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Encyclopedia > Temple Church
The Temple Church.
The Temple Church.
For the church in Bristol, see Temple Church, Bristol.

The Temple Church is a late 12th century church in London located between Fleet Street and the River Thames, built for and by the Knights Templar. Two Inns of Court (Inner Temple and Middle Temple) both use the church, which is famous for its effigy tombs. It was heavily damaged during the Second World War but has been largely restored. The area around the Temple Church is known as "Temple" and nearby is Temple tube station. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1550x1166, 99 KB) The Temple Church The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1550x1166, 99 KB) The Temple Church The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction. ... Temple Church, Bristol Temple Church, Bristol (grid reference ST5972) was founded mid 12th Century by Robert of Gloucester and the Knights Templar, and in the 14th and 15th century. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... Fleet Street in 2005 Fleet Street is a famous street in London, England, named after the River Fleet. ... The Thames (pronounced []) is a river flowing through southern England, in its lower reaches flowing through London into the sea. ... The Seal of the Knights Templar This article is about the medieval military order. ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court The Inns of Court, in London, are the professional associations to one of which every English barrister (and those judges who were formerly barristers) must belong. ... The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple is one of the four Inns of Court around the Royal Courts of Justice in London, England, to which barristers belong and where they are called to the Bar. ... Part of Middle Temple c. ... The effigy of John Gower in Southwark Cathedral, London. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Categories: Circle Line stations | District Line stations | London Underground stubs ...

Contents

History

Construction

The Temple Church today.
Enlarge
The Temple Church today.

In the mid 12th century, before the construction of the church, the Knights Templar in London had met at a site in High Holborn in a structure originally established by Hughes de Payens. Because of the growth of the order, by the 1160s the site had become too confined, and the order purchased the property of the current site for establishment of a larger monastic complex as their headquarters in England. In addition to the church, the new compound originally contained residences, military training facilities, and recreational grounds for the military brethren and novices, who were not permitted to go into the city without the permission of the Master of the Temple. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 453 KB) The exterior of the Temple Church, London, focusing on the round church. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 453 KB) The exterior of the Temple Church, London, focusing on the round church. ... Holborn Bars, built as the headquarters of the Prudential Assurance Company, is one of the most striking buildings on High Holborn. ... Hughes de Payens or de Pains (c. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Decades: 1110s 1120s 1130s 1140s 1150s - 1160s - 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s Years: 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 Events and Trends Births Genghis Khan born as Temujin. ... Monastery of St. ... A monk is a person who practices asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ...


The church building comprises two separate sections. The original nave section, called the Round Church, and an adjoining rectangular section, built approximately half a century later, called the Chancel. In keeping with the traditions of the order, the nave of the church was constructed on a round design based on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. The nave is 55 feet in diameter is surrounded by the first-ever free-standing dark Purbeck marble columns. It is probable that the walls and grotesque heads were originally painted in colours. Amiens floorplan: massive piers support the west end towers; transepts are abbreviated; seven radiating chapels form the chevet reached from the ambulatory This article discusses cathedral diagrams. ... Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis in Greek and Surp Harutyun in Armenian) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds (the Holy); official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names) is the capital and largest city[1] of the State of Israel with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006[2... Diameter is an AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP mobility. ... Purbeck is a local government district in Dorset, England, named for the Isle of Purbeck. ... Venus de Milo, front. ...


It was consecrated on February 10, 1185 in a ceremony by Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem. It is believed that Henry II was present at the consecration. February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Heraclius of Caesarea (died 1191) was archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. ... The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland[citation needed], eastern Ireland, and western France. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ...


1185-1307

Marble effigies of medieval knights in the Temple Church.
Enlarge
Marble effigies of medieval knights in the Temple Church.

The Knights Templar order was very powerful in England, with the Master of the Temple sitting in parliament as primus baro (the first baron of the realm). The compound was regularly used as a residence by kings and by legates of the Pope. The temple also served as an early depository bank, sometimes in defiance of the Crown's wishes to seize the funds of nobles who had entrusted their wealth there. The independence and wealth of the order throughout Europe is considered by most historians to have been the primary cause of its eventual downfall. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 449 KB) Knight effigy tombs in the Temple Church, London. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 449 KB) Knight effigy tombs in the Temple Church, London. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The First Provincial Bank of Taiwan in Taipei, Republic of China was formerly the central bank of the Republic of China and issued the New Taiwan dollar. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


In January 1215 William Marshall (who is buried in the nave next to his sons, under one of the 9 marble effigies of medieval knights there) served as a negotiator during a meeting in the Temple between King John and the barons, who demanded that John uphold the rights enshrined the Coronation Charter of his predecessor Richard I. William swore on behalf of the king that the grievances of the barons would be addressed in the summer, leading to John's signing of Magna Carta in June. // Events A certified copy of the Magna Carta June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricting the kings power. ... William Marshall, from his tomb effigy in Temple Church, London. ... An effigy is a rough representation of a person, for example a George Bush or Guy Fawkes made of straw and old clothing. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... John (French: Jean) (December 24, c. ... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... The Charter of Liberties, also called the Coronation Charter, was a written proclamation by Henry I of England, issued upon his ascension to the throne in 1100. ... Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ...


William later became regent during the reign of John's son, Henry III. Henry later expressed a desire to be buried in the church and so, in the early 13th century, the choir of the original church was pulled down and a new larger structure, now called the Chancel, was built. It was consecrated on Ascension Day 1240 and comprises a central aisle and two side aisles of identical width. The height of the vault is 36 feet 3 inches. One of Henry's sons, who died in infancy, is buried in the Chancel, but Henry later altered his will with instructions to be interred in Westminster Abbey. // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts as head of state, especially if not the monarch (who has higher titles). ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216, despite being less than ten years of age. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Amiens floorplan: massive piers support the west end towers; transepts are abbreviated; seven radiating chapels form the chevet reached from the ambulatory This article discusses cathedral diagrams. ... For other meanings see Ascension (disambiguation) The Ascension is one of the great feasts in the Christian liturgical calendar, and commemorates the bodily Ascension of Jesus into Heaven forty days after his resurrection from the dead. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... In a modern church an aisle is a row down the middle of the church with a set of pews on each side. ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to as Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often considered one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Crown seizure

After the destruction and abolition of the Knights Templar in 1307, Edward II took control of the church as a Crown possession. It was later given to the Knights Hospitaller, who rented the Temple to two colleges of lawyers. One college moved into the part of the Temple previously used by the Temple's knights, and the other into the part previously used by its priests, and they shared the use of the church. The colleges evolved into the Inner and Middle Temples, two of the four Inns of Court. Events July - The Knights Hospitaller begin their conquest of Rhodes. ... Edward II, (April 25, 1284 – September 21, 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St. ... The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple is one of the four Inns of Court around the Royal Courts of Justice in London, England, to which barristers belong and where they are called to the Bar. ... Part of Middle Temple c. ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court The Inns of Court, in London, are the professional associations to one of which every English barrister (and those judges who were formerly barristers) must belong. ...


16th-19th centuries

The interior of the Round Church in the early 19th century.
The interior of the Round Church in the early 19th century.

In 1540, the church became the property of The Crown once again when Henry VIII abolished the Knights Hospitaller in England and confiscated their property. Henry provided a priest for the church under the former title "Master of the Temple". In the 1580s, the church was the scene of the Battle of the Pulpits, a theological conflict between Calvinists and supporters of the Church of England. At that time, William Shakespeare also knew it and hence, in his play Henry VI, part 1, it and the Temple garden feature as the setting for the fictional scene of the plucking of two roses and the start of the 15th century Wars of the Roses. In 2002, this was commemorated with the planting of new white and red roses in the modern gardens. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (642x809, 119 KB) Summary The interior of the Round Church section of the Temple Church in London as drawn by Augustus Pugin and Thomas Rowlandson for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (642x809, 119 KB) Summary The interior of the Round Church section of the Temple Church in London as drawn by Augustus Pugin and Thomas Rowlandson for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Events January 6 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves, his fourth Queen consort. ... The Crown is a term which is used to separate the government authority and property of the state in a kingdom from any personal influence and private assets held by the current Monarch. ... For the play, see Henry VIII (play). ... Roman Catholic priests in traditional clerical clothing. ... Events and Trends The beginnings of the Golden Age of Literature in England Sir Humphrey Gilbert claims Newfoundland as Englands first overseas colony in 1583 Francis Drake had come back from going around the world, bringing back with him many treasures. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... King Henry VI Part 1 is one of the history plays of William Shakespeare. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Lancaster York For other uses see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation) The Wars of the Roses (1455 – 1485) were collectively an intermittent civil war fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of York. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


Following a later agreement in 1608 by James I, the two Inns were granted the use of the church in perpetuity and continue to use the Temple as their chapel to the present day on condition that they supported and maintained the church. Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland and was the first to style himself King of Great Britain. ...


The church went undamaged in the Great Fire of London in 1666. Nevertheless, it was refurbished by Christopher Wren, who made extensive modifications to the interior, including an altar screen and the introduction of an organ to the church for the first time. The church was restored again in 1841 by Smirke and Burton, who decorated the walls and ceiling in the high Victorian Gothic style, in an attempt to bring the church back to its original appearance. Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Modern style pipe organ at the concert hall of Aletheia University in Matou, Taiwan The organ is a keyboard instrument with one or more manuals, and usually a pedalboard. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... ...


Second World War

On May 10, 1941, during the height of the Battle of Britain, a German air raid of incendiary bombs set the roof of the Round Church on fire, and the fire quickly spread by wind to the nave and chapel. The organ and all the wood of the church, including the Victorian renovations, were destroyed and the dark Purbeck marble columns of the Chancel cracked from the intense heat. Although these columns still supported the vault, they were deemed unsound and replaced by replicas. The original columns had a light outward lean, an architectural quirk which was duplicated in the replacement columns. May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength 700+ Grew to nearly 1000 during end of the Battle. ...


During the renovation, it was discovered that the renovations made by Wren in the 17th century were in storage and were replaced in their original position. The church was rededicated in November 1958. Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Current Use

The Temple Church continues to hold regular church services, including Holy Communion on Sunday morning. It also holds weddings, but only for members of the Inner and Middle Temple Inns of Court (two of the four London Inns of Court, the other two being Lincoln's Inn and Gray's Inn). The Temple Church serves both the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple as a private chapel. The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ...


The Temple Church has always been a royal peculiar, and the choristers have the privilege of wearing scarlet cassocks as a result. This means that it is subject to the jurisdiction of the Crown, and not of the Bishop of London. Modern-day relations with the Bishop of London are, however, very good; and he regularly attends events and services at the Temple Church. A Royal Peculiar (or Royal Peculier) is a place of worship that falls directly under the jurisdiction of the British monarch, rather than a diocese. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ...


In The Da Vinci Code

The church was featured in the controversial "alternative history" novel the Da Vinci Code by American author Dan Brown and filming of the film version also occurred there. This article is about the novel. ... The Da Vinci Code book cover The Da Vinci Code is a novel written by American author Dan Brown and published in 2003 by Doubleday Fiction (ISBN 0385504209). ... Dan Brown (born June 22, 1964) is an American author of thriller fiction, best known for writing the controversial 2003 bestselling novel, The Da Vinci Code. ... The Da Vinci Code is a 2006 feature film based on the bestselling 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code, by author Dan Brown. ...


Some of the lunchtime talks by the present Master (Reverend Robin Griffith-Jones) recently have been on the subject of the church's role in this novel, whilst he is also releasing a book on the facts of the 'Da Vinci Code,' debunking certain elements of the novel, for which he had a book tour in New York in April 2006.


Music at the Temple Church

The organ in the Temple Church.
Enlarge
The organ in the Temple Church.

The church offers regular choral music performances and organ recitals. It has had a number of famous organists, including the blind organist and composer John Stanley (appointed by the Inner Temple in 1734). A choir in the English cathedral tradition was established at the Temple Church in 1842 under the direction of Dr E J Hopkins, and it soon earned a high reputation. Hopkins was succeeded as organist and Director of the Choir in 1897 by Sir Henry Walford Davies. Walford Davies was in turn succeeded by Sir George Thalben-Ball who held the post from 1923 to 1982. For just three musicians of such distinction to have served between them for a total of 140 years at the church is remarkable. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 519 KB) The organ in the Temple Church, London. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 519 KB) The organ in the Temple Church, London. ... A choir or chorus is a musical ensemble of singers. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Modern style pipe organ at the concert hall of Aletheia University in Matou, Taiwan The organ is a keyboard instrument with one or more manuals, and usually a pedalboard. ... Charles John Stanley (January 17, 1712 – May 19, 1786) was an English composer and organist. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Henry Walford Davies (September 6, 1869 - March 11, 1941) was a British composer, who held the title Master of the Kings Music from 1934 until 1941. ... Sir George Thomas Thalben-Ball (18th June 1896 - 18th January 1987) was an English organist and composer. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1927, the Temple Choir under Thalben-Ball became world famous with its recording of Mendelssohn's Hear my Prayer, including the solo "O for the Wings of a Dove" sung by Ernest Lough. This became one of the most popular recordings by a church choir of all time, and it sold strongly throughout the twentieth century, reaching gold disc status (a million copies) in 1962 and achieving an estimated 6 million sales to date. 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Felix Mendelssohn at the age of thirty Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and known generally as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Ernest Lough, publicity photograph Ernest Lough, one of the most famous boy sopranos the world has ever known, was born on 11 November 1911. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...


Dr John Birch was appointed as Thalben-Ball's successor in 1982. The present Director of Music, Stephen Layton, was appointed in 1999 and will be succeeded by James Vivian in September 2006. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The choir continues to record, broadcast and perform, in addition to its regular services at the Temple Church. It is an all-male choir, consisting of 18 young boys educated at the City of London School with choral scholarships and 12 professional men. They perform weekly at Sunday services, 11:15-12:15 PM, including special services, such as the monthly communion service, held the last Sunday of every month. The choir gave the world premiere of Sir John Tavener's epic "The Veil of the Temple", which took place over seven hours during an overnight vigil in the Temple Church in 2003. The following year it was performed by the choir at the Lincoln Festival in New York; a concert version was performed at the BBC Proms the same year. The present red-brick City of London School beside the River Thames. ... Sir John Tavener (born 28 January 1944 in London) is an English composer. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... A Promenade concert in the Royal Albert Hall, 2004. ...


The church contains two organs: a chamber organ built by Robin Jennings in 2001, and a four manual Harrison & Harrison organ. New organ at St Davids Cathedral built by Harrison & Harrison in 2000. ...


The Temple Church's excellent acoustic has also attracted non-church musicians: Paul Tortelier made his recording of the complete Bach Cello Suites there in 1983. Paul Tortelier (March 21, 1914 - December 18, 1990) was a French cellist and composer. ...


List of recent Masters of the Temple

The church always has two clergy, called the Master and the Reader respectively. The title of the Master of the Temple recalls the title of the head of the former order of the Knights Templar. The present Master of the Temple is the Reverend Robin Griffith-Jones, appointed in 1999. The Master gives regular lunchtime talks open to the public. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The official title of Reverend Robin Griffith-Jones is sometimes said to be the "Reverent and Valiant Master of the Temple" although this is not used on the official website or the regular service sheet.

  • Rev'd Robin Griffith-Jones 1999-
  • Rev'd Canon Joseph Robinson, BD M.Th FKC 1980-1999
  • Very Rev'd Robert Milburn, MVO 1968-1980
  • Rev'd Canon Theodore Milford, MA 1958-1968
  • Rev'd Canon Harold Anson c.38

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A canon (from the Latin canonicus and Greek κανωνικωσ relating to a rule) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to a rule (canon). ... A Bachelor of Divinity (BD or BDiv) is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a courses taken in the study of divinity or related disciplines, such as theology or, rarely, religious studies. ... A Masters degree which is typically earned after one has already completed a Master of Divinity or a Master of Theological Studies. ... Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... A canon (from the Latin canonicus and Greek κανωνικωσ relating to a rule) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to a rule (canon). ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... A canon (from the Latin canonicus and Greek κανωνικωσ relating to a rule) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to a rule (canon). ...

See also

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Temple Church

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... St. ... The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple is one of the four Inns of Court around the Royal Courts of Justice in London, England, to which barristers belong and where they are called to the Bar. ... Part of Middle Temple c. ... John Selden (December 16, 1584 - November 30, 1654) was an English jurist, legal antiquary and oriental scholar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Temple Church - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1780 words)
The Temple Church is a late 12th century church in London located between Fleet Street and the River Thames, built for and by the Knights Templar.
Marble effigies of medieval knights in the Temple Church.
In the 1580s, the church was the scene of the Battle of the Pulpits, a theological conflict between Calvinists and supporters of the Church of England.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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