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Encyclopedia > Tempelhof International Airport
Tempelhof International Airport
Flughafen Berlin-Tempelhof
IATA: THF – ICAO: EDDI
Summary
Airport type Public
Operator Berlin Airports
Location Berlin, Germany
Elevation AMSL 167 ft / 51 m
Coordinates 52°28′23″N 13°24′14″E / 52.47306, 13.40389
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
09L/27R 6,870 2,094 Paved
09R/27L 6,037 1,840 Paved
Exterior of Tempelhof Airport.
Exterior of Tempelhof Airport.
Interior of Tempelhof - almost deserted as of 2006.
Interior of Tempelhof - almost deserted as of 2006.
For the United States Air Force military use of this facility, see Tempelhof Central Airport

Tempelhof International Airport (IATA: THF, ICAO: EDDI) a.k.a. Berlin Tempelhof (German: Flughafen Tempelhof) is an airport in Berlin, Germany, situated in the south-central borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg. This airport is commonly known as Tempelhof as well. An IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier [1], is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). ... The ICAO (IPA pronunciation: ) airport code or location indicator is a four-letter alphanumeric code designating each airport around the world. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 1467 KB) The exterior of Tempelhof International Airport, Berlin, Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 1467 KB) The exterior of Tempelhof International Airport, Berlin, Germany. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 781 KB) Interior of Tempelhof International Airport, Berlin, Germany. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 781 KB) Interior of Tempelhof International Airport, Berlin, Germany. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... An IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier [1], is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). ... The ICAO (IPA pronunciation: ) airport code or location indicator is a four-letter alphanumeric code designating each airport around the world. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Berlin is subdivided into 12 boroughs (Bezirke in German), which are administrative units with political rights comparable to incorporated communities in the rest of Germany (although they are not separate legal entities from the city). ... Tempelhof-Schöneberg is a borough of Berlin, formed in 2001 by merging the former boroughs of Tempelhof and Schöneberg. ...


Designated by the ministry of transport on October 8, 1923, Tempelhof became the world's first airport with an underground railway station in 1927. While occasionally cited as the world's oldest still-operating commercial airport, Kingsford Smith International Airport in Sydney, Australia predates it by three years. is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page refers to urban rail mass transit systems. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sydney Airport Control Tower International Terminal forecourt Sydney International Terminal International Terminal, Qantas check-in lounge International Terminal car park Memorial to Charles Kingsford Smith, International Terminal Qantas AVRO 504K replica, first plane flown by Qantas, Domestic Terminal Sydney Domestic Terminal entrance Terminal Control Unit including the old Control Tower... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


Tempelhof was one of Europe's three iconic pre-war airports - the others being London's old Croydon Airport and Paris Le Bourget. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The control tower of Croydon Airport in 1939, with the BOAC de Havilland DH 91 Albatross Fortuna alongside Croydon Airport was an airport in South London which straddled the boundary of what are now the London Borough of Croydon and the London Borough of Sutton. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Le Bourget is a commune of the Seine-Saint-Denis département in France. ...


One of the airport's most distinguishing features is its large, canopy-style roof that was able to accommodate most contemporary airliners during its heyday in the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s, thereby saving passengers from the elements. Look up Canopy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


According to the June 1975 edition of industry magazine Airports International, Tempelhof used to have the world's smallest duty-free shop. Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a tax measure. ...

Contents

Overview

Tempelhof is often called the "City Airport". Tempelhof mostly has commuter flights to other parts of Germany and neighboring countries, but has in the past received long-haul, wide-bodied airliners, such as the Boeing 747(picture) and the Lockheed C5A "Galaxy". Wide-body Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-300 A wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with a fuselage diameter of about 5 to 6 metres and twin aisles. ... An airliner of Air Jamaica, the Airbus A340 An airliner is a type of aircraft initially designed for the transportation of paying passengers. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy is one of the largest aircraft in the world. ...


Tempelhof Airport has two parallel runways. Runway 9L/27R has a length of 2,094 metres (6,870 feet) and runway 9R/27L has a length of 1,840 m (6,037 ft). Both runways are paved with asphalt. The taxiway is in the shape of a circle around these two runways, with a single terminal on the north side of the airport. A taxiway is a strip of land on an airport on which aircraft can roll (taxi) to or from a hangar, terminal, runway, or other facility. ...


In 2007, it served less than 350,000 passengers; however, largely due to the costs and insufficient profitable use of the considerable real-estate, the airport is not profitable. The airport is scheduled for closure in October 2008, and possible other uses for it are being discussed. The airport buildings will be preserved. Currently, an initiative for a non-binding referendum on the level of the Land (state of) Berlin against the close-down has reached its second stage, where voters may lodge supportive signatures at district townhalls. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Airlines and destinations

The following regular airlines fly from/to Tempelhof International Airport:

The following air taxi operators fly from/to Tempelhof: Brussels Airlines is a Belgian airline based at Brussels Airport. ... Cirrus Airlines Embraer 170 Cirrus Airlines is an airline based in Saarbrücken, Germany. ... InterSky (Intersky Luftfahrt GmbH) is an airline based in Austria. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Air charter. ...

  • AAF Aviona Air
  • Air Service Berlin
  • AIRSHIP Air Service
  • Bizair Fluggesellschaft
  • Business Air Charter
  • Heli Unionair
  • Jet Club Deutschland Chartermanagement
  • Private Wings
  • Rotorflug
  • TAG Aviation
  • Windrose Air

TAG Group (Holdings) SA is a private holding company based in Geneva, Switzerland, and owned by Mansour Ojjeh and Akram Ojjeh, wealthy Saudi entrepreneurs. ... Windrose Air is an airline based in Germany operating business and private charter services, cargo and air ambulance services. ...

History

The site of the airport was originally Knights Templar land in medieval Berlin, and from this beginning came the name Tempelhof. Later, the site was used as a parade field by Prussian forces, and by unified German forces from 1720 to the start of World War I. In 1909, Frenchman Armand Zipfel made the first flight demonstration in Tempelhof, followed by Orville Wright later that same year. [1] Tempelhof was first officially designated as an airport on 8 October 1923. Lufthansa was founded in Tempelhof on 6 January 1926. For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948), the younger of the Wright brothers, seen as one of the fathers of heavier-than-air flight. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Deutsche Lufthansa AG (ISIN: DE0008232125) (pronounced ) is the second largest airline in Europe (after Air France - KLM). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The old terminal, originally constructed in 1927, received politicians and celebrities from around the world during the 1930s. As part of Albert Speer's plan for the reconstruction of Berlin during the Nazi era, Prof. Ernst Sagebiel was ordered to replace the old terminal with a new terminal building in 1934. Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ... Ernst Sagebiel (1872 - 1970) was one of Adolph Hitlers architects, best known for his design of the Tempelhof International Airport and other very large Nazi projects related to the Luftwaffe. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The airport halls and the neighboring buildings, intended to become the gateway to Europe and a symbol of Hitler's "world capital" Germania, are still known as the largest built entities worldwide, and have been described by British architect Sir Norman Foster as "the mother of all airports". With its façades of shell limestone, the terminal building, built between 1936 and 1941, forms a massive 1.2-kilometre long quadrant yet has a charmingly intimate feel; planes can taxi right up to the building and unload, sheltered from the weather by its enormous overhanging canopy. Passengers walk through customs controls and find themselves in a dazzlingly simple and luminous reception hall. Tempelhof is served conveniently by the U6 U-Bahn line along Mehringdamm and up Friedrichstraße (Platz der Luftbrücke station). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The restored Reichstag in Berlin, housing the German parliament. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... “km” redirects here. ... Look up Quadrant on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Quadrant can mean: HMS Quadrant (G11), a WW-II British/Australian warship. ... Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting customs duties and for controlling the flow of animals and goods (including personal effects and hazardous items) in and out of a country. ... U6 is a line on the Berlin U-Bahn Alt-Tegel (S25) Borsigwerke Holzhauser Straße Otisstraße Scharnweberstraße Kurt-Schumacher-Platz Afrikanische Straße Rehberge Seestraße Leopoldplatz (U9) Wedding (S4x) Reinickendorfer Straße Schwartzkopffstraße Zinnowitzer Straße Oranienburger Tor Friedrichstraße (S1) (S2) (S5) (S7) (S75... Friedrichstraße - view to north The Friedrichstraße (pronounced in IPA) (Frederick Street) is a major shopping street in (east) central Berlin. ... Platz der Luftbrücke is an Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U6. ...


Zentralflughafen Tempelhof-Berlin had an advantage of central location just minutes from the heart of Berlin and quickly became one of the world's busiest airports. Tempelhof saw its greatest pre-war days during 1938-1939 when more than 52 foreign and 40 domestic aircraft arrived and departed daily.


The air terminal was designed as headquarters for Deutsche Lufthansa, the German nationial airline. As a forerunner of today's modern airports, the building was designed with many unique features including giant arc-shaped hangars for aircraft parking. Although under construction for more than ten years, it was never finished because of World War II. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The building complex was designed to resemble an eagle in flight with semicircular hangars forming the bird's spread wings. A mile long hangar roof was to have been laid in tiers to form a stadium for spectators at air and ground demonstrations


World War II

Weserwerke started war production in a new building for assembling Junkers Ju 87 "Stuka" dive bombers and later Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter planes in Tempelhof's underground tunnels. Aircraft engines were trucked to Tempelhof and joined to finished airframes. Germany did not use Tempelhof as a military airfield during World War II, except for occasional emergency landings by fighter aircraft. Stuka redirects here. ... The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (shrike), often called Butcher-bird, was a single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft of Germanys Luftwaffe, and one of the best fighters of its generation. ...


Soviet forces took Tempelhof in the Battle of Berlin on 24 April 1945 in the closing days of the war in Europe following a fierce battle with Luftwaffe troops. Tempelhof's German commander, Colonel Rudolf Boettger, refused to carry out orders to blow up the base, choosing instead to kill himself. CCCP redirects here. ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2,500... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...


In accordance with the Yalta agreements, Zentralflughafen Tempelhof-Berlin was turned over to the United States Army 2nd Armored Division on 2 July 1945 by the Soviet Union as part of the American occupation zone of Berlin. This agreement was later formalized by the August 1945 Potsdam Agreement, which formally divided Berlin into four occupation zones. The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The 2nd Armored Division of the United States Army —nicknamed Hell On Wheels— played an important role in the breakout of the Battle of Normandy in World War II. The division was deactivated in 1991; confusingly, the 5th Infantry Division was redesignated as 2nd Armored Division in 1992, then became... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ...


The 852nd Engineer Aviation Battalion arrived at Tempelhof (Code Number R-95) on 10 July 1945 and made the original repairs.


Berlin Airlift

Main article: Berlin Blockade
Berlin Airlift Monument in Berlin-Tempelhof, displaying the names of the 39 British and 31 American pilots who lost their lives during the operation, and symbolising the three air corridors.
Berlin Airlift Monument in Berlin-Tempelhof, displaying the names of the 39 British and 31 American pilots who lost their lives during the operation, and symbolising the three air corridors.

On 20 June 1948 Soviet authorities, claiming technical difficulties, halted all traffic by land and by water into or out of the western-controlled section of Berlin. The only remaining access routes into the city were three 25-mile-wide air corridors across the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany.[1] Faced with the choice of abandoning the city or attempting to supply its inhabitants with the necessities of life by air, the Western Powers chose the latter course and for the next eleven months sustained the city's two-and-a-half million residents in one of the greatest feats in aviation history. Occupation zones after 1945. ... Image File history File links Berlin_Tempelhof_Luftbrueckendenkmal. ... Image File history File links Berlin_Tempelhof_Luftbrueckendenkmal. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Luftkorridore nach Westberlin 1989 - Display der Luftverkehrskontrolle vom Flughafen Tempelhof The West Berlin Air Corridor consisted of three compulsory routes through regulated airways for civil and military air traffic of the Western Allies between West Berlin and the other Federal German States over controlled airspace of the former German Democratic... Look up million in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Operation Vittles, as the airlift was unofficially named, began on 26 June when USAF Douglas C-47 "Skytrains" carried 80 tons of food into Tempelhof, far less than the estimated 4,500 tons of food, coal and other essential supplies needed daily to maintain a minimum level of existence. But this force was soon augmented by United States Navy and Royal Air Force cargo aircraft, as well as British European Airways (BEA) and some of Britain's fledgling wholly privately owned, Independent airlines.[1] The latter included the late Sir Freddie Laker's Air Charter, Eagle Aviation and Skyways. On 15 October 1948, to promote increased safety and cooperation between the separate US and British airlift efforts, the Allies created a unified command -- the Combined Airlift Task Force under Maj. Gen. William H. Tunner, USAF, was established at Tempelhof. To facilitate the command and control, as well as the unloading of aircraft, the USAF 53rd Troop Carrier Squadron was temporary assigned to Tempelhof. Antonov An-124 loading a container for the Dutch military A large military cargo aircraft: the Boeing C-17A Globemaster III An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies primarily via aircraft. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ... USN redirects here. ... RAF redirects here. ... For other uses of BEA see Bea British European Airways, or BEA, was formed in 1946 by an Act of Parliament. ... Sir Frederick Alfred Laker (born August 6, 1922), better known as Sir Freddie Laker is a legendary British airline owner. ... British Eagle was a British airline from 1948 to 1968. ... Britannia Boeing 757-200 shortly after take-off Britannia Airways was the largest charter airline in the United Kingdom, rebranded as Thomsonfly in 2005. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation). ...


In addition to the airlift operations, American engineers constructed a new 6,000-ft runway at Tempelhof between July and September 1948 and another between September and October 1948 to accommodate the expanding requirements of the airlift. The last airlift transport touched down at Tempelhof on 30 September 1949. Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cold War

Main article: West Berlin

As the Cold War intensified in the late 1950s and 1960s, access problems to West Berlin, both by land and air, continued to cause tension. USAF aircraft were harassed as they flew in and out of the city. Throughout the Cold War years, Tempelhof was the main terminal for American military transport aircraft accessing West Berlin. Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of Germany, the presence of American forces in Berlin ended. The USAF 7350th Air Base Group at Tempelhof was deactivated in June 1993. In July 1994, with President Clinton in attendance, the British, French, and American air and land forces in Berlin were deactivated in a ceremony on the Four Ring Parade field at Tempelhof in accordance with the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany. The Western Allies returned a united city of Berlin to the unified German government. View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States...


The U.S. Army closed its Berlin Army Aviation Detachment at TCA in August 1994, ending a 49-year American military presence in Berlin. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


Postwar Commercial Use

American Overseas Airlines (AOA), at the time the overseas division of American Airlines, inaugurated the first commercial air link serving Tempelhof after the war with a flight from New York via Frankfurt on 18 May 1946.[2] American Overseas Airlines (AOA) was an airline that flew between the USA and Europe between 1945 and 1950. ... American Airlines, Inc. ... This article is about the state. ...   (German: , English: American English: ) is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a mid-2007 population of 663,567. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1950 Pan Am acquired AOA from American Airlines and established a presence at Tempelhof.[2] In addition to continuing AOA's Berlin-Frankfurt-New York service, Pan Am commenced regular, year-round scheduled services to most major West German cities from Tempelhof with Douglas DC-4s as these were widely available at the time due to the large number of war-surplus C-54 "Skymasters" on the second-hand aircraft market.[1] Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pan Ams seaplane terminal at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida, was a hub of inter-American travel during the 1930s and 1940s. ... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... The designation DC-4 was used by Douglas Aircraft Company when developing the DC-4E as a large, four-engined type to complement its forthcoming DC-3 design. ... The Douglas C-54 Skymaster was a four-engined transport aircraft used by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II. // Like the C-47 Skytrain, the C-54 Skymaster was derived from a civilian airliner (the Douglas DC-4). ...


1950 was also the year BEA and Air France joined Pan Am at Tempelhof.[1][3][4] The former transferred its operations from Gatow and the latter resumed operations to Tempelhof following their cessation during the war years.[1][3][4] This was furthermore the year Allied restrictions making commercial airline services from/to West Berlin accessible to Allied military personnel and their dependants only were lifted.[2] This decision gave a major boost to West Berlin's fledgeling post-war scheduled air services, all of which were concentrated at Tempelhof at that time.[2] For other uses of BEA see Bea British European Airways, or BEA, was formed in 1946 by an Act of Parliament. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ... Known for most of its operational life as RAF Gatow, this former airfield is in the district of Gatow in south-western Berlin, west of the Havel river, in the borough of Spandau. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States...


From 1951 onwards, several of the new, wholly privately owned Independent UK airlines and US supplemental carriers commenced regular air services to Tempelhof from the UK, the US and West Germany. These airlines initially carried members of the UK and US armed forces stationed in Berlin and their dependants as well as essential raw materials, finished goods manufactured in West Berlin and refugees from East Germany and Eastern Europe, who were still able to freely enter the city prior to the construction of the infamous Berlin Wall, on their flights. This operation was also known as the second, Little Berlin Airlift.[5] One of these airlines, UK Independent Dan-Air Services (operating as Dan-Air London), was subsequently going to play an important role in developing commercial air services from Tegel for a quarter century.[6] Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Dan-Air (Dan Air Services Limited) is a defunct airline based in the United Kingdom. ... Berlin International Airport in Tegel Otto Lilienthal (IATA: TXL, ICAO: EDDT) (often shortened to Tegel) is an airport in Berlin, Germany. ...


During the early to mid-1950s BEA leased in aircraft that were bigger than its Tempelhof-based fleet of "Pionair" and "Viking" piston-engined airliners from other operators to boost capacity, following a steady increase in the airline's passenger loads.[1] The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ... this is an article about the single-engined amphibian Vickers Viking of 1918. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ...


In 1958 BEA began replacing its aging "Pionairs" and "Vikings" with brand-new, state-of-the-art Vickers "Viscount" 800 series turboprop aircraft. These aircraft's greater range and higher cruising speed enabled BEA to inaugurate a non-stop London Heathrow - Berlin Tempelhof service on November 1, 1965.[1][3] For many years this was the only non-stop international scheduled air service from Tempelhof. Jan. ... The Viscount was a medium-range turboprop airliner introduced in 1953 by Vickers-Armstrongs, making it the first such aircraft to enter service in the world. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. ... Heathrow redirects here. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


On January 2, 1960 Air France, which had served Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Munich and its main base at Paris Orly during the previous decade with DC-4, Sud-Est "Languedoc" and Lockheed "Constellation" piston-engined equipment, shifted its entire Berlin operation to Tegel because Tempelhof's runways were too short to permit the introduction of the Sud-Aviation "Caravelle", the French flag carrier's new short-haul jet, with a viable payload.[1][4][7] is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Paris - Orly Airport (French: ) (IATA: ORY, ICAO: LFPO) is an airport located in Orly and partially in Villeneuve-le-Roi, south of Paris, France. ... The designation DC-4 was used by Douglas Aircraft Company when developing the DC-4E as a large, four-engined type to complement its forthcoming DC-3 design. ... The Société Nationale des Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud-Est (SNCASE, or simply Sud-Est) was a French aircraft manufacturer. ... The Lockheed Constellation, affectionately known as the “Connie”, was a four-engine propeller-driven airliner built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, USA, facility. ... For other uses, see Flag carrier (disambiguation). ... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... In military aircraft or space exploration, the payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or space ship, including as cargo, munitions, scientific instruments or experiments, or external fuel, although internal fuel is usually not included. ...


1960 was also the year Pan Am re-equipped its Tempelhof-based fleet with larger, pressurised Douglas DC-6B piston-engined airliners. Although the DC-6B was a less advanced aircraft than either the "Viscount" or the "Caravelle", it was more economical. By the early 1960s, Pan Am had a fleet of 15 DC-6Bs stationed at its Tempelhof base, which were configured in a higher-density seating arrangement than competing airlines' aircraft. This gave it the biggest aircraft fleet among the three main scheduled operators flying from West Berlin. It furthermore enabled it to compensate for the DC-6's lack of sophistication with higher frequencies than its competitors, thereby attaining a higher market share (60%) and capturing a greater share of the lucrative business travel market than its rivals. During that period, Pan Am moreover achieved an industry-leading ultra short-haul load factor of 70% on its eight scheduled internal routes from Berlin, making the airline's Berlin routes the most profitable in its worldwide scheduled network.[3][8] Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Douglas DC-6 is a piston-powered airliner and transport aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company from 1946 to 1959. ... Market share, in strategic management and marketing, is the percentage or proportion of the total available market or market segment that is being serviced by a company. ... Business travel, or travel management as it is often referred to, is on the rise especially with foreign business markets opening up. ...


Following the completion of the Berlin Wall on August 13, 1961, the West German government introduced a route-specific subsidy of up to 20% for all internal German scheduled air services from and to West Berlin to help the airlines maintain an economically viable operation on these lifeline routes.[1][7] is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... A lifeline is a line or rope used to support a person who is in physical difficulty, such as a person who is at risk of drowning. ...


By the early 1960s, a number of UK Independents and US supplementals began operating regular charter flights from Tempelhof. These carried both inbound tourists from the US, the UK and other countries as well as local outbound tourists to the emerging holiday resorts in the Mediterranean. London Gatwick-based UK Independent Lloyd International became the first charter airline to permanently station some of its aircraft at Tempelhof, when it based two Bristol "Britannia" turboprops at the airport from the beginning of the 1966 summer season. These aircraft were operating a series of inclusive tour flights under contract to Berliner Flug Ring, a newly established West Berlin package tour operator.[9] A charter airline is one that operates charter flights, that is flights that take place outside normal schedules, by a hiring arrangement with a particular customer. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) is Londons second largest airport and the second busiest airport in the United Kingdom after Heathrow. ... Lloyd International Airways was a British charter airline from 1961 to 1972. ... A charter airline is one that operates charter flights, that is flights that take place outside normal schedules, by a hiring arrangement with a particular customer. ... Bristol Britannia was also a car produced by Bristol Cars from 1982 to 1993. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The term inclusive tour (IT) is used to describe a commercial arrangement where a company commonly referred to as a tour operator organises package holidays that include accommodation in addition to transportation. ... A package holiday or package tour consists of transport and accommodation advertised and sold together by a vendor known as a tour operator. ...


In January 1966 Pan Am became the first airline to commence regular, year-round jet operations from Tempelhof with the first examples of a brand-new fleet of Boeing 727 100 series, one of the first "short-field" performance jet aircraft. These aircraft were configured in a single class featuring 128 economy seats. Pan Am's move put BEA at a considerable competitive disadvantage, especially on the busy Berlin-Frankfurt route where the former out-competed the latter with both modern jet planes as well as a higher flight frequency. BEA responded by supplementing its Tempelhof-based "Viscount" fleet with a pair of De Havilland "Comet" 4B series jetliners. Although these aircraft could operate from Tempelhof's short runways without payload restrictions - unlike the 4/4C series versions of that aircraft type, they were not suited to the airline's ultra short-haul operation from Berlin (average stage length: 230 miles) given the high fuel consumption of the "Comet", especially when operating at the mandatory 10,000 feet altitude inside the Allied air corridors. This measure was therefore only a stopgap until BEA's BAC One-Eleven 500s arrived in Berlin. BEA furthermore responded to Pan Am's competitive threat by re-configuring its Berlin-based "Viscounts" with a lower-density seating arrangement, as a result of which these aircraft featured only 52 instead of 68 seats. Henceforth, the airline marketed these services as Super Silver Star.[1][2][3] Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... This article is about the de Havilland Comet jet airliner. ... A jetliner is an airliner powered by jet engines (usually of the turbofan type). ... The Imperial units are an irregularly standardized system of units that have been used in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, including the United States and Commonwealth countries. ... The Imperial units are an irregularly standardized system of units that have been used in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, including the United States and Commonwealth countries. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... The British Aircraft Corporation One-Eleven, also known as the BAC 1-11, the BAC-111 or the BAC-1-11, was a British short-range jet airliner of the 1960s and 1970s. ...


In 1968 BEA began replacing its Berlin-based "Viscounts" with the new One-Eleven 500s, which it called the Super One-Eleven. These aircraft featured a 99-seat, single class configuration.[1][3] Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


1968 was also the year all non-scheduled services, i.e. primarily the rapidly growing number of inclusive tour charter flights, were concentrated at Tegel to alleviate increasing congestion at Tempelhof and to make better use of Tegel, which was underutilised at the time.[9]


Commercial air traffic from/to Berlin Tempelhof peaked in 1971 at just below five-and-a-half million passengers (out of a total of 6.12m passengers for all West Berlin airports during that year). Pan Am accounted for the bulk of this traffic with more than 3.3m passengers, followed by BEA with over 2.1m passengers. 1971 was also the year BEA's last "Viscount" departed Berlin.[7][3][10] Air Traffic are an English indie rock band from Bournemouth. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Look up million in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


East Germany's relaxation of border controls affecting all surface transport modes between West Berlin and West Germany across its territory from 1972 onwards resulted in a decline of scheduled internal German air traffic from/to West Berlin. This was further compounded by the recession in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis. The resulting fare increases that were intended to recover the airlines' higher operating costs caused by steeply rising jet fuel prices led to a further drop in demand. This in turn resulted in a major contraction of Pan Am's and BEA's/British Airways's internal German operations, necessitating a reduction in both airlines' Berlin-based fleets (from 14 to eleven aircraft in Pan Am's case, and from nine to seven aircraft in BA's case) and turning these once profitable routes into loss-makers by the mid-1970s.[11][7] Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In macroeconomics, a Recession is a decline in any countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... Operating costs are the recurring expenses which are related to the operation of a business, or a device, component, piece of equipment or facility. ... Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in jet-engined aircraft. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ...


On 1 September 1975 Pan Am and British Airways moved their entire Berlin operation to the newly built terminal at Tegel Airport. Following Pan Am's and BA's move to Tegel, Tempelhof was exclusively used by the US military until 1985.[12] is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The end of the Cold War and German Reunification opened Tempelhof for non-allied air traffic on 3 October 1990. US President Bill Clinton christened a new Boeing C17A "Globemaster III" transport plane (serial number 96-0006) as the Spirit of Berlin at Tempelhof on 14 May 1998. is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... For the Lockheed aircraft with this designation, see C-17 Super Vega. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Today commercial use is mostly in the form of small commuter aircraft flying regionally. Plans are in place to shut down Tempelhof and Tegel, and make Schönefeld the sole commercial airport for Berlin. Landsat image of SXF Schönefeld International Airport (Flughafen Berlin-Schönefeld) (IATA: SXF, ICAO: EDDB)is an international airport located on the south-eastern outskirts of Berlin, Germany, near Brandenburg, Germany. ...


Initiative for a referendum against closing-down

Currently, an initiative for a non-binding referendum on the level of the Land (state of) Berlin against the close-down is running and has completed its second stage, after the initial number of signatures required had been collected. [13] According to the constitution of the state of Berlin, the number of supportive signatures which were required to be collected within four months in order to compel a referendum amounts to 7% of the population of Berlin entitled to vote, or 169,784.[14] The four months period for the collection of signatures at the Berlin district townhalls ended at 14 February 2008.[15] 203,408 signatures were lodged.[16] The referendum will be held on 29 Jun 2008 unless the Senate concede.[17]


Accidents and incidents

  • On 29 April 1952 an Air France Douglas C-54A (registration F-BELI) operating a scheduled service from Frankfurt Rhein-Main Airport to Berlin Tempelhof came under sustained attack from two Soviet MiG 15 fighters while passing through one of the Allied air corridors over East Germany. Although the attack had severely damaged the plane, necessitating the shutdown of engines number three and four, the pilot in command of the aircraft managed to carry out a safe emergency landing at Tempelhof Airport. A subsequent inspection of the aircraft's damage at Tempelhof revealed that it had been hit by 89 shots fired from the Soviet MiGs during the preceding air attack. There were no fatalities among the 17 occupants (six crew, eleven passengers) despite the severity of the attack. The Soviet military authorities defended this attack on an unarmed civilian aircraft by claiming the Air France plane was outside the air corridor at the time of attack.[2]

is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Douglas C-54 Skymaster was a four-engined transport aircraft used by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II. // Like the C-47 Skytrain, the C-54 Skymaster was derived from a civilian airliner (the Douglas DC-4). ... Frankfurt Airport Frankfurt Airport (IATA: FRA, ICAO: EDDF), known in German as Rhein-Main-Flughafen or Flughafen Frankfurt am Main, is located near Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (NATO reporting name Fagot) was a jet fighter developed for the USSR. History Design began under the bureau designation I-310, which first flew in 1947. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... An emergency landing is a non-planned landing made by an aircraft in response to a crisis. ... Air attack may refer to one of the following: An air raid, a military attack by aircraft A term commonly used to describe the methods of aerial firefighting The initial name of the title for Fighter Ace, a computer game Categories: | | ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k BEA in Berlin, Air Transport, Flight International, 10 August 1972, pp. 180/1
  2. ^ a b c d e Berlin Airport Company - Airline Portrait - Pan Am, January 1975 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1975
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Berlin Airport Company - Airline Portrait - British Airways, February 1975 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1975
  4. ^ a b c Berlin Airport Company - Airline Portrait - Air France, March 1975 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1975
  5. ^ The Spirit of Dan-Air, Simons, G.M., GMS Enterprises, Peterborough, 1993, p. 11
  6. ^ The Spirit of Dan-Air, Simons, G.M., GMS Enterprises, Peterborough, 1993, pp. 9-11
  7. ^ a b c d battle The battle for Berlin, Flight International, 23 April 1988, pp. 19-21
  8. ^ Hot route in the Cold War, Friday, Jul. 03, 1964
  9. ^ a b Berlin Airport Company, April 1968 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1968
  10. ^ Berlin Airport Company, November 1971 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1971
  11. ^ Pan Am's Internal German Services (IGS) division, Archives, flightglobal.com, 1973
  12. ^ Berlin's commuter market grows, Flight International, 2 April 1988, pp. 6, 8
  13. ^ Official public announcement of the call for support (German).
  14. ^ Official page of the State of Berlin: see Article 63 (1), second sentence of the Berlin constitution (German); with regard to the figures, see the official referendum schedule, at the end of the page(German).
  15. ^ Official referendum schedule, at A. 6 (German).
  16. ^ Official information on the number of signatures lodged.
  17. ^ Official referendum schedule, at B. 2 (German).

References

  • Berlin Airport Company (Berliner Flughafen Gesellschaft [BFG]) - Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, several issues (German language edition only), 1965-1975. Berlin Airport Company. 
  • "Flight International". Reed Business Information. ISSN 0015-3710. (various backdated issues relating to commercial air transport at Berlin Tempelhof during the Allied period from 1950 until 1990)
  • Simons, Graham M. (1993). The Spirit of Dan-Air. GMS Enterprises. ISBN 1-8703-8420-2. 

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Barnet Online - Town twinning: Tempelhof (Germany) (372 words)
Tempelhof is a suburb of Berlin, lying directly south of the city centre.
Tempelhof was founded in the 13th century by the order of the Knights Templars.
Tempelhof is also twinned with Amstelveen (Amsterdam), Charentin le Port (Paris), Natariyan (Israel), and the German districts of Yalderbarn and Werra-meissner.
Tempelhof International Airport at AllExperts (994 words)
Berlin Tempelhof (German: Flughafen Tempelhof) is an airport in Berlin, Germany, situated in the south-central borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg.
Tempelhof mostly has commuter flights to other parts of Germany and neighboring countries, since its runway is too small to receive jumbojets.
The airport halls and the neighbouring buildings, intended to become the gateway to Europe, are still known as the largest built entities worldwide, and have been described by British architect Sir Norman Foster as "the mother of all airports".
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