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Encyclopedia > Telugu language
Telugu
తెలుగు
Spoken in: India 
Region: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Total speakers: 98 million native, 120 million total (including tenth language speakers)[citation needed] 
Ranking: 13 (native)
Language family: Dravidian
 South-Central
  Telugu 
Writing system: Telugu script 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of India India
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: te
ISO 639-2: tel
ISO 639-3: tel
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Telugu (pronounced [ˈtɛləgu] in English; in Telugu: తెలుగు [ˈt̪elʊgʊ]) is a Dravidian language (South-Central Dravidian languages) primarily spoken in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, where it is the official language. Sanskrit has a huge influence on it. Including non-native speakers it is the most spoken Dravidian language,[1] the second most spoken language after Hindi in India and the third most spoken language in Indian sub-continent after Hindi and Bengali, and one of the twenty-two official languages of the Republic of India.[2] It is spoken among a diaspora population in the USA, Malaysia, Mauritius, South Africa, Ireland, Fiji, Réunion, Trinidad and the UK among other countries around the world. Extant works in Carnatic music, particularly the compositions of the present era (post 15th century), were written mostly in the then, highly-sanskritized Telugu. Telugu is one of the top fifteen most widely spoken languages in the world as well as the most spoken language within the Dravidian family. It is widely spoken outside of Andhra Pradesh in cities of neighboring states such as Bangalore and Chennai. Apart from referring to Telugu language Telugu may also refer to: Telugu script Telugu literature Telugu people List of Telugu People Telugu films (Tollywood) Andhra Pradesh, Telugu is the state language of this state in India. ... Andhra redirects here. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... The South-Central Dravidian languages comprise some languages spoken in that part of India. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Telugu script, an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write Telugu, a Dravidian Language found in the Southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh as well as several other neighboring states. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the BrāhmÄ« script of Mauryan India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, and eastern and central India. ... The South-Central Dravidian languages comprise some languages spoken in that part of India. ... Andhra redirects here. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Bangla redirects here. ... As a large and linguistically diverse country, India does not have a single official language. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ...

Contents

History

Origins

Telugu originated from the Proto-Dravidian language, belonging to the south-central family. Telugu belongs to the South-central Dravidian language subfamily, whose members originated from the Proto-Dravidian spoken in the central part of the Deccan plateau. Other languages of the South-Central group include the rustic Gondi, Konda, Kui and Kuvi languages. Inscriptions containing telugu words dated back to 400 BCE were discovered at Nandyal in Kurnool district. English translation of one inscription reads: “Gift of the slab by venerable Midikilayakha.[3] Proto-Dravidian is the proto-language of the Dravidian languages. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ...


Etymology

The etymology of Telugu is not known for certain. It is explained as being derived from trilinga, as in Trilinga Desa, "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Trilinga Desa is the land in between three Shiva temples namely Kalahasthi, Srisailam and Draksharamam. Trilinga Desa forms the traditional boundaries of the Telugu region. Other forms of the word, such as Telunga, Telinga, Telangaana and Tenunga were also seen. It is also said that Trilinga, in the form "Triliggon" occurs in Ptolemy as the name of a locality to the east of the Ganga river. Other scholars compare Trilinga with other local names mentioned by Pliny, such as Bolingae, Maccocalingae, and Modogalingam. The latter name is given as that of an island in the Ganges. A.D. Campbell, in the introduction to his Telugu grammar, suggested that Modogalingam may be explained as a Telugu translation of Trilingam, and compared the first part of the word modoga, with mUDuga, a poetical form for Telugu mUDu, three. Bishop Caldwell, on the other hand, explained Modogalingam as representing a Telugu mUDugalingam, the three Kalingas, a local name which occurs in Sanskrit inscriptions and one of the Puranas. Kalinga occurs in the Ashoka Inscriptions, and in the form Kling, it has become, in the Malay country, the common word for the people of Continental India. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... , Srisailam is a holy town and Mandal, situated in Nallamala hills of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Draksharama is one of the Pancharama Kshetras which is located at Draksharamam town near Kakinada city in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh in South India. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Ganga may refer to: Ganges River, a river in India Ganga, the Hindu goddess that personifies the Ganges River The Gangas, an ancient southern Indian dynasty Ganga (music), a type of rural folk singing from Croatia and Herzegovina Daren Ganga, a West Indian cricketer Ganga, an alternate spelling of ganja... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


According to K.L. Ranjanam, the word is derived from talaing, who were chiefs who conquered the Andhra region. M.R. Shastri is of the opinion that it is from telunga, an amalgamation of the Gondi words telu, meaning "white", and the pluralization -unga, probably referring to white or fair-skinned people. According to G.J. Somayaji, ten- refers to 'south' in Proto-Dravidian, and the word could be derived from tenungu meaning "people of the South".[citation needed] Gondi may refer to The Gondi people, an ethnic group of central India The Gondi language, the language of the Gondi people Gondi dumplings, a traditional Iranian Jewish food The French aristocratic de Gondi family whose most famous member was Jean François Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz. ...


The ancient name for telugu land seems to be telinga/telanga desa. It seems probable that the base of this word is teli, and that -nga, or gu is the common Dravidian formative element. A base teli occurs in Telugu teli, bright; teliyuTa, to perceive, etc. However, this etymology is contested. Telugu pandits commonly state Tenugu to be the proper form of the word, and explain this as the ‘mellifluous language’ from tene or honey. The word Kalinga might be derived from the same base as Telugu kaluguTa, to live to exist, and would then simply mean ‘human.’[citation needed] A pandit or pundit(पन्दित् in Devanagari) is a Hindu Brahmin who has memorized a substantial portion of the Vedas, along with the proper rhythms and melodies for chanting or singing them. ...


Stages

It is possible to broadly define four stages in the linguistic history of the Telugu language: Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ...


400 CE - 500 CE

The discovery of a Brahmi label inscription reading Thambhaya Dhaanam is engraved on the soap stone reliquary datable to 2nd century BCE on Paleographical ground proves the fact that Telugu language predates the known conception in Andhra Pradesh. Primary sources are Prakrit/Sanskrit inscriptions found in the region, in which Telugu places and personal names are found. From this we know that the language of the people was Telugu, while the rulers, who were of the Satavahana dynasty, spoke Prakrit.[4] Telugu words appear in the Maharashtri Prakrit anthology of poems (the Gathasaptashathi) collected by the first century BCE Satavahana King Hala. Telugu speakers were probably the oldest peoples inhabiting the land between the Krishna and Godavari rivers.[citation needed] BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Hala can refer to The Hala clan of India and Pakistan. ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ...


500 CE - 1100 CE

The first inscription that is entirely in Telugu corresponds to the second phase of Telugu history. This inscription dated 575 CE was found in the Kadapa and Kurnool district region and is attributed to the Renati Cholas. They broke with the prevailing fashion of using Sanskrit and introduced the tradition of writing royal proclamations in the local language. During the next fifty years, Telugu inscriptions appeared in the neighboring Anantapuram and all the surrounding regions. The first available Telugu inscription in the coastal Andhra Pradesh comes from about 633 CE. Around the same time, the Chalukya kings of Telangana also started using Telugu for inscriptions.[citation needed] Telugu was most exposed to the influence of Sanskrit, as opposed to Prakrit, during this period. This period mainly corresponded to the advent of literature in Telugu. This literature was initially found in inscriptions and poetry in the courts of the rulers, and later in written works such as Nannayya's Mahabharatam (1022 CE).[4] During the time of Nannayya, the literary language diverged from the popular language. This was also a period of phonetic changes in the spoken language. CE is an abbreviation which can have the following meanings: Capillary electrophoresis the CE mark is a stylized CE placed on products to signify conformance with European Union regulations. ... , Kadapa (à°•à°¡à°ª), formerly Cuddapah, is a city in Andhra Pradesh, India, the headquarters of Kadapa District. ... , Map showing kurnool district Kurnool   is a city in Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh state of southern India. ... Many Telugu Choda kingdoms ruled over many regions including the cities on the banks of Krishna River in the period between the seventh and the thirteenth century. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Kavitrayam is a Telugu expression for trinity of poets. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


1100 CE - 1400 CE

The third phase is marked by further stylization and sophistication of the literary language. Ketana (thirteenth century) in fact prohibited the use of spoken words in poetic works.[4] This period also saw the beginning of Muslim rule in the Telangana region. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Location of Telangana region Telangana region marked in white. ...


1400 CE - 1900 CE

During the fourth phase, Telugu underwent a great deal of change (as did other Indian languages), progressing from medieval to modern. The language of the Telangana region started to split into a distinct dialect due to Muslim influence: Sultanate rule under the Tughlaq dynasty had been established earlier in the northern Deccan during the fourteenth century. South of the Godavari river (Rayalaseema region), however, the Vijayanagara empire gained dominance from 1336 till the late 1600s, reaching its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya in the sixteenth century, when Telugu literature experienced what is considered to be its golden age.[4]Padakavithapithamaha, Annamayya, contributed many atcha (pristine) Telugu Padaalu to this great language. In the latter half of the seventeenth century, Muslim rule extended further south, culminating in the establishment of the princely state of Hyderabad by the Asaf Jah dynasty in 1724. This heralded an era of Persian/Arabic influence on the Telugu language, especially among the people of Hyderabad. The effect is also felt in the prose of the early 19th century, as in the Kaifiyats.[4] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... The Tughlaq Dynasty of north India started in 1321 CE in Delhi when Ghazi Tughlaq assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... the region marked in green Rayalaseema is an unofficial region of Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Krishnadevaraya Recently excavated Vishnu temple, Hampi Krishnadevaraya (Kannada: ಶ್ರೀ ಕೃಷ್ಣದೇವರಾಯ, Telugu:శ్రీకృష్ణదేవరాయ;) (1509-1529 CE) was the most famous king of Vijayanagara empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... tAllapAka annamAcArya The tAllapAka family of poets, music composers and scholars in Telugu and Sankrit popularized the Srivaishnava faith in Andhra Pradesh in the 15th and 16th centuries. ... Flag Capital Hyderabad Government Principality Nizam  - 1720-48 (first) Asaf Jah I  - 1911-48 (last) Asaf Jah VII History  - Established 1724  - Annexed by India September 18, 1948 Hyderābād and Berar   (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد) under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India. ... Chin Qilij Khan Asaf Jah I was the founder of the Asaf Jahi dynasty that ruled Hyderabad state from 1724 to 1949. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Flag Capital Hyderabad Government Principality Nizam  - 1720-48 (first) Asaf Jah I  - 1911-48 (last) Asaf Jah VII History  - Established 1724  - Annexed by India September 18, 1948 Hyderābād and Berar   (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد) under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India. ...


1900 CE to date

The period of the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries saw the influence of the English language and modern communication/printing press as an effect of the British rule, especially in the areas that were part of the Madras Presidency. Literature from this time had a mix of classical and modern traditions and included works by scholars like Kandukuri Viresalingam and Panuganti Lakshminarasimha Rao.[4] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ...


Since the 1940s, what was considered an elite literary form of the Telugu language has now spread to the common people with the introduction of mass media like television, radio and newspapers. This form of the language is also taught in schools as a standard. In the current decade the Telugu language, like other Indian languages, has undergone globalization due to the increasing settlement of Telugu-speaking people abroad. Modern Telugu movies, although still retaining their dramatic quality, are linguistically separate from post-Independence films. Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Reading the newspaper: Brookgreen Gardens in Pawleys Island, South Carolina. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial...


Geographic distribution

Telugu is mainly spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh and in the neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, and Chhattisgarh in India. It is also spoken in Bahrain, Fiji, Malaysia, Mauritius, South Africa, the United Arab Emirates, the United States and the United Kingdom where there is a considerable Telugu diaspora. Telugu is the second largest spoken language in the country after Hindi . Andhra redirects here. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... , Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: )  , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ...


Official status

Telugu is one of the 22 official languages of India. It was declared the official language of Andhra Pradesh when the state was formed in October 1953 on linguistic basis.[5] India has a diverse list of spoken languages among different groups of people. ... Andhra redirects here. ...


Telugu also has official language status in the Yanam District of the Union Territory of Pondicherry. Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ...


Dialects

Waddar,[6] Chenchu,[7] Savara,[8] and Manna-Dora[9] are all closely related to Telugu.[10] Dialects of Telugu are Berad, Dasari, Dommara, Golari, Kamathi, Komtao, Konda-Reddi, Salewari, Telangana, Telugu, Vadaga, Srikakula, Vishakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Rayalseema, Nellore,prakasam Guntur, Vadari and Yanadi (Yenadi).[11] Chenchu is a langua of India (region of Andhra Pradesh), which is spoken by 28,754 (1981 census). ... Telugu redirects here. ...


In Tamil Nadu the Telugu dialect is classified into Salem, Coimbatore, and Chennai Telugu dialects. It is also widely spoken in Virudhunagar, Tuticorin, Madurai and Thanjavur districts. Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


Along with the most standard forms of Indian languages like Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, and Hindi, Standard Telugu is often called a Shuddha Bhaasha ("pure language"). Bangla redirects here. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...


Sounds

Nineteenth-century Englishmen called Telugu the Italian of the East as all native words in Telugu end with a vowel sound, but it is believed that Italian explorer Niccolò Da Conti coined the phrase in the fifteenth century. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Niccolò Da Conti (also Nicolò de Conti) (1395–1469) was a Venetian merchant and explorer, born in Chioggia, who traveled to India and Southeast Asia during the early 15th century. ...


A great number of the words in Telugu end in the sound 'oo', giving the language a very sing-song like sound.


Achulu(Vowels)

Like other major Dravidian languages, the Telugu vowel set adds short /e/ and /o/ in addition to the long /eː/ and /oː/ of the Indo-Aryan languages. For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ...

అం అః
/a/ /ɑː/ /ɪ/ /iː/ /u/ /uː/ /ru/ /ruː/ /lu/ /luː/ /e/ /eː/ /ai/ /o/ /oː/ /au/ /am/ /aha/

The rhotics and (originally /r/ and /rː/), like the liquids and (originally /l/ and /lː/) have now turned into the syllables /ru/, /ruː/, /lu/, /luː/ respectively. They are fast going out of currency and are no longer included in the standard Telugu school textbooks issued by the government of Andhra Pradesh, which now prefers the actual consonants with a /u/ appended (e.g. /ruʃɪ/ (monk) used to be written ఋషి but nowadays, రుషి is preferred). Andhra redirects here. ...


Hallulu (Consonants)

క ఖ గ ఘ ఙ
చ ఛ జ ఝ ఞ
ట ఠ డ ఢ ణ
త థ ద ధ న
ప ఫ బ భ మ
య ర ల వ శ ష స హ ళ క్ష ఱThe consonants correspond almost one-to-one to the set in Sanskrit, with two exceptions. One is the historical form of /r/ఱ which is now again being phased out by the current form ర. (e.g. /gurːam/ (horse) was written గుఱ్ఱం but is now written గుర్రం). The other is the retroflex lateral ళ /ɭ/. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

The table below indicates the articulation of consonants in Telugu.[clarify]

Telugu Vyanjana Ucchārana Pattika[12]
Prayatna Niyamāvali Kanthyamu
(jihvā Mūlam)
Tālavyamu
(jihvā Madhyam)
Mūrdhanyamu
(jihvāgramu)
Dantyamu
(jihvāgramu)
Dantōshtyam Ōshtyamu
(adhōstamu)
Sparśam, Śvāsam, Alpaprānam ka ca Ta ta - pa
Sparśam, Śvāsam, Mahāprānam kha cha Tha tha - pha
Sparśam, Nādam, Alpaprānam ga ja Da da - ba
Sparśam, Nādam, Mahāprānam gha jha Dha dha - bha
Sparśam, Nādam, Alpaprānam,
Anunāsikam, Dravam, Avyāhatam
nga nja Na na - ma
Antastham, Nādam, Alpaprānam,
Dravam, Avyāhatam
- ya ra (Lunthitam)
La (Pārśvikam)
la (Pārśvikam)
Ra(Kampitam)
va -
Ūshmamu, Śvāsam,Mahāprānam, Avyāhatam Visarga śa sha sa - -
Ūshmamu, Nādam,Mahāprānam, Avyāhatam ha - - - - -

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Rhotic consonants, or R-like sounds, are non-lateral liquids. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... In music, a trill is a type of ornament; see trill (music) In phonetics, a trill is a type of consonant; see trill consonant In the fictional Star Trek universe, the Trill are two symbiotic races of aliens; see Trill (Star Trek). ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Visarga () is a Sanskrit word meaning sending forth, discharge. In Sanskrit phonology (), (also called, equivalently, by earlier grammarians) is the name of a phone, , written as IAST <>, Harvard-Kyoto <H>, Devanagari <>. Visarga is an allophone of and in pausa (at the end of an utterance). ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ...

Phonology

Though the Telugu consonant set lists aspirated consonants (both voiced and unvoiced), they're reserved mostly for transcribing Sanskrit borrowings. To most native speakers, the aspirated and unaspirated consonants are practically allophonic (like in Tamil). The distinction is made however, rather strictly, in written or literary Telugu. Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...


Grammar

In Telugu, Karta కర్త (nominative case or the doer), Karma కర్మ (object of the verb) and Kriya క్రియ (action or the verb) follow a sequence. Telugu also has the Vibhakthi విభక్తి (preposition) tradition. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Telugu రాముడు (Ramudu) బంతిని (bantini) కొట్టాడు(kottaadu)
Literal translation   Rama ball hit
Reformatted "Rama hit the ball"

Inflection

Telugu is often considered an agglutinative language, where certain syllables are added to the end of a noun in order to denote its case:[clarify]

Instrumental   Ramunito రామునితో (తో; to)
Dative Ramuniki రామునికి (కి; ki or కు; ku)
Ablative Ramudinunchi రాముడినుంచి (నుంచి; nunchi)
Genitive Ramuni రాముని (ని; ni)

These agglutinations apply to all nouns generally in the singular and plural. In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... Dative has several meanings. ... In linguistics, the ablative case is a noun case found in several languages, including Latin, Sanskrit and in the Finno_Ugric languages. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ...


Here is how other cases are manifested in Telugu:


Location

[clarify]

Case Usage English example Telugu example
Adessive case adjacent location near/at/by the house ఇంటి/పక్క /ɪŋʈɪprakːa/
Inessive case inside something inside the house ఇంట్లో /ɪŋʈloː/
Locative case location at/on/in the house ఇంటిదగ్గర /ɪŋʈɪd̪agːara/
Superessive case on the surface on (top of) the house ఇంటిపై /ɪŋʈɪpaj/

In the Finnish language, Estonian language and Hungarian language the adessive case (from Latin adesse to be present) is the fourth of the locative cases with the basic meaning of on. For example, Estonian laud (table) and laual (on the table), Hungarian asztal and asztalon (on the table). ... Inessive case (from Latin inesse to be in or at) is a locative grammatical case. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... The Superessive case is a grammatical declension indicating location on top of something. ...

Motion

[clarify]

Case Usage English example Telugu example
Allative case movement to (the adjacency of) something to the house ఇంటికి /ɪŋʈɪkɪ/, ఇంటివైపు /ɪŋʈɪvajpu/
Delative case movement from the surface from (the top of) the house ఇంటిపైనుంచి /ɪŋʈɪnɪɲcɪ/
Egressive case marking the beginning of a movement or time beginning from the house ఇంటినుంచి /ɪŋʈɪnɪɲcɪ/ (ఇంటికెల్లి /ɪŋʈɪkelːɪ/ in some dialects)
Elative case out of something out of the house ఇంటిలోనుంచి /ɪŋʈɪnɪɲcɪ/ (ఇంట్లకెల్లి /ɪŋʈlakelːɪ/ in some dialects)
Illative case movement into something into the house ఇంటిలోనికి /ɪŋʈɪloːnɪkɪ/ (ఇంట్లోకి /ɪŋʈloːkɪ/)
Sublative case movement onto the surface on(to) the house ఇంటిపైకి /ɪŋʈɪpajkɪ/
Terminative case marking the end of a movement or time as far as the house ఇంటివరకు /ɪŋʈɪvaraku/

In the Finnish language, the Allative case is the fifth of the locative cases, with the basic meaning of onto. Its ending is -lle, for example pöytä (table) and pöydälle (onto the top of the table). ... The delative case (from Latin deferre to bear or bring away or down) in the Hungarian language can originally express the movement from the surface of something (eg. ... See Elative for disambiguation. ... Illative case in the Finno-Ugric languages Illative (from Latin inferre to bring in) is, in the Finnish language, Estonian language and the Hungarian language, the third of the locative cases with the basic meaning of into (the inside of). An example from Hungarian would be a házba (into... This case in Hungarian language can express the destination of the movement, originally to the surface of something (eg. ... In morphology, the terminative case is a case that indicates to what point; where something ends. ...

Morphosyntactic alignment

[clarify]

Case Usage English example Telugu example
Oblique case all-round case; any situation except nominative concerning the house ఇంటిగురించి /ɪŋʈɪgurɪɲcɪ/

An oblique case (Latin: ) in linguistics is a noun case of analytic languages that is used generally when a noun is the predicate of a sentence or a preposition. ...

Relation

[clarify]

Case Usage English example Telugu example
Benefactive case for, for the benefit of, intended for for the house ఇంటికోసం /ɪŋʈɪkoːsam/ (ఇంటికొరకు /ɪŋʈɪkoraku/)
Causal case because, because of because of the house ఇంటివలన /ɪŋʈɪvalana/
Comitative case in company of something with the house ఇంటితో /ɪŋʈɪt̪oː/
Possessive case direct possession of something owned by the house ఇంటియొక్క /ɪŋʈɪjokːa/

The benefactive case is a case used where English would use for, for the benefit of, or intended for. ... The causal or causative case (abbreviated CAUS) is a grammatical case that indicates that the marked noun is the cause or reason for something. ... The Comitative case is used where English would use in company with or together with. It, and many other cases, are found in the Finnish language, the Hungarian language, and the Estonian language. ... Possessive case is a case that exists in some languages used for possession. ...

Polyagglutination

While the examples given above are single agglutinations, Telugu allows for polyagglutination, the unique feature of being able to add multiple suffixes to words to denote more complex features:


For example, one can affix both "నుంచి; nunchi - from" and "లో; lo - in" to a noun to denote from within. An example of this: "రాములోనుంచి; ramuloninchi - from within Ramu"


Here is an example of a triple agglutination: "వాటిమధ్యలోనుంచి; vāṭimadʰyalōninchi - from in between them"


Vowel harmony

Like in Turkish, Hungarian and Finnish, Telugu words have vowels in inflectional suffixes harmonised with the vowels of the preceding syllable. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Inclusive and exclusive pronouns

Telugu exhibits one of the rare features that Dravidian languages share with few others: the inclusive and exclusive we. The bifurcation of the First Person Plural pronoun (we in English) into inclusive (మనము; manamu) and exclusive (మేము; mēmu) versions can also be found in Tamil and Malayalam, although it is not used in modern Kannada. For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... Inclusive we is a pronoun or verb conjugation that indicates the inclusion of the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to exclusive we, which specifically excludes the addressee. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ...


Gender

Telugu pronouns follow the systems for gender and respect also found in other Indian languages. The second person plural మీరు /miːru/ is used in addressing someone with respect, and there are also respectful third personal pronouns (ఆయన /ɑːjana/ m. and ఆవిడ /ɑːvɪɽa/ f.) pertaining to both genders. A specialty of the Telugu language, however, is that the third person non-respectful feminine (అది /ad̪ɪ/) is used to refer to animals and objects, and there is no special neuter gender that is used. In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a word that usually takes the place of a noun or noun phrase that was previously mentioned (such as she, it) or that refers to something or someone (I, me, you). Pronouns are often one of the basic parts of speech of the... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...


Vocabulary

Like all Dravidian languages, Telugu has a base of words which are essentially Dravidian in origin. Words that describe objects/actions associated with common or everyday life: like తల; tala (head), పులి; puli (tiger), ఊరు; ūru (town/city) have cognates in other Dravidian languages and are indigenous to the Dravidian language family. For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ...


However, Telugu is also largely Sanskritized, that is, it has a wide variety of words of Sanskrit/Prakrit origin. The Indo-Aryan influence can be attributed historically to the rule of the Satavahana kings, who used Prakrit as the official language of courts and government, and to the influence of literary Sanskrit during the 11th - 14th centuries CE. Today, Telugu is generally considered the Dravidian language with the most Indo-Aryan influence. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...


The vocabulary of Telugu especially in the Hyderabad region has a trove of Persian-Arabic borrowings, which have been modified to fit Telugu phonology. This was due to centuries of Muslim rule in these regions: the erstwhile kingdoms of Golkonda and Hyderabad. (e.g. కబురు, /kaburu/ for Urdu /xabar/, خبر or జవాబు, /ɟavɑːbu/ for Urdu /ɟawɑːb/, جواب) Flag Capital Hyderabad Government Principality Nizam  - 1720-48 (first) Asaf Jah I  - 1911-48 (last) Asaf Jah VII History  - Established 1724  - Annexed by India September 18, 1948 Hyderābād and Berar   (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد) under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Golkonda (or Golconda), is a ruined city of south-central India is Situated west of Hyderabad, capital of ancient Hyderabad state (c. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ...


Modern Telugu vocabulary can be said to constitute a diglossia, because the formal, standardized version of the language, heavily influenced by Sanskrit, is taught in schools and used by the government and Hindu religious institutions. However, everyday Telugu varies depending upon region and social status. There is a large and growing middle class whose Telugu is substantially interspersed with English. Popular Telugu, especially in urban Hyderabad, spoken by the masses and seen in movies that are directed towards the masses, includes both English and Hindi/Urdu influences.Lately,this heavy amalgamation of non-native languages with spoken telugu has raised concerns. Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Writing system

The name Telugu written in the Telugu script
The name Telugu written in the Telugu script
Main article: Telugu script

The earliest evidence for Brahmi script in South India comes from Bhattiprolu in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh [13]. Bhattiprolu was a great centre of Buddhism since 4th century BCE (Pre-Mauryan time) from where Buddhism spread to east Asia. A variant of Asokan Brahmi script, the progenitor of Old Telugu script, was found on the Buddha’s relic casket.[14] The famous Muslim historian and scholar of 10th century, Al-Biruni called Telugu language and script as 'Andhri'.[15] Image File history File links Telugu. ... Image File history File links Telugu. ... Telugu script, an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write Telugu, a Dravidian Language found in the Southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh as well as several other neighboring states. ... Bhattiprolu is a small village in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh State in Southern India. ... This article is about a city in India. ... Andhra redirects here. ... Bhattiprolu is a small village in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh State in Southern India. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ...


Telugu script is written from left to right and consists of sequences of simple and/or complex characters. The script is syllabic in nature - the basic units of writing are syllables. Since the number of possible syllables is very large, syllables are composed of more basic units such as vowels (“achchu” or “swar”) and consonants (“hallu” or “vyanjan”). Consonants in consonant clusters take shapes which are very different from the shapes they take elsewhere. Consonants are presumed to be pure consonants, that is, without any vowel sound in them. However, it is traditional to write and read consonants with an implied 'a' vowel sound. When consonants combine with other vowel signs, the vowel part is indicated orthographically using signs known as vowel “maatras”. The shapes of vowel “maatras” are also very different from the shapes of the corresponding vowels.


The overall pattern consists of sixty symbols, of which 16 are vowels, three vowel modifiers, and forty-one consonants. Spaces are used between words as word separators.


The sentence ends with either a single bar | (“purna virama”) or a double bar || (“deergha virama”). Traditionally, in handwriting, Telugu words were not separated by spaces. Modern punctuation (commas, semicolon, etc.) were introduced with the advent of print.[16]


There is a set of symbols for numerals, though Arabic numbers are typically used. India has produced many numeral systems. ...


Telugu is assigned Unicode codepoints: 0C00-0C7F (3072-3199). The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


Vocabulary examples

Telugu IPA English
ఒకటి okati one
జింక Jinka deer
చింతపండు chintapandu Tamarind
అమ్మ amma mother
ఊయల uyala cradle
ఇల్లు Illu house
మందారం Mandaram Hibiscus
వెన్నెల Vennela moonlight
బ్రహ్మాండం Bramhandam excellent/universe

Carnatic music

Though Carnatic music has a profound cultural influence on all of the South Indian States and their respective languages, most of the songs (Kirtanas) are in Telugu language. This is because the existing tradition is to a great extent an outgrowth of the musical life of the principality of Thanjavur in the Kaveri delta. Thanjavur was the heart of the Chola dynasty (from the 9th century to the 13th), but in the second quarter of the sixteenth century a Telugu Nayak viceroy (Raghunatha Nayaka) was appointed by the emperor of Vijayanagar, thus establishing a court whose language was Telugu. Telugu Nayak rulers acted as the governors in the present day Tamil Nadu area with headquarters at Thanjavur (1530-1674 CE) and Madurai(1530-1781 CE). After the collapse of Vijayanagar, Thanjavur and Madurai Nayaks became independent and ruled for the next 150 years until they were replaced by Marathas. This was the period when several Telugu families migrated from Andhra and settled down in Thanjavur and Madurai. Most of the great composers of Carnatic music belonged to these families. Telugu, a language ending with vowels, giving it a mellifluous quality, was also considered suitable for musical expression. Of the trinity of Carnatic music composers, Tyagaraja's and Syama Sastri's compositions were largely in Telugu, while Muttuswami Dikshitar is noted for his Sanskrit texts. Tyagaraja is remembered both for his devotion and the bhava of his krithi, a song form consisting of pallavi, (the first section of a song) anupallavi (a rhyming section that follows the pallavi) and charanam (a sung stanza; serves as a refrain for several passages the composition). The texts of his kritis are all, with a few exceptions in Sanskrit, in Telugu (the contemporary language of the court), and this use of a living language, as opposed to Sanskrit, the language of ritual, is in keeping with the bhakti ideal of the immediacy of devotion. Sri Syama Sastri, the oldest of the trinity, was taught Telugu and Sanskrit by his father, who was the pujari (Hindu priest) at the Meenakshi temple in Madurai. Syama Sastri's texts were largely composed in Telugu, widening their popular appeal. Some of his most famous compositions include the nine krithis, Navaratnamaalikā, in praise of the goddess Meenakshi at Madurai, and his eighteen krithi in praise of Kamakshi. As well as composing krithi, he is credited with turning the svarajati, originally used for dance, into a purely musical form. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... , Tanjore redirects here. ... The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ... , Tanjore redirects here. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A Nayak (also Nayaka, Nayaker/Naicker (Tamil) or Nayadu/Naidu (Telegu) or Nair (Malayalam) Nayake/Naike (Sinhala) or Naik (Marathi) ) is the title of a government official, equivalent to a provincial governor or viceroy, in the Telugu kingdoms of southern India, including the Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal (11th-14th centuries... Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagar empire in the Southern part of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Tanjore redirects here. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a city population of 922,913 according to 2001 census. ... Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagar empire in the Southern part of India. ... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధర దేశం), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... Syama sastri, who is said to be one of the trimurthi in carnatic music, was born at Thiruvarur on Apr 26, 1762. ... Sri Tyagaraja (శ్రీ త్యాగరాజ) (17??-1848), an ardent devotee of Sri Ramachandra, was one of the most important composers of Carnatic music. ...


Literature

Main article: Telugu literature

Telugu literature is generally divided into six periods: Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Telugu literature is the literature of the Telugu people, an ethnic group based in southern India. ...

pre-1020 CE pre-Nannayya period
1020-1400 Age of the Puranas
1400-1510 Age of Srinatha
1510-1600 Age of the Prabandhas
1600-1820 Southern period
1820 to date   Modern period

In the earliest period there were only inscriptions from 575 CE onwards. Nannaya's (1022-1063) translation of the Sanskrit Mahabharata into Telugu is the piece of Telugu literature as yet discovered. After the death of Nannaya, there was a kind of social and religious revolution in the Telugu country. Kavitrayam is a Telugu expression for trinity of poets. ... Purana (Sanskrit: ), meaning belonging to ancient or olden times, is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Srinatha was a 15th century Telugu poet. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


Tikkana (thirteenth century) and Yerrana (fourteenth century) continued the translation of the Mahabharata started by Nannaya. Telugu poetry also flourished in this period, especially in the time of Srinatha.


During this period, some Telugu poets translated Sanskrit poems and dramas, while others attempted original narrative poems. The popular Telugu literary form called the Prabandha evolved during this period. Srinatha (1365-1441) was the foremost poet, who popularised this style of composition (a story in verse having a tight metrical scheme). Srinatha's "Sringara Naishadham" is particularly well-known.


The Ramayana poets may also be referred in this context. The earliest Ramayana in Telugu is generally known as the Ranganatha Ramayana, authored by the chief Gonabudda Reddy. The works of Potana (1450-1510), Jakkana (second half of the fourteenth century) and Gaurana (first half of the fifteenth century) formed a canon of religious poetry during this period. Padakavitha Pithamaha, Annamayya, contributed many Accha (original) Telugu Padalu to this great language. For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Gonabudda Reddy (13th century CE) was a poet living in southern India. ...


The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries CE is regarded as the "golden age" of Telugu literature. Krishnadevaraya's Amuktamalayada, and Peddana's Manucharitra are regarded as Mahakavyas. Telugu literature flourished in the south in the traditional "samsthanas" (centres) of Southern literature, such as Madurai and Tanjore. This age is often referred to as the "Southern Period". There were also an increasing number of poets in this period among the ruling class, women and non-Brahmins who popularised indigenous (desi) meters. Krishnadevaraya Recently excavated Vishnu temple, Hampi Krishnadevaraya (Kannada: ಶ್ರೀ ಕೃಷ್ಣದೇವರಾಯ, Telugu:శ్రీకృష్ణదేవరాయ;) (1509-1529 CE) was the most famous king of Vijayanagara empire. ... Kavya is a popular first name for an Indian girl. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a city population of 922,913 according to 2001 census. ... Thanjavur, also known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... This article is about the South Asian people. ... In literature, meter or metre (sometimes known as prosody) is a term used in the scansion (analysis into metrical patterns) of poetry, usually indicated by the kind of feet and the number of them. ...


With the conquest of the Deccan by the Mughals in 1687, Telugu literature entered a lull. Tyagaraja's compositions are some of the known works from this period. Then emerged a period of transition (1850-1910), followed by a long period of Renaissance. Europeans like C.P. Brown played an important role in the development of Telugu language and literature. In common with the rest of India, Telugu literature of this period was increasingly influenced by European literary forms like the novel, short story, prose and drama. The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Sri Tyagaraja (శ్రీ త్యాగరాజ) (17??-1848), an ardent devotee of Sri Ramachandra, was one of the most important composers of Carnatic music. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ...


Paravastu Chinnayya Soori (1807-1861) is a well-known Telugu writer dedicated his entire life to the progress and promotion of Telugu language and literature.Sri Chinnayasoori wrote the Baala Vyaakaranamu in a new style after doing extensive research on "Andhra Grammar" which is the greatest gift to Telugu literature.Other well-known writings by Chinnayasoori are: (1) Neetichandrika (2) Sootandhra Vyaakaranamu (3) Andhra Dhatumoola and (4) Neeti Sangrahamu.


Kandukuri Viresalingam Pantulu (1848-1919) is known as the father of modern Telugu literature. His novel, Rajasekhara Charitamu was inspired by the Vicar of Wakefield. His work marked the beginning of a dynamic of socially conscious Telugu literature and its transition to the modern period, which is also part of the wider literary renaissance that took place in Indian culture during this period. Other prominent literary figures from this period are Rayaprolu Subba Rao, Gurazada Appa Rao, Viswanatha Satyanarayana, Katuri Venkateswara Rao, Jashuva, Devulapalli Venkata Krishna Sastry, and Sri Sri Puttaparty Narayana Charyulu. Choosing the Wedding Gown by William Mulready, an illustration of Ch. ...


Viswanatha Satyanarayana won India's national literary honour, the Jnanpith Award. Kanyasulkam (Bride-Money), the first social play in Telugu by Gurazada Appa Rao, was followed by the progressive movement, the free verse movement and the Digambara style of Telugu verse. Other modern Telugu novelists include Unnava Lakshminarayana ("Malapalli"), Viswanatha Satyanarayana ("Veyi Padagalu"), Kutumba Rao and Buchchi Babu.[4] The Jnanpith Award (ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार) is the highest literary honour conferred in the Republic of India. ...

Jnanpith award winners for Telugu
  • 1970 Viswanatha Satyanarayana
  • 1988 Dr. C. Narayana Reddy

See also

Look up Telugu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary
Telugu language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
Wikipedia
Telugu language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Telugu Wikipedia was started on December 9, 2003. ... Telugu literature is the literature of the Telugu people, an ethnic group based in southern India. ... Telugu Cinema refers to the Telugu film industry. ... ETV- Entertainment channel www. ... Indian languages redirects here. ... India has a diverse list of spoken languages among different groups of people. ... Indian languages spoken by more than ten million people are given below. ... Andhra redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ Dravidian Language Family. National Virtual Translation Center (2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  2. ^ Image of Indian languages and total speakers. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  3. ^ The Hindu : Andhra Pradesh News : Telugu is 2,400 years old, says ASI
  4. ^ a b c d e f g APonline - History and Culture-Languages
  5. ^ APonline - History and Culture - History-Post-Independence Era
  6. ^ 1.9 million speakers as of 2001. Waddar. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
  7. ^ 29,000 speakers as of 1981. Chenchu. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
  8. ^ 20,000 speakers as of 2000. Savara. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
  9. ^ 19,000 speakers as of 1981. Manna-Dora. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
  10. ^ Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
  11. ^ Telugu. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
  12. ^ Book "Telugulo Chandovisheshaalu", Page 127.
  13. ^ Ananda Buddha Vihara
  14. ^ The Hindu : Andhra Pradesh / Hyderabad News : Epigraphist extraordinaire
  15. ^ Ancient India: English translation of Kitab-ul Hind by Al-Biruni, National Book Trust, New Delhi
  16. ^ Brown, Charles Philip (1857). A Grammar of the Telugu Language. London: W. H. Allen & Co., p. 5. ISBN 812060041X. 

The National Virtual Translation Center (NVTC) is a United States government organization that provides timely and accurate translations of foreign intelligence for all elements of the Intelligence Community. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Telugu language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Look up telugu in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Telugu alphabet, pronunciation and language (246 words)
The Telugu alphabet is an descendant of the Brahmi script of ancient India.
The earliest known inscriptions in the Telugu language date from the 6th century AD and Telugu poetry started to appear during the 11th century.
Ahom, Balinese, Batak, Bengali, Brahmi, Buhid, Burmese, Cham, Dehong Dai/Tai Le, Devanagari, Ethiopic, Grantha, Gujarati, Gurmukhi (Punjabi), Hanuno'o, Hmong, Javanese, Kannada, Kharosthi, Khmer, Lanna, Lao, Lepcha, Limbu, Lontara/Makasar, Malayalam, Manpuri, Modi, Oriya, Phags-pa, Ranjana, Redjang, Sharda, Siddham, Sinhala, Sorang Sompeng, Sourashtra, Soyombo, Syloti Nagri, Tagalog, Tagbanwa, Tai Dam, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Tibetan, Tocharian, Varang Kshiti
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