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Encyclopedia > Temporal lobe epilepsy
Temporal lobe epilepsy
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 G40.1.-G40.2.
ICD-9 345.4
DiseasesDB 29433
MedlinePlus 001399
eMedicine neuro/365 

Temporal lobe epilepsy is a form of epilepsy, a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // G00-G99 - Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G09) Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (G00) Bacterial meningitis, not elsewhere classified (G01) Meningitis in bacterial diseases classified elsewhere (G02) Meningitis in other infectious and parasitic diseases classified elsewhere (G03) Meningitis due to other and unspecified causes (G04) Encephalitis, myelitis... // G00-G99 - Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G09) Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (G00) Bacterial meningitis, not elsewhere classified (G01) Meningitis in bacterial diseases classified elsewhere (G02) Meningitis in other infectious and parasitic diseases classified elsewhere (G03) Meningitis due to other and unspecified causes (G04) Encephalitis, myelitis... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ...



Temporal lobe epilepsies are a group of medical disorders in which humans and animals experience recurrent epileptic seizures arising from one or both temporal lobes of the brain. Two main types are internationally recognized. The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ...

  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) arises in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala which are located in the inner aspect of the temporal lobe.
  • Lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) arises in the neocortex on the outer surface of the temporal lobe of the brain.

Because of strong interconnections, seizures beginning in either the medial or lateral areas often involve neighboring areas of the brain. The causes or etiology of different temporal lobe epilepsies vary. MTLE is often associated with generalized tonic-clonic (convulsive) seizures occurring in children under age 8 during fevers (febrile seizures). When MTLE begins in childhood, atrophy of the hippocampus can often be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. When MTLE begins in adulthood, MRIs often reveal no visible abnormalities. Rarely, MTLE can be hereditary or related to brain tumors, spinal meningitis, encephalitis, head injury or blood vessel malformations. MTLE can occur in association with other brain malformations. The parahippocampal gyrus (or hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. ... Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or...

Most often, a cause cannot be determined with certainty. LTLE is less common. It can be hereditary, as in Autosomal Dominant Lateral Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (ADLTLE) with auditory or visual features, but can also be associated with tumors, meningitis, encephalitis, trauma, vascular malformations or congenital brain malformations. Again, in many affected persons it is common that no cause can be identified. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dominance relationship. ...


The symptoms felt by the patient with TLE and the signs observable by others during seizures depend upon the specific areas of the temporal lobes and neighboring brain areas affected by the seizure. The Classification of Epileptic Seizures published in 1981 by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) recognizes three types of seizures which persons with TLE may experience.

  1. Simple Partial Seizures (SPS) involve small areas of the temporal lobe and do not affect consciousness. These are seizures which primarily cause sensations. These sensations may be mnestic such as déjà vu (a feeling of familiarity), jamais vu (a feeling of unfamiliarity), a specific single or set of memories, or amnesia. The sensations may be auditory such as a sound or tune, or gustatory such as a taste, or olfactory such as a smell that is not truly present. Sensations can also be visual or involve feelings on the skin or in the internal organs. The latter feelings may seem to move over the body. Dysphoric or euphoric feelings, fear, anger, and other sensations can also occur during SPS. Often, it is hard for persons with SPS of TLE to describe the feeling. SPS are often called "auras," and are sometimes thought to be preludes to more severe seizures.
  2. Complex Partial Seizures (CPS) by definition are seizures which impair consciousness to some extent. This is to say that they alter the person's ability to interact with others. They usually begin with an SPS, but then the seizure spreads to a large portion of the temporal lobe and impairs consciousness. Signs may include motionless staring, automatic movements of the hands or mouth, inability to respond to others, unusual speech, or unusual behaviors. Because judgement is impaired, persons experiencing CPS may not legally drive vehicles for periods of time which are set by local governments worldwide.
  3. Seizures which begin in the temporal lobe but then spread to the whole brain are known as Secondarily Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures (SGTCS). These begin with an SPS or CPS phase initially, but then the arms, trunk and legs stiffen in either a flexed or extended position. After this, coarse jerking of the limbs and trunk occur.

Simple partial seizures are seizures which affect only a small region of the brain, often the temporal lobes and/or hippocampi. ... For other uses, see Déjà vu (disambiguation). ... In psychology, the term jamais vu (from the French, meaning never seen) is used to describe any familiar situation which is not recognized by the observer. ... Amnesia (from Greek ) (see spelling differences) is a condition in which memory is disturbed. ... Complex partial seizures are epileptic attacks which involve a greater degree of impairment of consciousness than simple partial seizures. ... Tonic-clonic seizures (also known as Grand Mal Seizures, though this term is now discouraged and rarely used in a clinical setting) are a type of generalised seizure affecting the whole brain. ...

Syndrome of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE)

The classical syndrome of TLE begins when there is a very early insult to the left or right hippocampus. Newborn babies may develop an infection resulting in a fever. Young babies have an immature thermoregulation system, and the fever causes the baby's core body temperature to increase. The raised body temperature can cause febrile convulsions. These are quite normal in babies, usually lasting only a few minutes, but in a few cases the convulsions can last for an hour. This is a sign that the infant is at a high risk of developing TLE.


There are many oral medications available for the management of epileptic seizures, typically termed anticonvulsants or antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, for short). For temporal lobe epilepsy specifically, the most commonly used AEDs are (historically) phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate and phenobarbital. Newer drugs, though, like gabapentin, topiramate, and lamotrigine, promise similar efficacy with fewer side-effects. Nearly all AEDs function by decreasing the excitation of neurons (e.g., by blocking sodium channels or calcium channels) or by enhancing their inhibition (e.g., by potentiating the effects of inhibitory neurotransimitters, like GABA). Unfortunately, many patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (up to one-third) will not experience adequate seizure control with medication.[1] For these patients, resective surgery is the primary alternative. In preparation for these surgeries, patients are monitored by various methods to determine the focus of their seizures (that is, the region of the brain where seizures tend to arise before spreading). This can be done with video-EEG monitoring, intracranial EEG (where electrodes are placed beneath the skull, either within or resting just outside the brain), or SPECT imaging. MRI studies may additionally be used to seek evidence of hippocampal sclerosis. Once the epileptic focus has been determined, it can be excised, which usually involves removing part of the hippocampus and often the amygdala. To avoid removing areas of the brain responsible for speech (so-called "eloquent" areas), the surgical team will conduct a Wada test pre-operatively, wherein sodium amytal is injected in the left or right carotid artery to effectively quiet one half of the brain. If the patient performs poorly on neuropsychological testing after the temporary quieting of a hemisphere, the surgical team will typically do their best to avoid operating on that area. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... Phenytoin sodium (marketed as Dilantin® in the USA and as Epanutin® in the UK, by Parke-Davis, now part of Pfizer) is a commonly used antiepileptic. ... Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug, used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. ... Valproic acid or 2-Propylpentanoic acid is CH3CH2CH2CH(CH2CH2CH3)COOH . ... Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Farbwerke Fr. ... Gabapentin (brand name: Neurontin®) was initially synthesized to mimic the structure of GABA for the treatment of epilepsy. ... Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant drug produced by Ortho-McNeil Neurologics, a division of Johnson & Johnson. ... Lamotrigine (marketed as Lamictal (IPA: ) by GlaxoSmithKline, called Lamictin in South Africa, (Lamogine)[1] in Israel, and in South Korea) is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. ... A side-effect is any effect other than an intended primary effect. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that exist in a cells plasma membrane and regulate the flow of sodium (Na+) ions into it. ... Another, unrelated ion channeling process is part of ion implantation. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... EEG can mean: Electroencephalography - the method and science of recording and interpreting traces of brain electrical activity as recorded from the skull surface or the device used to record such traces Emperor Entertainment Group - A Hong Kong entertainment company. ... SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. ... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ... The Wada test, also known as the intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (ISAP), is used to establish which cerebral functions are localised to which hemisphere. ... Sodium amytal is used for severe, long-standing insomnia in people already taking barbiturates. ... In human anatomy, the carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ...

Cultural influence

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and the Arts

As Eve LaPlante discusses in her book, "Seized," the intense emotions, sensory experience including vibrancy of colors, and particular mental state provoked by temporal lobe abnormalities may have contributed to the creation of significant works of art. A number of well-known writers and artists are known, or in many cases suspected to have had temporal lobe epilepsy, aggravated, in some cases, by alcoholism. They include Charles Dodgson (a.k.a. Lewis Carroll), Edgar Allan Poe, Fyodor Dostoevsky (whose novel The Idiot features an epileptic protagonist, Prince Myshkin), Gustave Flaubert, Philip K. Dick, Sylvia Plath and the contemporary author Thom Jones. Peter O'Leary also discusses this in his book "Gnostic Contagion: Robert Duncan and the Poetry of Illness." Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Photograph of Lewis Carroll taken by himself, with assistance Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (January 27, 1832 – January 14, 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll, was a British author, mathematician, Anglican clergyman, logician, and amateur photographer. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... It has been suggested that Cultural depictions of Fyodor Dostoevsky be merged into this article or section. ... Pevear and Volokhonsky translation of The Idiot The Idiot is a novel written by the Russian writer Fyodor Dostoevsky in 1869. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short story writer. ... Authorship redirects here. ... Thom Jones (born 1945) is an American writer, primarily of short stories. ...

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Neurotheology and Paranormal Experience

The first researcher to note and catalog the abnormal experiences associated with TLE was neurologist Norman Geschwind, who noted a constellation of symptoms, including hypergraphia, hyperreligiosity, fainting spells, mutism and pedantism, often collectively ascribed to a condition known as Geschwind syndrome.[2] Vilayanur S. Ramachandran explored the neural basis of the hyperreligiosity seen in TLE using galvanic skin response, which correlates with emotional arousal, to determine whether the hyperreligiosity seen in TLE was due to an overall enhanced emotional response, or if the enhancement was specific to religious stimuli (Ramachandran and Blakeslee, 1998). By presenting subjects with neutral, sexually arousing and religious words while measuring GSR, Ramachandran was able to show that patients with TLE showed enhanced emotional responses to the religious words, diminished responses to the sexually charged words, and normal responses to the neutral words. These results suggest that the medial temporal lobe is specifically involved in generating some of the emotional reactions associated with religious words, images and symbols. Norman Geschwind can be considered the father of modern behavioral neurology in America. ... Hypergraphia is an overwhelming urge to write. ... Selective mutism is a social anxiety condition, in which a person who is quite capable of speech, is unable to speak in given situations. ... For the medical term see rigor (medicine) Rigour (American English: rigor) has a number of meanings in relation to intellectual life and discourse. ... Geschwind syndrome, also known as Waxman-Geschwind syndrome is a characteristic personality syndrome consisting of symptoms such as circumstantiality (excessive verbal output, stickiness, hypergraphia), altered sexuality (usually hyposexuality), and intensified mental life (deepened cognitive and emotional responses) is present in some epilepsy patients. ... Dr. Vilayanur Ramachandran on an episode of PBSs NOVA Television program. ... Galvanic skin response (or GSR), also known as electrodermal response (EDR) or psychogalvanic reflex (PGR), is a method of measuring the electrical resistance of the skin and interpreting it as an image of activity in certain parts of the body. ...

UFO Researcher Albert Budden and cognitive neuroscience researcher Michael Persinger assert that increases in local electromagnetism, triggering the temporal lobe can stimulate TLE and trigger hallucinations of apparent paranormal phenomena, for example ghosts and UFO's. Persinger has even gone as far as to create a "God helmet" to apparently demonstrate how stimulation of the parietal and temporal lobe can evoke altered states of consciousness. Quite possibly, as neurotheologians have speculated, then, individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy, who have a natural aptitude for "religious" states of consciousness (such as euphoria or samadhi) have functioned in human history as religious figures or as shamans. Persinger's theories, however, remain controversial. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... Dr. Michael Persinger Dr. Michael Persinger (born June 26, 1945) is a cognitive neuroscience researcher employed at Laurentian University, Canada since 1971. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... A hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... Anomalous phenomena are phenomena which are observed and for which there are no suitable explanations in the context of a specific body of scientific knowledge, e. ... An artists interpretation of a ghostly woman on a flight of stairs, based on common descriptions A ghost is usually defined as the apparition of a deceased person, frequently similar in appearance to that person, and encountered in places she or he frequented, or in association with the person... UFO can mean: Unidentified flying object United Future Organization, a Japanese-Brazilian electronic jazz band UFO, the rock band that previously featured Michael Schenker UFO, the Gerry Anderson TV series United Farmers of Ontario, a political party that formed the government in Ontario from 1919 to 1923 U.F.O... The term God Helmet refers to a controversial experimental apparatus in neurotheology. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The phrase altered state of consciousness was coined in the 1970s and describes induced changes in ones mental state, almost always temporary. ... Not to be confused with neuroethology. ... Euphoria is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means...

See also

Hippocampal Sclerosis or Ammons horn sclerosis (AHS) is the most common type of neuropathological damage seen in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). ... For other uses, see Aura. ... Mediumship is a term used mostly in spiritualism to denote the ability to produce psi phenomena of a mental or physical nature. ... Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Déjà vu (disambiguation). ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... Prosopagnosia (sometimes known as face blindness) is disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while the ability to recognize objects may be relatively intact. ... // Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is a behavioral disorder characterized by extreme expressions of anger, often to the point of uncontrollable rage, that are disproportionate to the situation at hand. ... -1...

Media Depictions

  • Film The Exorcism of Emily Rose, 2005, (directed by Scott Derrickson. The screenplay was written by Scott Derrickson and Paul Harris Boardman.)
  • Film Deceiver, 1997 (directed by Jonas and Josh Pate, starring Tim Roth, Michael Rooker, Chris Penn and Renée Zellweger)
  • Film Happy Accidents, 2001 (directed by Brad Anderson, starring Marisa Tomei and Vincent D'Onofrio)
  • Law and Order: Criminal Intent episode "The Gift," 2003, guest-starring Jane Adams
  • Television show "Medium," 2005-, starring Patricia Arquette
  • Television show "Firefly," 2002, film Serenity, 2005, both created by Joss Whedon, feature character River Tam, affected with symptoms of TLE after alteration of amygdala, brain component related to TLE
  • A current story line on the CBS daytime drama, The Young and the Restless, features character Victor Newman being diagnosed with TLE.
  • Television Show "ER," 2007, episode "Crisis of Consciousness", patient predicts engine will fall on his head if he is not moved.
  • Television Show "Daybreak" on ABC, Jared is said to have TLE.

Scott Derrickson is a screenwriter, producer, and director. ... Tim Roth (born 14 May 1961, as Timothy Simon Smith in Dulwich, London) is an Academy Award-nominated English film actor and director. ... Michael Rooker (born April 6, 1955 in Jasper, Alabama) is an American actor. ... Christopher Shannon Penn (October 10, 1965 – January 24, 2006) was an American film actor. ... Renée Kathleen Zellweger (born April 25, 1969) is an Academy Award-winning American film actress. ... For the 1968 science-fiction film and novel, see 2001: A Space Odyssey The year 2001 in film involved some significant events. ... Brad Anderson (born 1964 in Madison, Connecticut, USA) is a film director. ... Marisa Tomei (born December 4, 1964) is an Academy Award-winning American film and stage actress. ... Law & Order: Criminal Intent is a United States crime drama television series that began in 2001. ... You may be looking for: Jane Addams, the social worker Jane Adams, the actress born in 1965. ... Patricia T Arquette (born April 8, 1968) is an Emmy Award-winning and a Golden Globe Award-nominated American actress. ... Joss Hill Whedon (born Joseph Hill Whedon[3] on June 23, 1964 in New York) is an American writer, director, executive producer, and creator of the well-known television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Angel, and Firefly. ... Summer Glau as River Tam in Serenity (2005). ...

Further reading

  • Book "Seized: Temporal Lobe Epilepsy as Medical, Historical and Artistic Phenomenon," by Eve LaPlante, 1993, reprinted 2000, discusses link between TLE and artistic creativity
  • Transcript of Horizon documentary "God on the Brain" - http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2003/godonbraintrans.shtml
  • See "Theological Aspects of Temporal Lobe Function," by paraclete, http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1747573, including bibliography:
  • Bard P, 1934, "On emotional expression after decortication with some remarks on certain theoretical views", Psych. Reviews; 41:309-329
  • Blumer D, 2002, "The illness of Vincent van Gogh", Am J Psychiatry; 159:519-526
  • Broca P, 1878, "Anatomie comparé de circonvolutions cérébrales. Le grand lobe limbique et la scissure limbige dans la série des mammiféres", Revue d'Anthropologie; 1:385-498
  • Cannon WB, 1927, "The James-Lange theory of emotion", Am J. Psychology; 39:106-124
  • Dewhurt K, Beard AW, 1970, "Sudden religious conversions in temporal lobe epilepsy", Br. J. Psychiatry; 117:497-507
  • Hohmann GW, 1966, "Some effects of spinal cord lesions on experienced emotional feelings", Psychophysiology; 3(2):143-56
  • James W, 1884, "What is an emotion?", Mind; 9:188-205
  • Kingsley RE, 2000, "Concise Text of Neuroscience", 2nd edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 884-888
  • Lange CG, 1887, "Uber Gemuthsbewegungen", Liepzig: T Thomas
  • Lowe J, Carroll D, 1985, "The effects of spinal injury on the intensity of emotional experience", Br J Clin Psychol.; 24(2):135-6
  • MacLean PD, 1955, "The limbic system ("visceral brain") and emotional behaviour", Arch. Neurology and Psychiatry; 73:130-134
  • Ogata A, Miyakawa T, 1998, "Religious experiences in epileptic patients with a focus on ictus-realted episodes", Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience; 52:321-325
  • Papez JW, 1937, "A proposed mechanism of emotion", Arch. Neurology and Psychiatry; 38:725-743
  • Peake Anthony, "Is There Life After Death" 2006 (Chartwell Books in USA & Arcturus in Europe)
  • Persinger MA, 1983, "Religious and mystical experiences as artefacts of temporal lobe function: a general hypothesis", Percept Mot Skills; 57(3):1255-62
  • Ramachandran VS and Blakeslee, 1998, "Phantoms in the Brain", 1st edition, Fourth Estate, Chapter 9
  • Thompson JG, 1988, "The Psychobiology of Emotion", 1st edition, New York: Plenum Press

Horizon is a long-running BBC popular science and history documentary programme. ...


  1. ^ Kwan P, Brodie MJ (2000) Early Identification of Refractory Epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2000 Feb 3; 342(5): 314-9;Entrez PubMed 10660394
  2. ^ Waxman SG, Geschwind N. (1975) The interictal behavior syndrome in temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of General Psychiatry 32(12), 1580-1586. PMID 1200777.

The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ...

External links

  • [1]Anthony Peake's website (see 'Further Reading' above).
  • [2]Site featuring a number of articles about TLE / Complex Partial Seizures).
  • [3]What is a seizure - animation on Epilepsy.com.

  Results from FactBites:
International League Against Epilepsy (3338 words)
Temporal lobe epilepsy caused by mesial temporal sclerosis and temporal neocortical lesions.
Temporal lobe epilepsy with sensory aura: interictal glucose hypometabolism.
Neocortical temporal lobe seizures are seizures with focal onset in the neocortex of the temporal lobe.
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (3303 words)
Hippocampal sclerosis is the pathological substrate of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with a high incidence of complicated febrile convulsions and specific cerebral injuries, such as infection and trauma, usually before the age of 5 (Mathern et al 1995).
Temporal lobe seizures that become medically refractory before the age of 12 are relatively unlikely to be due to hippocampal sclerosis (Wyllie et al 1993), although mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is probably underdiagnosed in children (Harvey et al 1995).
  More results at FactBites »



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