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Encyclopedia > Tempeh
Fresh tempeh at the market, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Fresh tempeh at the market, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Tempeh/Tempe is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybean particles into a cake form. It originated from Indonesia, invented by the Javanese, where it is most popular, although it is common in other parts of Southeast Asia as well, introduced by migrated Javanese. It is especially popular on the island of Java, where it is a staple source of protein. Like tofu, tempeh is made from soybeans, but tempeh is a whole soybean product with different nutritional characteristics and textural qualities. Tempeh's fermentation process and its retention of the whole bean give it a higher content of protein, dietary fiber and vitamins compared to tofu, as well as firmer texture and stronger flavor. Tofu, however, has a higher concentration of protein per carbohydrates, and is thought to be more versatile in dishes. Because of its nutritional value, tempeh is used worldwide in vegetarian cuisine; some consider it to be a meat analogue. Even long ago before people found and realized the rich nutrition fact of tempeh, tempeh was referred to as 'Javanese meat'. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... This article is about the Java island. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients. ... A meat analogue, also called meat substitute, mock meat or veat, approximates the aesthetic qualities (primarily texture, flavor and appearance) and/or chemical characteristics of certain types of meat. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ...

Contents

Production

A piece of uncooked tempeh.
A piece of uncooked tempeh.

Tempeh begins with whole soybeans, which are softened by soaking and dehulled, then partly cooked. Specialty tempehs may be made from other types of beans, wheat, or may include a mixture of beans and whole grains. Download high resolution version (1798x1150, 132 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1798x1150, 132 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Bean (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A mild acidulent, usually vinegar, may be added in order to lower the pH and create a selective environment that favors the growth of the tempeh mold over competitors. A fermentation starter containing the spores of fungus Rhizopus oligosporus is mixed in. The beans are spread into a thin layer and are allowed to ferment for 24 to 36 hours at a temperature around 30°C (86°F). In good tempeh, the beans are knit together by a mat of white mycelia. For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Fermentation starters (called simply starters within the corresponding context) are preparations to assist the beginning of the fermentation process in preparation of various foods and fermented drinks. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... Binomial name Rhizopus oligosporus (Saito, 1905) Rhizopus oligosporus is a fungus of the Mucoraceae family and is a widely used starter-culture for the home production of tempeh. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae that exists below the ground or within another substrate. ...


Under conditions of lower temperature, or higher ventilation, gray or black patches of spores may form on the surface -- this is not harmful, and should not affect the flavor or quality of the tempeh. This sporulation is normal on fully mature tempeh. A mild ammonia smell may accompany good tempeh as it ferments, but it should not be overpowering. In Indonesia, ripe tempeh (two or more days old) is considered a delicacy. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ...


Nutrition

The soy protein in tempeh becomes more digestible as a result of the fermentation process. In particular, the oligosaccharides that are associated with gas and indigestion are greatly reduced by the Rhizopus culture. In traditional tempeh making shops, the starter culture often contains other beneficial bacteria that produce vitamins such as B12. In western countries, it is more common to use a pure culture containing only Rhizopus oligosporus. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ... Indigestion is a condition that is frequently caused by eating too fast, especially by eating high-fat foods quickly. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Binomial name Rhizopus oligosporus (Saito, 1905) Rhizopus oligosporus is a fungus of the Mucoraceae family and is a widely used starter-culture for the home production of tempeh. ...


Preparation

Some cooked tempeh.
Some cooked tempeh.

In the kitchen, tempeh is often prepared by cutting it into pieces, soaking in brine or salty sauce, and then frying. Cooked tempeh can be eaten alone, or used in chili, stir frys, soups, salads, sandwiches, and stews. Recent popular vegan cookbooks, such as Isa Chandra Moskowitz's "Vegan with a Vengeance", have come up with more creative ways of cooking tempeh, using it as a vegetarian substitution for breakfast meats, such as sausage and bacon. Tempeh has a complex flavor that has been described as nutty, meaty, and mushroom-like. Tempeh freezes well, and is now commonly available in many western supermarkets as well as in ethnic markets and health food stores. Tempeh performs well in a cheese grater, after which it may be used in the place of ground beef (as in tacos). When thin sliced and deep fried in oil, tempeh obtains a crispy golden crust while maintaining a soft interior - its sponge-like consistency make it a fantastic base for all marinades. Dried tempeh (whether cooked or raw) provides an excellent stew base for backpackers. While some claim that tempeh should not be eaten raw, others have done so without ill effect for many years. For the Thanksgiving holiday, tempeh (as dark meat) and tofu (as white) may each be thick-sliced and baked with a standard dressing/stuffing preparation to provide a vegan alternative to turkey. Tempeh is fabulous for stirfry. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2364 KB) Some cooked tempeh Made it myself KVDP I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2364 KB) Some cooked tempeh Made it myself KVDP I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... For other uses, see Sauce (disambiguation). ... Plantains frying in vegetable oil. ... Vegan with a Vengeance Isa Chandra Moskowitz is an American born cookbook author and the co-host of a New York City based cable access cooking show. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... The art of diplomacy, painted by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris (1863-1930). ...


Types of tempeh

Name Description
tempe bongkrèk made from or with coconut press cake (see below)
tempe bosok (busuk) rotten tempeh, used in small amounts as a flavouring
tempe gembus made from okara
tempe gódhóng tempeh made in banana leaves
tempe goreng deep-fried tempeh
tempe mendoan raw-fried tempeh
tempe kedelai simply tempeh, made from soybeans
tempe murni tempeh made in plastic wrap (lit. pure soybean cake)
tempe oncom also onchom; made from peanut press cake; orange color; Neurospora sitophila

For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Press cake is the solids remaining after pressing something to extract the liquids. ... Okara or soy pulp is a white or yellowish pulp consisting of insoluble parts of the soybean which remain in the filter sack when pureed soybeans are filtered in the production of soy milk. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the legume. ... Press cake is the solids remaining after pressing something to extract the liquids. ...

Tempe bongkrèk

Tempe bongkrèk is a variety of tempeh from Central Java, notably Banyumas regency, that is prepared with coconut. This type of tempeh occasionally gets contaminated with the bacterium Burkholderia cocovenenans, and the unwanted organism produces toxins (Bongkrek acid and toxoflavin) from the coconut, besides killing off the Rhizopus fungus due to the antibiotic activity of bongkrek acid. Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Banyumas is an area, also known as the Banyumasan region, located in the western part of Central Java, in Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Zopf 1885) Yabuuchi 1993 Type strain ATCC 10248 CCUG 1782 CFBP 2427 CIP 105410 DSM 4285 HAMBI 2157 ICMP 3950 JCM 9311 LMG 2216 NBRC 13700 NCCB 38018 NCPPB 1891 NCTC 12378 NRRL B-793 Synonyms Pseudomonas gladioli Severini 1913 Burkholderia cocovenenans (van Damme et al. ... Bongkrek acid is a respiratory toxin more deadly than cyanide. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


Fatalities from contaminated tempe bongkrèk were once common in the area where it was produced.[citation needed] Thus, the sale of tempeh bongkrèk is prohibited by law nowadays; clandestine manufacture continues however due to the superior culinary value. The problem of contamination is not encountered with bean or grain tempeh, which have a different composition of fatty acids that is not favorable for the growth of B. cocovenenans but encourages growth of Rhizopus instead. When bean or grain tempeh has the proper color, texture and smell, it is a very strong indication that the product is safe. Tempe bongkrèk which is yellow is always highly toxic due to toxoflavin, but tempe bongkrèk with a normal coloration may still contain lethal amounts of bongkrek acid. In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ...


Tempe Mendoan

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Tempe Mendoan

A variation of tempeh cooking method, often found in Purwokerto. The origin of the word 'Mendoan' is from Banyumas regional dialect, which means "to cook instantly in very hot oil", that results in raw and limp cooking. Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Banyumas is an area, also known as the Banyumasan region, located in the western part of Central Java, in Indonesia. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ...


References

  • Shurtleff, William, and Akiko Aoyagi. 1979. The book of tempeh: A super soyfood from Indonesia. New York: Harper & Row (Colophon Books). ISBN 0-06-091265-0.
  • Shurtleff, William, and Akiko Aoyagi. 1985. The book of tempeh. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press.
  • Shurtleff, William, and Akiko Aoyagi. 1985. History of tempeh: A fermented soyfood from Indonesia. 2nd ed. Lafayette, California: Soyfoods Center. ISBN 0-933332-21-1.
  • Shurtleff, William, and Akiko Aoyagi. 1989. Bibliography of tempeh and tempeh products: 1,416 references from 1815 to 1989. Lafayette, California: Soyfoods Center. ISBN 0-933332-47-5.

See also

For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... Miso ) is a traditional Japanese food produced by fermenting rice, barley and/or soybeans, with salt and kōji (the most typical miso is made with soy). ... Douchi (Chinese: 豆豉; pinyin: ), also called hamanatto or Chinese fermented black beans, is a flavoring most popular in the cuisine of China, and is used to make black bean sauce. ... Natto eaten on top of rice is commonly stirred before consumption Nattō ) is a traditional Japanese food made from fermented soybeans, popular especially at breakfast. ... Oncom is one of the staple foods of Indonesia. ... Iru Iru is a type of fermented locust beans used as a condiment in cooking. ... Ogiri is a flavoring made of fermented oil seeds, such as sesame seeds or egusi seeds. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Tempeh
  • How to make tempeh at home — In-depth instructions on obtaining a tempeh starter and making tempeh at home.
  • How We Make and Eat Tempeh Down on The Farm - Mother Earth News, Issue # 47 - September/October 1977
  • Useful links about tempeh

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tempeh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (703 words)
Tempeh is similar to tofu in providing a way to improve the digestibility of soybeans, but different from it in nutritional characteristics and eating qualities, as tempeh's fermentation process and its retention of the whole bean give it a higher content of dietary fiber and vitamins, as well as firmer texture and stronger flavor.
Tempeh bongkrek is a variety of tempeh from Central Java, notably Banyumas regency, that is prepared with coconut.
Tempeh bongkrek which is yellow is always highly toxic due to toxoflavin, but tempeh bongkrek with a normal coloration may still contain lethal amounts of bongkrek acid.
Tempeh (336 words)
Tempeh is a fermented food made by the controlled fermentation of cooked soybeans with a Rhizopus mold (tempeh starter).
Tempeh fermentation produces natural antibiotic agents which are thought to increase the body's resistance to intestinal infections but leaves the desirable soy isoflavones intact.
The main phytochemicals in tempeh are isoflavones and saponins.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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