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Encyclopedia > Tellurium
52 antimonytelluriumiodine
Se

Te

Po
General
Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52
Chemical series metalloids
Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p
Appearance silvery lustrous gray
Standard atomic weight 127.60(3) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 6
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 6.24 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 5.70 g·cm−3
Melting point 722.66 K
(449.51 °C, 841.12 °F)
Boiling point 1261 K
(988 °C, 1810 °F)
Heat of fusion 17.49 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 114.1 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 25.73 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K)     (775) (888) 1042 1266
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states ±2, 4, 6
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.1 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 869.3 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1790 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2698 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 140 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 123 pm
Covalent radius 135 pm
Van der Waals radius 206 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K)
(1.97–3.38) W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 2610 m/s
Young's modulus 43 GPa
Shear modulus 16 GPa
Bulk modulus 65 GPa
Mohs hardness 2.25
Brinell hardness 180 MPa
CAS registry number 13494-80-9
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of tellurium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
120Te 0.09% >2.2×1016y ε ε 1.701 120Sn
121Te syn 16.78 d ε 1.040 121Sb
122Te 2.55% Te is stable with 70 neutrons
123Te 0.89% >1.0×1013 y ε 0.051 123Sb
124Te 4.74% Te is stable with 72 neutrons
125Te 7.07% Te is stable with 73 neutrons
126Te 18.84% Te is stable with 74 neutrons
127Te syn 9.35 h β- 0.698 127I
128Te 31.74% 2.2×1024 y ββ 0.867 128Xe
129Te syn 69.6 min β- 1.498 129I
130Te 34.08% 7.9×1020 y ββ 2.528 130Xe
References

Tellurium (IPA: /tiˈlʊəriəm, tɛ-/) is a chemical element that has the symbol Te and atomic number 52. A brittle silver-white metalloid which looks like tin, tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. Tellurium is primarily used in alloys and as a semiconductor. General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Atomic mass 121. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... Se redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Tellurium User:Femto/elements e5 Categories: Images with unknown source ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and nonmetals, the metalloids (in Greek metallon = metal and eidos = sort) form one of the three categories of chemical elements as classified by ionization and bonding properties. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The chalcogens are the name for the periodic table group 16 (old-style: VIB or VIA) in the periodic table. ... A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Tellurium sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (eg, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number krypton, Kr, 36 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 4, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 83. ... e- redirects here. ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... Room temperature describes a certain temperature within enclosed space that is uses for various purposes by human beings. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It is used in the inorganic nomenclature of... Acidity redirects here. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Covalent radius in chemistry corresponds to half of the distance between two identical atomic nuclei, bound by a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with magnet. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... The speed of sound is a term used to describe the speed of sound waves passing through an elastic medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus S, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain: S = shear stress/shear strain = (F/A)/Φ. Another commonly accepted symbol is G. Shear modulus is usually measured in ksi (kips per square... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Tellurium (Te) Standard atomic mass: 127. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV, or, rarely and incorrectly, ev) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Double electron capture is a decay mode of atomic nucleus. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Atomic mass 121. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Atomic mass 121. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... In the process of beta decay unstable nuclei decay by converting a neutron in the nucleus to a proton and emitting an electron and anti-neutrino. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... In the process of beta decay unstable nuclei decay by converting a neutron in the nucleus to a proton and emitting an electron and anti-neutrino. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element for short, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... It has been suggested that List of elements by atomic number be merged into this article or section. ... Together with the metals and nonmetals, the metalloids (in Greek metallon = metal and eidos = sort) form one of the three categories of chemical elements as classified by ionization and bonding properties. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... Se redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Tellurium is a relatively rare element, in the same chemical family as oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and polonium (the chalcogens). General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Se redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... The chalcogens (with the ch pronounced with a hard c as in chemistry) are the name for the periodic table group 16 (old-style: VIB or VIA) in the periodic table. ...


When crystalline, tellurium is silvery-white and when it is in its pure state it has a metallic luster. This is a brittle and easily pulverized metalloid. Amorphous tellurium is found by precipitating it from a solution of tellurous or telluric acid (Te(OH)6). However, there is some debate whether this form is really amorphous or made of minute crystals. Quartz crystal Synthetic bismuth crystal Insulin crystals Gallium, a metal that easily forms large single crystals A huge monocrystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate grown from solution by Saint-Gobain for the megajoule laser of CEA. In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules... Acidity redirects here. ...


Tellurium is a p-type semiconductor that shows a greater conductivity in certain directions which depends on atomic alignment. Chemically related to selenium and sulfur, the conductivity of this element increases slightly when exposed to light. A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... Se redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ...


It can be doped with copper, gold, silver, tin, or other metals. When in its molten state, tellurium is corrosive to copper, iron, and stainless steel. General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304L) Gateway Arch defines St. ...


Tellurium gives a greenish-blue flame when burned in normal air and forms tellurium dioxide as a result. Tellurium dioxide (TeO2 or paratellurite) is a solid oxide of tellurium. ...


Applications

Metal alloys

  • It is mostly used in alloys with other metals. It is added to lead to improve its strength and durability, and to decrease the corrosive action of sulfuric acid.
  • When added to stainless steel and copper it makes these metals more workable. It is alloyed into cast iron for chill control.

Other uses: An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Sulfuric acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304L) Gateway Arch defines St. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ...

High purity metalorganics of both selenium and tellurium are reported to be obtained by using innovative chemical purification strategy, also called adduct purification. These high purities are often required for semiconductor industry uses. [1][2] Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... A Chalcogenide glass is a glass containing a chalcogenide element (sulphur, selenium or tellurium) as a substantial constituent. ... Class B blasting caps A blasting cap is a small explosive device generally used to detonate a larger, more powerful explosive such as dynamite. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Metalorganics are also known as Organometallics or Metallo-Organics or Organo-Inorganics, and are used extensively in Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) of compound semiconductors and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) in silicon-based semiconductors. ... Se redirects here. ...


Semiconductor industry uses:

  • Tellurium has potential applications in cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar panels. Some of the highest efficiencies for solar cell electric power generation have been obtained by using this material, but this application has not yet caused demand to increase significantly. If some of the cadmium in CdTe is replaced by zinc then CdZnTe is formed which is used in solid-state x-ray detectors.

Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is a compound of bismuth and tellurium. ... Thermoelectricity is the conversion from heat differentials to electricity or vice versa. ... Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium with a zinc blende (cubic) crystal structure (space group F43m). ... A laundromat in California with flat-plate solar water heating collectors on its roof. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Cadmium zinc telluride, (CdZnTe) or CZT, is (as the name indicates) a compound of cadmium, zinc and tellurium or more strictly speaking, an alloy of cadmium telluride and zinc telluride. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... HgCdTe or Mercury cadmium telluride (also Cadmium Mercury Telluride or CMT) is an alloy of CdTe and HgTe and is sometimes claimed to be the third semiconductor of technological importance after Si and GaAs. ... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... Dimethyltelluride is an organotelluride compound, formula (CH3)2Te, also known by the abbreviation DMTe. ... Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is a chemical vapour deposition method of epitaxial growth of materials, especially semiconductors from the pyrolysis of organic compounds containing the required chemical elements. ... A Compound semiconductor is composed of elements from two or more different groups of the chemical periodic table, e. ... Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is a chemical vapour deposition method of epitaxial growth of materials, especially semiconductors from the pyrolysis of organic compounds containing the required chemical elements. ...

History

Tellurium (Latin tellus meaning "earth") was discovered in 1782 by the Hungarian Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein (Müller Ferenc) in Nagyszeben (now, Sibiu) Transylvania. In 1789, another Hungarian scientist, Pál Kitaibel, also discovered the element independently, but later he gave the credit to Müller. In 1798, it was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth who earlier isolated it. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Baron Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein discovered Tellurium in 1782. ... County Sibiu County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121 km² Population (2002) 171,535 Density 1,417 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (December 1, 1743 – January 1, 1817) was a German chemist. ...


Tellurium was used as a chemical bonder in the making of the outer shell of the first atom bomb. The 1960s brought growth in thermoelectric applications for tellurium, as well as its use in free-machining steel, which became the dominant use. The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ...


Occurrence

With an abundance in the Earth's crust similar to platinum, tellurium is, apart from the precious metals, the rarest stable solid element in the earth's crust. Its abundance by mass is less than 0.001 ppm. By comparison, even the rarest of the lanthanides have crustal abundances of 0.5 ppm, tin and caesium have abundances of 2 ppm, and barium of 400 ppm. Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... A gold nugget A precious metal is a rare metallic chemical element of high economic value. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... The lanthanide series comprises the 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 57 through 71. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Atomic mass 132. ... General Name, Symbol, Number barium2, Ba, 56 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 6, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 137. ...


The extreme rarity of tellurium in the Earth's crust is not a reflection of its cosmic abundance, which is in fact greater than that of rubidium[1], even though rubidium is ten thousand times more abundant in the Earth's crust. Rather, the extraordinarily low abundance of tellurium on Earth results from the fact that, during the formation of the Earth, the stable form of elements in the absence of oxygen and water was controlled by the oxidation and reduction of hydrogen. Under this scenario elements such as tellurium which form volatile hydrides were severely depleted during the formation of the Earth's crust through evaporation. Tellurium and selenium are the heavy elements most depleted in the Earth's crust by this process. General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Atomic mass 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ...


Tellurium is sometimes found in its native (elemental) form, but is more often found as the tellurides of gold (calaverite, krennerite, petzite, sylvanite, and others). Tellurium compounds are the only chemical compounds of gold found in nature, but tellurium itself (unlike gold) is also found combined with other elements (in metallic salts). The principal source of tellurium is from anode sludges produced during the electrolytic refining of blister copper. It is a component of dusts from blast furnace refining of lead. Tellurium is produced mainly in the US, Canada, Peru, and Japan. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Calaverite or Gold telluride is an uncommon telluride of gold; it is a metallic mineral. ... Krennerite is an orthorhombic gold telluride mineral which can contain a relatively small amount of silver in the structure. ... The mineral petzite, Ag3AuTe2, is a soft, steel-gray mineral generally deposited by hydrothermal activity. ... Sylvanite or Silver gold telluride, (Ag,Au)Te2, is the most common telluride of gold. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ...


Commercial-grade tellurium is usually marketed as minus 200-mesh powder but is also available as slabs, ingots, sticks, or lumps. The year-end price for tellurium in 2000 was US$ 14 per pound. Sieving or screening is a method of categorizing a powder’s particle size by running the powder through a specific sized screen. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Maldives the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...

See also: Telluride, Colorado, category:Telluride minerals
Tellurium crystal
Tellurium crystal

For other meanings, see Telluride (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1275x846, 384 KB) Summary Ultra pure tellurium crystal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1275x846, 384 KB) Summary Ultra pure tellurium crystal. ...

Compounds

Tellurium is in the same series as sulfur and selenium and forms similar compounds. A compound with metal or hydrogen and similar ions is called a telluride. Gold and silver tellurides are considered good ores. Compounds with tellurate ions complexes TeO42- or TeO66- are known as tellurates. Also tellurites TeO32-. Also tellurols –TeH, named with prefix tellanyl- or suffix -tellurol. General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Se redirects here. ... Telluride is either: A compound of a metal with the element Tellurium. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... The tellurate ion is TeO42- or TeO66-. Unlike sulfate, tellurate is a somewhat good oxidizer; it can be reduced to tellurite or tellurium. ... Tellurite is a mineral, TeO2. ...

See also: Category:Tellurium compounds

Isotopes

There are 30 known isotopes of tellurium with atomic masses that range from 108 to 137. Naturally found tellurium consists of eight isotopes (listed in the table to the right); three of them are observed to be radioactive. 128Te has the longest known half-life, 2.2×1024 years, among all radioactive isotopes. Tellurium is the first element which can undergo Alpha Decay, with isotopes 106Te to 110Te being able to undergo this mode of decay. Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle through electromagnetic force and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ...


Precautions

Tellurium and tellurium compounds should be considered to be mildly toxic and need to be handled with care. Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Acute poisoning is rare.[3] Tellurium is not reported to be carcinogenic.[3]


Humans exposed to as little as 0.01 mg/m3 or less in air develop "tellurium breath", which has a garlic-like odor.[4] The garlic odor that is associated with human intake of tellurium compounds is caused from the tellurium being metabolized by the body. When the body metabolizes tellurium in any oxidation state, the tellurium gets converted into dimethyl telluride. Dimethyl telluride is volatile and produces the garlic-like smell. Binomial name Allium sativum L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Dimethyltelluride is an organotelluride compound, formula (CH3)2Te, also known by the abbreviation DMTe. ...


References

  1. ^ DOI:10.1016/0022-0248(88)90613-6 Journal of Crystal Growth Volume 93, Issues 1-4 , 1988, Pages 744-749
  2. ^ U.S. Patent 5,117,021  Method for purification of tellurium and selenium alkyls
  3. ^ a b Harrison, W; S Bradberry, J Vale (1998-01-28). Tellurium (HTML). International Programme on Chemical Safety. Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  4. ^ Tellurium (HTML). Los Alamos National Laboratory (2003-12-15). Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
Look up tellurium in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) is a collaboration between three United Nations bodies—the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (from wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Tellurium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (692 words)
Tellurium is a relatively rare element, in the same chemical family as oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and polonium (the chalcogens).
Tellurium is sometimes found in its native form, but is more often found as the telluride of gold (calaverite), and combined with other metals.
Tellurium and tellurium compounds should be considered to be toxic and need to be handled with care.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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