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Encyclopedia > Tempo
The first two measures of Mozart's Sonata XI, which indicates the tempo as "Andante grazioso" and a modern editor's metronome marking: "♪ = 120".
The first two measures of Mozart's Sonata XI, which indicates the tempo as "Andante grazioso" and a modern editor's metronome marking: " = 120".

In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for 'time, movement') is the speed or pace of a given piece. It is an extremely crucial element of sound, as it can affect the mood and difficulty of a piece. Tempo is the speed or pace of a musical piece. ... Andante is a public transport ticketing system used in Porto and was the first fully contactless mass transit ticketing system used in the world. ... Andante ) is an romance-based shōjo manga by mangaka Miho Obana that was serialized in Ribon magazine from May 2001 through July 2002. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores. ... A musical piece is a musical work that has been created. ...


The plural of tempo in Italian is tempi. Some writers employ this plural when writing in English. Others use the native English plural tempos. Standard dictionaries reflect both usages. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

Measuring tempo

The tempo of a piece will typically be written at the start of a piece of music, and in modern music is usually indicated in beats per minute (BPM). This means that a particular note value (for example, a quarter note or crotchet) is specified as the beat, and the marking indicates that a certain number of these beats must be played per minute. The greater the tempo, the larger the number of beats that must be played in a minute is, and, therefore, the faster a piece must be played. Mathematical tempo markings of this kind became increasingly popular during the first half of the 19th century, after the metronome had been invented by Johann Nepomuk Mälzel, although early metronomes were somewhat inconsistent. Some people[weasel words] consider Beethoven's metronome markings, in particular, to be notoriously unreliable. A mechanical wind-up metronome in motion A metronome is a device that produces a strict rhythm. ...


With the advent of modern electronics, BPM became an extremely precise measure. MIDI files and other types of sequencing software use the BPM system to denote tempo. Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is an industry-standard electronic communication protocol that defines each musical note in an electronic musical instrument such as a synthesizer, precisely and concisely, allowing electronic musical instruments and computers to exchange data, or talk, with each other. ...


As an alternative to metronome markings, some 20th century composers (such as Béla Bartók and John Cage) would give the total execution time of a piece, from which the proper tempo can be roughly derived. Bartok redirects here. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ...


Tempo is as crucial in contemporary music as it is in classical. In electronic dance music, accurate knowledge of a tune's BPM is important to DJs for the purposes of beatmatching. Electronic dance music is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... Beatmatching is a disc jockey technique of pitch shifting or timestretching a track to match its tempo to that of the currently playing track. ...


Musical vocabulary for tempo

Whether a music piece has a mathematical time indication or not, in classical music it is customary to describe the tempo of a piece by one or more words. Most of these words are Italian, a result of the fact that many of the most important composers of the 17th century were Italian, and this period was when tempo indications were used extensively for the first time. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ...


Before the metronome, words were the only way to describe the tempo of a composition. Yet after the metronome's invention, these words continued to be used, often additionally indicating the mood of the piece, thus blurring the traditional distinction between tempo and mood indicators. For example, presto and allegro both indicate a speedy execution (presto being faster), but allegro also connotes joy (from its original meaning in Italian). Presto, on the other hand, indicates speed as such (while possibly connoting virtuosity, a connotation it did not acquire until the late 18th century).


Additional Italian words also indicate tempo and mood. For example, the "agitato" in the Allegro agitato of the last movement of George Gershwin's piano concerto in F has both a tempo indication (undoubtedly faster than a usual Allegro) and a mood indication ("agitated"). Gershwin redirects here. ... Concerto in F is a composition by George Gershwin for solo piano and orchestra which is closer in form to a traditional concerto than the earlier jazz-influenced Rhapsody in Blue. ...


Understood tempos

In some cases (quite often up to the end of the Baroque period), conventions governing musical composition were so strong that no tempo had to be indicated. For example, the first movement of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 has no tempo or mood indication whatsoever. To provide movement names, publishers of recordings resort to ad hoc measures, for instance marking the Brandenburg movement "Allegro", "(Allegro)", "(Without indication)", and so on. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... The six Brandenburg concertos (BWV 1046-1051) by Johann Sebastian Bach are a collection of instrumental works presented by Bach to the Margrave of Brandenburg in 1721, but probably composed earlier. ...


In Renaissance music most music was understood to flow at a tempo defined by the tactus, roughly the rate of the human heartbeat. Which note value corresponded to the tactus was indicated by the mensural time signature. Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each measure and what note value constitutes one beat. ...


Often a particular musical form or genre implies its own tempo, so no further explanation is placed in the score. Thus musicians expect a minuet to be performed at a fairly stately tempo, slower than a Viennese waltz; a Perpetuum Mobile to be quite fast, and so on. Genres can be used to imply tempos; thus Ludwig van Beethoven wrote "In tempo d'un Menuetto" over the first movement of his Piano Sonata Op. 54, although that movement is not a minuet. Popular music charts use terms such as "bossa nova", "ballad", and "Latin rock" in much the same way. The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A minuet, sometimes spelled menuet, is a social dance of French origin for two persons, usually in 3/4 time. ... Viennese Waltz (German: Wiener Walzer ) is the name of a ballroom dance. ... Perpetuum mobile (Latin), moto perpetuo (Italian), mouvement perpétuel (French), literally meaning perpetual motion, means two distinct things: pieces of music, or parts of pieces, characterised by a continuous steady stream of notes, usually at a rapid tempo whole pieces, or large parts of pieces, which are to be played... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ...


It is important to remember when interpreting these words that not only have tempos changed over historical time, and even in different places, but sometimes even the ordering of terms has changed. Thus a modern largo is slower than an adagio, but in the Baroque period it was faster[1].


Italian tempo markings

See also: Italian musical terms used in English and Glossary of musical terminology

A great many musical terms are in Italian. ...

Basic tempo markings

From fastest to slowest, the common tempo markings are:

  • Prestissimo — extremely fast (200 - 208 bpm)
  • Vivacissimamente — adverb of vivacissimo, "very quickly and lively"
  • Vivacissimo — very fast and lively
  • Presto — very fast (168 - 200 bpm)
  • Allegrissimo — very fast
  • Vivo — lively and fast
  • Vivace — lively and fast (~140 bpm)
  • Allegro — fast and bright or "march tempo" (120 - 168 bpm)
  • Allegro moderato — moderately quick (112 - 124 bpm)
  • Allegretto — moderately fast (but less so than allegro)
  • Allegretto grazioso — moderately fast and with grace
  • Moderato — moderately (108 - 120 bpm)
  • Moderato espressivo — moderately with expression
  • Andantino — alternatively faster or slower than andante
  • Andante — at a walking pace (76 - 108 bpm)
  • Tranquillamente — adverb of tranquillo, "tranquilly"
  • Tranquillo — tranquil
  • Adagietto — rather slow (70 - 80 bpm)
  • Adagio — slow and stately (literally, "at ease") (66 - 76 bpm)
  • Grave — slow and solemn
  • Larghetto — rather broadly (60 - 66 bpm)
  • Largo — Very slow (40 - 60 bpm), like lento
  • Lento — very slow (40 - 60 bpm)
  • Largamente/Largo — "broadly", very slow (40 bpm and below)
  • Larghissimo — very very slow (20 bpm and below)

Articulation Terms:

  • Marcato — marching tempo "Stacotto-ish" Strong
  • Misterioso - slightly slower than marcato
  • Tempo comodo — at a comfortable speed
  • Tempo giusto — at a consistent speed
  • L'istesso tempo — at the same speed
  • Non troppo — not too much (e.g. Allegro ma non troppo, "fast but not too much")
  • Assai — rather, very, enough as is needed (e.g. Adagio assai)
  • Con — with (e.g. Andante con moto, "at a walking pace with motion")
  • Molto — much, very (e.g. Molto allegro)
  • Poco — a little (e.g. Poco allegro)
  • Quasi — as if (e.g. Più allegro quasi presto, "faster, as if presto")
  • tempo di... — the speed of a ... (e.g. Tempo di valse (speed of a waltz), Tempo di marcia (speed of a march))

All of these markings are based on a few root words such as 'allegro', 'largo', 'adagio', 'vivace', 'presto' 'andante' and 'lento'. By adding the -issimo ending the word is amplified, by adding the -ino ending the word is diminished, and by adding the -etto ending the word is endeared. Many tempos also can be translated with the same meaning, and it is up to the player to interpret the speed that best suits the period, composer, and individual work.


N.B. Metronome markings are a guide only and depending on the time signature and the piece itself, these figures may not be appropriate in every circumstance.


Common qualifiers

  • assai — very, very much, as in Allegro assai (but also understood by some as "enough")
  • con brio — with vigour or spirit
  • con fuoco — with fire
  • con moto — with motion
  • non troppo — not too much, e.g. Allegro non troppo (or Allegro ma non troppo) means "Fast, but not too much."
  • non tanto — not so much
  • molto — much, very, as in Molto allegro (very fast and bright) or Adagio molto
  • poco — slightly, little, as in Poco adagio
  • più — more, as in Più allegro; used as a relative indication when the tempo changes
  • meno — less, as in Meno presto
  • poco a poco — little by little
  • In addition to the common allegretto, composers freely apply Italian diminutive and superlative suffixes to various tempo indications: andantino, larghetto, adagietto, and larghissimo.

A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ... For the noun case, see superlative case. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Mood markings with a tempo connotation

Some markings that primarily mark a mood (or character) also have a tempo connotation: Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Agitato — agitated, with implied quickness
  • Appasionato — to play passionately
  • Dolce — sweetly
  • Espressivo - expressively
  • Furioso — to play in an angry or furious manner
  • Giocoso — merrily
  • Maestoso — majestic or stately (which generally indicates a solemn, slow movement)
  • Morendo — dying
  • Sostenuto — sustained, sometimes with a slackening of tempo
  • Scherzando — playful
  • Vivace — lively and fast, over 140 bpm (which generally indicates a fast movement)

Below is a list of terms used in musical terminology which are likely to occur on printed or sheet music. ... Dolce ( sweet in Italian) may refer to: Dolce, a musical term indicates that the performer should sing or play sweetly. ... This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores. ... Furioso was an influential sire of jumping horses, and is found in the pedigrees of many top show jumpers today. ... Maestoso (Mie-eh-stoe-zoe) is Italian for majestic. ... In music, dynamics normally refers to the softness or loudness of a sound or note, but also to every aspect of the execution of a given piece, either stylistic (staccato, legato etc. ... In music, sostenuto is a term from Italian which means sustained, and occasionally also implies a slowing of tempo. ... Below is a list of terms used in musical terminology which are likely to occur on printed or sheet music. ... Vivace is Italian for lively. Vivace is used as an Italian musical term indicating a movement that is in a lively mood (and so usually in a fast tempo). ...

Terms for change in tempo

Composers may use expressive marks to adjust the tempo:

  • Accelerando — speeding up (abbreviation: accel.)
  • Allargando — growing broader; decreasing tempo, usually near the end of a piece
  • Meno mosso — less movement or slower
  • Mosso — movement, more lively, or quicker, much like più mosso, but not as extreme
  • Più mosso — more movement or faster
  • Rallentando — slowing down, especially near the end of a section (abbreviation: rall.)
  • Ritardando — slowing down (abbreviation: rit. or more specifically, ritard.)
  • Ritenuto — slightly slower; temporarily holding back. (Note that the abbreviation for ritardando can also be rit. Thus a more specific abbreviation is riten. Also sometimes ritenuto does not reflect a tempo change but a character change instead.)
  • Rubato — free adjustment of tempo for expressive purposes
  • Stretto — rushing ahead; temporarily speeding up
  • Stringendo — pressing on faster

While the base tempo indication (such as allegro) appears in large type above the staff, these adjustments typically appear below the staff or (in the case of keyboard instrument) in the middle of the grand staff. This article will be merged with Italian musical terms at some point in the near future. ...


They generally designate a gradual change in tempo; for immediate tempo shifts, composers normally just provide the designation for the new tempo. (Note, however, that when Più Mosso or Meno Mosso appears in large type above the staff, it functions as a new tempo, and thus implies an immediate change.) Several terms control how large and how gradual this change are:

  • poco a poco — bit by bit, gradually
  • subito — suddenly
  • poco — a little
  • molto — a lot
  • assai — quite a lot, very

After a tempo change, a composer may return to a previous tempo in two different ways:

  • a tempo - returns to the base tempo after an adjustment (e.g. "ritardando ... a tempo" undoes the effect of the ritardando).
  • Tempo primo or Tempo I - denotes an immediate return to the piece's original base tempo after a section in a different tempo (e.g. "Allegro ... Lento ... Tempo I" indicates a return to the Allegro). This indication often functions as a structural marker in pieces in binary form.

These terms also indicate an immediate, not a gradual, tempo change. Although they are Italian, composers typically use them even if they have written their initial tempo marking in some other language. Binary form is a way of structuring a piece of music into two related sections, both of which are usually repeated. ...


Tempo markings in other languages

See also: Glossary of musical terminology

Although Italian has been the prevalent language for tempo markings throughout most of classical music history, many composers have written tempo indications in their own language.


French tempo markings

Several composers have written markings in French, among them baroque composers François Couperin and Jean-Philippe Rameau as well as Claude Debussy, Olivier Messiaen, Maurice Ravel and Alexander Scriabin. Common tempo markings in French are: François Couperin. ... Jean-Philippe Rameau, by Jacques André Joseph Aved, 1728 Jean-Philippe Rameau (French IPA: ) (September 25, 1683 - September 12, 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ... Maurice Ravel. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Russian: Александр Николаевич Скрябин, Aleksandr Nikolajevič Skriabin; sometimes transliterated as Skryabin or Scriabine (6 January 1872 [O.S. 26 December 1871]—27 April 1915) was a Russian composer and pianist. ... French (le français, la langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...

  • Grave — slowly and solemnly
  • Lent — slowly
  • Modéré — at a moderate tempo
  • Vif — lively
  • Vite — fast
  • Rapide — fast
  • Très — very, as in Très vif (very lively)
  • Moins — less, as in Moins vite (less fast)
  • Au mouvement — play the (first or main) tempo.

German tempo markings

Many composers have used German tempo markings. Typical German tempo markings are: German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...

  • Langsam — slowly
  • Mäßig — moderately
  • Lebhaft — lively (mood)
  • Rasch — quickly
  • Schnell — fast

One of the first German composers to use tempo markings in his native language was Ludwig van Beethoven. The one using the most elaborate combined tempo and mood markings was probably Gustav Mahler. For example, the second movement of his Symphony No. 9 is marked Im tempo eines gemächlichen Ländlers, etwas täppisch und sehr derb, indicating a slowish folk-dance–like movement, with some awkwardness and vulgarity in the execution. Mahler would also sometimes combine German tempo markings with traditional Italian markings, as in the first movement of his sixth symphony, marked Allegro energico, ma non troppo. Heftig, aber markig. “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Mahler redirects here. ... In music, a movement is a large division of a larger composition or musical form. ... The Symphony No. ... The Symphony No. ...


Tempo markings in English

English indications, for example quickly, have also been used, by Benjamin Britten and Percy Grainger, among many others. In jazz and popular music charts, terms like "fast", "laid back", "steady rock", "medium", "medium-up", "ballad", and similar style indications may appear. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Britten redirects here. ... Percy Grainger. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ...


Tempo markings as movement names and compositions with a tempo indicator name

Generally, composers (or music publishers) will name movements of compositions after their tempo (and/or mood) marking. For instance the second movement of Samuel Barber's first String Quartet is an "Adagio". This article deals with contemporary popular music publishing. ... In music, a movement is a large division of a larger composition or musical form. ... Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Adagio for Strings is a work for string orchestra, arranged by the American composer Samuel Barber from his first string quartet. ...


Some such movements may start to lead a life of their own, and become known with the tempo/mood marker name, for instance the string orchestra version of the second movement of Barber's first string quartet became known as Adagio for Strings. A similar example is Mahler's most famous work - the Adagietto from his Symphony No. 5. Another is Mozart's Alla Turca (here indicating the Janissary music type of mood of the final movement of Mozart's 11th Piano Sonata, K. 331) Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Adagio for Strings is a work for string orchestra, arranged by the American composer Samuel Barber from his first string quartet. ... Mahler refers to: Alma Maria Mahler-Werfel, or Alma Maria Schindler-Mahler Anna Mahler Arthur Mahler, Austrian archeologist Bruce Mahler, actor David Mahler, composer Eduard Mahler, Austrian astronomer; born in Hungary Gustav Mahler, Bohemian-Austrian composer and conductor Halfdan T. Mahler, Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) from... The Adagietto from Gustav Mahlers Fifth Symphony is a piece of music for the strings of an orchestra. ... The Symphony No. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Piano Sonata No. ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ...


Sometimes the link between a musical composition with a "tempo" name and a separate movement of a composition is less clear. For instance Albinoni's Adagio, a 20th century creative "reconstruction" based on an incomplete manuscript. Adagio in G minor is a piece arranged by Remo Giazotto based on the fragments of a Sonata in G minor, composed by Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni for strings and organ, which were found amongst the ruins of the old Dresden State Library which was bombed during World War II. The...


Some composers chose to include tempo indicators in the name of a separate composition, for instance Bartók in Allegro barbaro ("barbaric Allegro"), a single movement composition. Bartok redirects here. ... Allegro barbaro for piano BB 63 (Sz. ...


Rushing and dragging

metronome, Wittner model
metronome, Wittner model
metronome, Seth Thomas model
metronome, Seth Thomas model

When performers unintentionally speed up, they are said to rush. The similar term for unintentionally slowing down is drag. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (561x681, 244 KB) detail of http://commons. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (561x681, 244 KB) detail of http://commons. ... Image File history File links detail of http://commons. ... Image File history File links detail of http://commons. ...


Unless practiced by an experienced performer to achieve a particular musical effect, these actions are undesirable; dragging can often indicate a hesitance in the performer due to lack of practice; rushing can likewise destroy the pulse of the music.


Because of their negative connotation, neither rush nor drag (nor their equivalents in other languages) are often used as tempo indications in scores, Mahler being a notable exception: as part of a tempo indication he used schleppend (dragging) in the first movement of his Symphony No. 1, for example. Mahler redirects here. ... The Symphony No. ...


By practicing with a metronome a musician can try to gain control over rushing or dragging.


References

  1. ^ music theory online: tempo, Dolmetsch.com

External links

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Musical development is the transformation and restatement of initial material, often contrasted with musical variation, with which it may be difficult to distinguish as a general process. ... In musical notation, the staff or stave is a set of five horizontal lines on which note symbols are placed to indicate pitch and rhythm. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ... For other senses of this word, see clef (disambiguation). ... Look up coda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Da Capo is a musical term in Italian, meaning from the beginning, often abbreviated D.C.. It is a composer or publishers directive to repeat the previous part of music. ... Segno In music notation, Dal Segno (pronounced [ˈdalˌ ˈseˌɲo] or [ˈdalˌ ˈseˌnjo] but commonly mispronounced as [ˈdælˌ ˈsɛgˌno]) (often abbreviated D.S.) is used as a navigation marker. ... This key signature – A major or F# minor – consists of three sharps placed after the clef In musical notation, a key signature is a series of sharp symbols or flat symbols placed on the staff, designating notes that are to be consistently played one semitone higher or lower than the... Ledger lines above the staff, using eighth notes. ... This article is about modes as used in music. ... In music, a scale is a group of musical notes that provides material for part or all of a musical work. ... A rehearsal letter is a boldface letter of the alphabet in an orchestral score, and its corresponding parts, that provides a convenient spot from which to resume rehearsal after a break. ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each measure and what note value constitutes one beat. ... In music transposition refers to the process of moving a collection of notes (pitches) up or down in pitch by a constant interval. ... A transposing instrument is a musical instrument whose music is written at a pitch different from concert pitch. ... Image File history File links Syncopation_example. ... An accidental is a musical notation symbol used to raise or lower the pitch of a note from that indicated by the key signature. ... Figure 1. ... In musical notation, a natural sign is a sign used to cancel a flat or sharp from either a preceding note or the key signature. ... Figure 1. ... Example 1. ... A grace note is a kind of music notation used to denote several kinds of musical ornaments. ... Parts of a note In music notation, a note value indicates the relative duration of a note, using the color or shape of the note head, the presence or absence of a stem, and the presence or absence of flags. ... A beam in musical notation is constructed as one or more lines used to connect multiple consecutive eighth notes (quavers), sixteenth notes (semiquavers), or smaller note values. ... The oval that is seen at the top or bottom of a note. ... Stems can refer to two things in music, relating to music notation and production. ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... A rest is an interval of silence in a piece of music, marked by a sign indicating the length of the pause. ... A semitone (also known in the USA as a half step) is a musical interval. ... Music notation is a system of writing for music. ... In music an articulation is a sign, direction, or performance technique which indicates or affects the transition or continuity between notes or sounds. ... “Fortissimo” redirects here. ... In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or ornament that line. ... Ossia is a musical term for an alternate passage which may be played instead of the original passage. ... In music, an accent is an emphasis on a particular note created by length, as in an agogic accent, pitch, as in a pitch accent, and dynamics, such as dynamic accents. ... In musical notation legato indicates that musical notes are played smoothly. ... A tenuto marking on an individual note Tenuto (Italian, past participle of tenere to hold) is a direction used in musical notation. ... Marcato in the context of bowed string instruments is an arco technique for playing such a stringed instrument, such as violin, viola, cello, and the double bass, also called contrabass, bass viol, or upright bass. ... In musical notation, the Italian word staccato (literally detached, plural staccatos or staccati) indicates that notes are sounded in a detached and distinctly separate manner, with silence making up the latter part of the time allocated to each note. ... In musical notation, staccatissimo (plural: staccatissimos or staccatissimi) indicates that the notes are to be played extremely separated and distinct, a superlative staccato. ... In music, a tie is when multiple notes of the same pitch are to be played as one note with a duration equal to the sum of the individual notes durations. ... A slur is a symbol in Western musical notation indicating that the notes it embraces are to be played without separation. ... Musical development is the transformation and restatement of initial material, often contrasted with musical variation, with which it may be difficult to distinguish as a general process. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In music, a motif is a perceivable or salient reoccurring fragment or succession of notes that may used to construct the entirety or parts of complete melodies, themes. ... In music theory, the recapitulation is the third major section of a movement written in sonata form. ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beat. ... For other uses, see Meter (disambiguation). ... In music, a theme is the initial or primary melody. ... A chord chart is a simplified text document that typically represents lyrics with ASCII chord (music) placed above the appropriate syllables of the lyrics to associate the relative timing of the chord changes to the words of a song. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords, and nonchord tones, in relation to a bass note. ... Musical graphic notation is a form of music notation which refers to the use of non-traditional symbols and text to convey information about the performance of a piece of music. ... A lead sheet is form of music notation the describes the melody, lyrics and harmony of a popular song. ... Modern Musical Symbols are the marks and symbols that are widely used in musical scores of all styles and instruments today. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Example of numeric vihuela tablature from the book Orphenica Lyra by Miguel de Fuenllana (1554). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tempo (583 words)
Tempo is an important ingredient in the mood of any example of music, whether it be aggressive or calming in effect with excitement generally revealed through a fast tempo while solemnity is always revealed through a slow tempo.
In the 20th century tempo and mood indications are a mixture of Italian terms and the native language of the composer.
Tempo indications are of no particular interest to the average listener of music except that they are used to designate various movements of multi-movement works and are often used in the titles of compositions from the common practice period of music (1800 A. to the present).
Tempo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1500 words)
Mathematical tempo markings of this kind became increasingly popular during the first half of the 19th century, after the metronome had been invented, although early metronomes were somewhat unreliable; Beethoven's metronome markings, in particular, are notoriously unreliable.
Rubato - free adjustment of tempo for expressive purposes
The plural of tempo in Italian is tempi.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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