the Ten Years War came to an end, except for some subsequent protests by a small group of followers of Antonio Maceo, who protested in Los Mangos de Baraguá on 15 March.
Ten Years' War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (663 words)
However, as it would be in all these wars, yellow fever cause the heaviest losses because the Spanish had not acquired the childhood immunity that the Cuban troops had.
After the war ended, there were 17 years of tension between the people of Cuba and the Spanish government, including the Little War between 1879-1880.
One major conflict throughout the war was the abolition of the slaves in Cuba.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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