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Encyclopedia > Temple of Artemis
The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey.
The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey.
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Great Pyramid of Giza
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
Temple of Artemis
Mausoleum of Maussollos
Colossus of Rhodes
Lighthouse of Alexandria

The Temple of Artemis (Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον Artemision, Latin: Artemisium), also known less precisely as Temple of Diana, was a temple dedicated to Artemis completed, in its most famous phase, around 550 BC at Ephesus (in present-day Turkey) under the Achaemenid dynasty of the Persian Empire. Nothing remains of the temple—not the first on its site and with evidence dating as early as the Bronze Age—which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 405 KB) Temple of Artemis, Ephesus, Turkey Source: en:Image:Ac. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 405 KB) Temple of Artemis, Ephesus, Turkey Source: en:Image:Ac. ... Map of Lydia in ancient times showing location of Ephesus and other ancient cities in western Anatolia Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ) was an Ionian Greek city in ancient Anatolia, founded by colonists from Athens in the 10th century BC[1]. The city was located in Ionia, where the Cayster River (K... This article is about the Seven Ancient Wonders. ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... “Hanging Gardens” redirects here. ... A fanciful reconstruction of Phidias statue of Zeus, in an engraving made by Philippe Galle in 1572, from a drawing by Maarten van Heemskerck. ... A fanciful interpretation of the Mausoleum of Maussollos, from a 1572 engraving by Marten Heemskerk (1498–1574), who based his reconstruction on descriptions The Tomb of Maussollos, Mausoleum of Maussollos or Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (in Greek, ), was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey... “The Colossus of Rhodes” redirects here. ... Graphic reconstruction of the lighthouse according to a comprehensive study of 2006. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Greeks began to build monumental temples in the first half of the 8th century BC. The temples of Hera at Samos and of Poseidon at Isthmia were among the first erected. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Map of Lydia in ancient times showing location of Ephesus and other ancient cities in western Anatolia Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ) was an Ionian Greek city in ancient Anatolia, founded by colonists from Athens in the 10th century BC[1]. The city was located in Ionia, where the Cayster River (K... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... This article is about the Seven Ancient Wonders. ...


The temple was a 120-year project started by Croesus of Lydia. It was described by Antipater of Sidon, who compiled a list of the Seven Wonders: Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... Antipater of Sidon (2nd century BC) is an ancient Greek writer and poet best known for his list of Seven Wonders of the World. ...

I have set eyes on the wall of lofty Babylon on which is a road for chariots, and the statue of Zeus by the Alpheus, and the hanging gardens, and the colossus of the Sun, and the huge labour of the high pyramids, and the vast tomb of Mausolus; but when I saw the house of Artemis that mounted to the clouds, those other marvels lost their brilliancy, and I said, "Lo, apart from Olympus, the Sun never looked on aught (anything) so grand". (Antipater, Greek Anthology [IX.58])

Contents

Location

Synthesizing Artemis of Ephesus: an 18th-century engraving of a Roman marble copy of a Greek replica of a lost Geometric period xoanon.

The Temple of Artemis was located near the ancient city of Ephesus, about 50 km south from the modern port city of İzmir, in Turkey. Image File history File links ArtemisEphesus. ... Image File history File links ArtemisEphesus. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Xoanon Publishing was founded in 1992 e. ... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ...


Ephesian Artemis

Artemis was the Greek goddess, the virginal huntress and twin of Apollo, who supplanted the Titan Selene as Goddess of the Moon. Of the Olympian goddesses who inherited aspects of the Great Goddess of Crete, Athene was more honored than Artemis at Athens. At Ephesus, a goddess whom the Greeks associated with Artemis was passionately venerated in an archaic, certainly pre-Hellenic cult image[1] that was carved of wood, and kept decorated with jewelry. Robert Fleischer identified as decorations of the primitive xoanon the changeable features that since Minucius Felix and Jerome's Christian attacks on pagan popular religion had been read as many breasts or "eggs"—denoting her fertility. Most similar to Near-Eastern and Egyptian deities, and least similar to Greek ones, her body and legs are enclosed within a tapering pillar-like term, from which her feet protrude. On the coins minted at Ephesus, the apparently many-breasted Goddess wears a mural crown (like a city's walls), an attribute of Cybele (see polos). On the coins she rests either arm on a staff formed of entwined serpents or of a stack of ouroboroi, the eternal serpent with its tail in its mouth. As was Cybele, the goddess at Ephesus was served by hereditary hierodules called megabyzae, and by (korai). For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... This article is about the lunar spacecraft. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... A Mother Goddess is a goddess portrayed as the Earth Mother who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Xoanon Publishing was founded in 1992 e. ... Felix Marcus Minucius was one of the earliest if not the earliest, of the Latin apologists for Christianity. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... In Classical architecture a term or terminal figure is a human head and bust that continues as a square tapering pillarlike form. ... First version of the Coat of Arms of Italy. ... Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... Kotekan is a style of playing fast interlocking parts in most varieties of Balinese Gamelan music, including Gamelan gong kebyar, Gamelan angklung, Gamelan jegog and others. ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ouroboros (disambiguation). ... In ancient Greece and Anatolia a hierodule, from Greek hiero- holy and doule female slave, was a temple slave in the service of a specific deity, often with the connotation of religious prostitution. ... KORE is an AM radio station in Springfield, Oregon, USA, serving the Eugene-Springfield metropolitan area with Christian music and programming. ...


Modern scholars are likely to be more concerned with origins of the Lady of Ephesus and her iconology than her adherents were at any point in time, and are also prone to creating a synthetic account of the Lady of Ephesus by drawing together documentation that ranges over more than a millennium in its origins, creating a falsified, unitary picture, as of an unchanging icon.[2]

The Lady of Ephesus, 1st century CE (Museum of Ephesus), Efes, Turkey
The Lady of Ephesus, 1st century CE (Museum of Ephesus), Efes, Turkey

The "eggs" of the Lady of Ephesus, it now appears, must be the iconographic descendents of the amber gourd-shaped drops, elliptical in cross-section and drilled for hanging, that were rediscovered in 1987-88; they remained in situ where the ancient wooden cult figure of the Lady of Ephesus had been caught by an eighth-century flood (see History below). This form of breast-jewelry, then, had already been developed by the Geometric Period. A hypothesis offered by Gerard Seiterle, that the objects in Classical representations represented bulls' scrotal sacs[3] cannot be maintained (Fleischer, "Neues zur kleinasiatischen Kultstatue" Archäologischer Anzeiger 98 1983:81-93; Bammer 1990:153). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 287 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (680 × 1421 pixel, file size: 445 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 287 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (680 × 1421 pixel, file size: 445 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A cult figure or cult icon is a person who attracts the attention of a small band of aficionados. ...


A votive inscription mentioned by Florence Mary Bennett,[4] which dates probably from about the third century BCE, associates Ephesian Artemis with Crete: "To the Healer of diseases, to Apollo, Giver of Light to mortals, Eutyches has set up in votive offering (a statue of) the Cretan Lady of Ephesus, the Light-Bearer."


The Greek habits of syncretism assimilated all foreign gods under some form of the Olympian pantheon familiar to them, and it is clear that at Ephesus, the identification that the Ionian settlers made of the "Lady of Ephesus" with Artemis was slender. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Christians stood out from all contemporaries in their unique approach to gods that were not theirs. A Christian inscription at Ephesus[5] suggests why so little remains at the site:

Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ.

The assertion that the Ephesians thought their cult image had fallen from the sky, though it was a familiar origin-myth at other sites, is only known at Ephesus from an uncorroborated Christian source, Acts 19:35.

The Temple of Artemis, as imagined in this hand-coloured engraving by Martin Heemskerck (1498 - 1574), has the "old-fashioned" look of Santa Maria Novella in Florence and other Italian quattrocento churches of the previous generation.
The Temple of Artemis, as imagined in this hand-coloured engraving by Martin Heemskerck (1498 - 1574), has the "old-fashioned" look of Santa Maria Novella in Florence and other Italian quattrocento churches of the previous generation.

Temple of Artemis The Temple of Artemis is depicted here in this hand-coloured engraving by Martin Heemskerck. ... Temple of Artemis The Temple of Artemis is depicted here in this hand-coloured engraving by Martin Heemskerck. ... ... The Romanesque-Gothic facade, completed by Leon Battista Alberti in 1470 Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence. ...

History

The sacred site at Ephesus was far older than the Artemision. Pausanias[6] understood the shrine of Artemis there to be very ancient. He states with certainty that it antedated the Ionic immigration by many years, being older even than the oracular shrine of Apollo at Didyma. He said that the pre-Ionic inhabitants of the city were Leleges and Lydians. Callimachus, in his Hymn to Artemis, attributed the origin of the temenos at Ephesus to the Amazons, whose worship he imagines already centered upon an image {bretas). Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Didymaion, Didim Didyma was an ancient Ionian city, the modern Didim, Turkey. ... The Leleges were one of the aboriginal peoples of southwest Anatolia (compare Pelasgians), who were already there when the Indo-European Hellenes arrived. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Callimachus (Greek: ; ca. ... Greek Temenos ([1], from the Greek verb to cut) (plural = temene) is a piece of land cut off and assigned as an official domain, especially to kings and chiefs, or a piece of land marked off from common uses and dedicated to a god, a sanctuary, holy grove or holy... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ...


Pre-World War I excavations by D.G. Hogarth,[7] who identified three successive temples overlying one another on the site, and corrective re-excavations in 1987-88[8] have confirmed Pausanias' report.


Test holes have confirmed the site was occupied as early as the Bronze Age, with a sequence of pottery finds that extend forward to Middle Geometric times, when the clay-floored peripteral temple was constructed, in the second half of the eighth century BCE.[9] The peripteral temple at Ephesus was the earliest example of a peripteral type on the coast of Asia Minor, and perhaps the earliest Greek temple surrounded by colonnades. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Bahut a dwarf-wall of plain masonry, carrying the roof of a cathedral or church and masked or hidden behind the balustrade. ... Bahut a dwarf-wall of plain masonry, carrying the roof of a cathedral or church and masked or hidden behind the balustrade. ...


In the seventh century, a flood[10] destroyed the temple, depositing over half a meter of sand and scattering flotsam over the former floor of hard-packed clay. In the flood debris were the remains of a carved ivory plaque of a griffon and the Tree of Life, apparently North Syrian. More importantly, flood deposits buried in place a hoard against the north wall that included drilled amber tear-shaped drops with elliptical cross-sections, which had once dressed the wooden effigy of the Lady of Ephesus; the xoanon must have been destroyed in the flood. Bammer notes that though the flood-prone site was raised about two metres between the eighth and sixth centuries, and a further 2.4 m between the sixth and the fourth, the site was retained: "this indicates that maintaining the identity of the actual location played an important role in the sacred organization" (Bammer 1990:144). Griffon is a type of dog, a collection of breeds of originally hunting dogs. ... The Tree-of-Life is a fictional plant (the ancestor of yams, with similar appearance and taste) in Larry Nivens Known Space universe, for which all Hominids have an in-built genetic craving. ... Xoanon Publishing was founded in 1992 e. ...


The new temple, now built of marble, with its peripteral columns doubled to make a wide ceremonial passage round the cella, was designed and constructed around 550 BC by the Cretan architect Chersiphron and his son Metagenes. A new ebony or grapewood cult statue was sculpted by Endoios,[11] and a naiskos to house it was erected east of the open-air altar. A cella, in Ancient Greek and Roman temples was the central room that housed cult statues. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Chersiphron (6th century BC), an architect of Knossos in Crete, was the builder of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, on the Ionian coast. ... Chersiphron (working early 6th century BCE) was an architect of Crete—of Gnosos in the corrupt text of Vitruvius that has survived— who was the builder of the original archaic Ionic Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Asia Minor, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The naiskos is a small temple in Classical order with columns or pillars and pediment. ...


This enriched reconstruction was built at the expense of Croesus, the wealthy king of Lydia. The rich foundation deposit of more than a thousand items has been recovered: it includes what may be the earliest coins of the silver-gold alloy, electrum. Marshy ground was selected for the building site as a precaution against future earthquakes, according to Pliny the Elder.[12] The temple became a tourist attraction, visited by merchants, kings, and sightseers, many of whom paid homage to Artemis in the form of jewelry and various goods. Its splendor also attracted many worshipers, many of whom formed the cult of Artemis. Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... Electrum coin of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ...


Croesus' temple was a widely respected place of refuge, a tradition that was linked in myth with the Amazons who took refuge there, both from Heracles and from Dionysus. The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) “Alcides” redirects here. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ...


Destruction

The temple of Artemis at Ephesus was destroyed on July 21, 356 BC in an act of arson committed by Herostratus. According to the story, his motivation was fame at any cost, thus the term herostratic fame. is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353... Herostratus was a young man who set fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus (currently in the territory of Turkey) in his quest for fame on July 21, 356 BC. The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus was built of marble, and was considered the most beautiful of some thirty...

A man was found to plan the burning of the temple of Ephesian Diana so that through the destruction of this most beautiful building his name might be spread through the whole world. Valerius Maximus, VIII.14.ext.5

The Ephesians, outraged, announced that Herostratus' name never be recorded. Strabo later noted the name, which is how we know it today. The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...


That very same night, Alexander the Great was born. Plutarch remarked that Artemis was too preoccupied with Alexander's delivery to save her burning temple. Alexander later offered to pay for the Temple's rebuilding, but the Ephesians refused. Eventually, the temple was restored after Alexander's death, in 323 BC. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... On his way from Ecbatana to Babylon, Alexander the Great fights and crushes the Cossaeans. ...


This reconstruction was itself destroyed during a raid by the Goths in 262, in the time of emperor Gallienus: "Respa, Veduc and Thuruar, leaders of the Goths, took ship and sailed across the strait of the Hellespont to Asia. There they laid waste many populous cities and set fire to the renowned temple of Diana at Ephesus", reported Jordanes in Getica (xx.107). This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... // Events Births Deaths Xi Kang, author Other Often associated with the legendary Laurence 262, whos origins are unknown. ... Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ...


The Ephesians rebuilt the temple again. At Ephesus, according to the second-century Acts of John, Paul of Tarsus prayed publicly in the very Temple of Artemis, exorcizing its demons and "of a sudden the altar of Artemis split in many pieces... and half the temple fell down," instantly converting the Ephesians, who wept, prayed or took flight.[13] Over the course of the fourth century, perhaps the majority of Ephesians did convert to Christianity; the temples were declared closed by Theodosius I in 391. The Acts of John is a 2nd-century Christian collection of narratives and traditions, well described as a library of materials [1], inspired by the Gospel of John, long known in fragmentary form. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ...


In 401, the temple was finally destroyed by a mob led by St. John Chrysostom,[14] and the stones were used in construction of other buildings. Some of the columns in Hagia Sophia originally belonged to the temple of Artemis.[15] John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ...


The main primary sources for the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus are Pliny the Elder's Natural History XXXVI.xxi.95, Pomponius Mela i:17, and Plutarch's Life of Alexander III.5 (referencing the burning of the Artemisium). Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


After six years of patient searching, the site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum led by John Turtle Wood,[16] and while several artifacts and sculptures from the reconstructed temple can be seen there today, as for the original site, only a single column remains from the temple itself. The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... John Turtle Wood was a British architect and engineer. ...


Architecture and art

Most of the physical description and art within the Temple of Artemis comes from Pliny, though there are different accounts and the actual size varies. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


Pliny describes the temple as 377 feet (115 meters) long and 180 feet (55 meters) wide, made almost entirely of marble, making it about three times as big as the Parthenon by area. The Temple consists of 127 Ionic-styled columns, each 60 feet (18 meters) in height. For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) Ionic order: 1 - entrablature, 2 - column, 3 - cornice, 4 - frieze, 5 - architrave or epistyle, 6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes), 7 - shaft, 8...


The Temple of Artemis housed many fine artworks. Sculptures by renowned Greek sculptors Polyclitus, Pheidias, Cresilas, and Phradmon adorned the temple, as well as paintings and gilded columns of gold and silver. The sculptors often competed at creating the finest sculpture. Many of these sculptures were of Amazons, who are said to have founded the city of Ephesus. “Sculptor” redirects here. ... Polykleitos Doryphoros (Spear-Bearer), an early example of classical contrapposto. ... Phidias, (or Pheidias), son of Charmides, (circa 490 BC - circa 430 BC) was an ancient Greek sculptor, universally regarded as the greatest of Greek sculptors. ... Cresilas, a Cretan sculptor of Cydonia. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ...


Pliny tells us that Scopas, who also worked on the Mausoleum of Mausollos, worked carved reliefs into the temple's columns. Scopas (Σκόπας) (c. ... The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, depicted in this hand-coloured engraving from a series issued in 1572 by Martin Heemskerck (1498-1574), who based his reconstruction on descriptions. ...


Athenagoras of Athens names Endoeus, a pupil of Daedalus, as the sculptor of the main statue of Artemis in Ephesus. Athenagoras (circa 133-190) was a Christian apologist of the second half of the 2nd century of whom little is known for certain, besides that he was Athenian (though possibly not originally from Athens), a philosopher, and a convert to Christianity. ... Endoeus, an early sculptor, who worked at Athens in the middle of the 6th century BC. We are told that he made an image of Athena dedicated by Callias the contemporary of Pisistratus at Athens about 564 BC. An inscription bearing his name has been found at Athens, written in...


Cult and influence

The Temple of Artemis was located at an economically robust region, seeing merchants and travellers from all over Asia Minor. The temple was influenced by many beliefs, and can be seen as a symbol of faith for many different peoples. The Ephesians worshiped Cybele, and incorporated many of their beliefs into the worship of Artemis. Artemisian Cybele became quite contrasted from her Roman counterpart, Diana. The cult of Artemis attracted thousands of worshipers from far-off lands. They would all gather at the site and worship her. Merchants function as professional traders, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... Diana was the equivalent in Roman mythology of the Greek Artemis (see Roman/Greek equivalency in mythology for more details). ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ...


See also

Ephesia Grammata (Ephesian words) are Ancient Greek magical formulas attested from the 4th century BC. According to Pausanias (Eust. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The iconic images have been most thoroughly assembled by Robert Fleischer, Artemis von Ephesos under erwandte Kultstatue von Anatolien u. Syrien EPRO 35 (Leiden:Brill) 1973.
  2. ^ Lynn R. LiDonnici, "The Images of Artemis Ephesia and Greco-Roman Worship: A Reconsideration" The Harvard Theological Review 85.4 (October 1992), pp 389-415.
  3. ^ Seiterle, "Artemis: Die Grosse Göttin von Ephesos" Antike Welt 10 (1979), pp 3-16, accepted in the 1980s by Walter Burkert and B. Alroth, among others, criticised and rejected by Robert Fleischer, and widely popularized.
  4. ^ Florence Mary Bennett, Religious Cults Associated with the Amazons: (1912): Chapter III: Ephesian Artemis (on-line text).
  5. ^ Quoted in Ramsay MacMullen, Christianizing the Roman Empire AD 100-400 1984, ch. III "Christianity as presented" p. 18.
  6. ^ Description of Greece 7.2.6.
  7. ^ D.G. Hogarth, editor, 1908. Excavations at Ephesus.
  8. ^ Anton Bammer, "A Peripteros" of the Geometric Period in the Artemision of Ephesus" Anatolian Studies 40 (1990), pp. 137-160
  9. ^ Bammer (1990:142) noted some still earlier placements of stones, Mycenaean pottery and crude clay animal figurines, but warned "it is still to early to come to conclusions about a cult sequence."
  10. ^ The flood is dated by fragmentary ceramics. (Bammer 1990:141).
  11. ^ Pliny's Natural History, 16.79.213-16; Pliny's source was the Roman Mucianus, who thought that the cult image by an "Endoios" was extremely ancient, however. Endoios' name appears in late sixth-century Attic inscriptions; work attributed to him was noted by Pausanias. The more important fact, as LiDonnici points out, is that Ephesians remembered that a particular sculptor had created the remade image (LiDonnici 1992:398.)
  12. ^ Pliny's rationalized site selection did not take into account the antiquity of the sacred site.
  13. ^ Ramsay MacMullen, Christianizing the Roman Empire A.D. 100-400 1984, p 26.
  14. ^ John Freely, The Western Shores of Turkey: Discovering the Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts 2004 p 148
  15. ^ http://www.exploreturkey.com/exptur.phtml?id=176 St. Sophia Construction for the Third Time
  16. ^ http://archaeology.about.com/od/archaeologistsw/g/woodjt.htm

Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Ramsay MacMullen is an Emeritus Professor of history at Yale University, where he taught from 1967 to his retirement in 1993 as Dunham Professor of History and Classics. ... Mycenaean may refer to: Mycenae, coming from or belonging to this ancient town in Peloponnese in Greece Mycenaean Greece, the Greek-speaking regions of the Aegean Sea as of the Late Bronze Age, named (somewhat anachronistically) after the Mycenae of the Trojan War epics Mycenaean language, an ancient form of... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... Gaius Licinius Mucianus (fl. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...

References

  • Anton Bammer, "A Peripteros" of the Geometric Period in the Artemision of Ephesus" Anatolian Studies 40 (1990), pp. 137-160.
  • Lynn R. LiDonnici, "The Images of Artemis Ephesia and Greco-Roman Worship: A Reconsideration" The Harvard Theological Review 85.4 (October 1992), pp 389-415.

External links

Coordinates: 37°56′59″N, 27°21′50″E Ephesus was one one of the great cities of the Ionian Greeks in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster river flows into the Aegean Sea (in modern day Turkey). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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