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Encyclopedia > Television syndication

In the television industry (as in radio), syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast programs to multiple stations, without going through a broadcast network. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A television station is a type of broadcast station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. ... A broadcast network is an organization, such as a corporation or other association, that provides live or recorded content, such as movies, newscasts, sports, and public affairs programs for broadcast over a television station. ...

Contents


Types of syndication

First-run syndication refers to programming that is broadcast for the first time as a syndicated show, or at least first so offered in a given country (foreign programs, first presented on a network in their country of origin, have often been syndicated in the U.S. and in some other countries). Off-network syndication involves the sale of a program that was originally run on network television: a rerun. Public-broadcasting syndication has arisen in the U.S. as a parallel service to stations in the PBS network and the handful of independent public stations. A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... Rerun van Pelt is the name of Linus and Lucys younger brother in the comic strip Peanuts. ... The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States. ...


When syndicating a show, the production company, or a distribution company or "syndicator," usually attempts to sell the show to one station in each television "market," or area, in the country and around the world. If successful, this can be lucrative; but the syndicator may only be able to sell the show in a fraction of the markets.


Syndication differs from selling the show to a television network; once a network picks up a show, it is usually guaranteed to run on all the network's affiliates, on the same day of the week and at the same time (in a given timezone, in countries where this is a concern). Many production companies create their shows and sell them to networks at a loss, at least at first, hoping that the series will succeed and that eventual off-network syndication will turn a profit for the show. A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ...


While market penetration can vary widely and revenues can be unreliable, the producers often enjoy more content-freedom in the absence of network standards and practice officials; frequently, some innovative ideas are explored by first-run syndicated programming, which the networks are leery of giving airtime to; the early-1990s music program Sunday Night, later Night Music, for example, which offered intentionally-odd mixes of critically-favored musicians, such as (in one episode), Al Green, The Pixies, and the Sun Ra Arkestra. Meanwhile, top-rated syndicated shows usually have a market reach of 98%. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, the last decade of the 20th Century. ... For the Democratic Congressman from Texas and the former head of the Houston NAACP, please see Al Green. ... This article is about the band named Pixies. ... Cover of the album The Heliocentric Worlds of Sun Ra, Volume One Sun Ra (May 22, 1914–May 30, 1993) was an innovative jazz composer, bandleader, piano and synthesizer player, who came to be known as much for his cosmic philosophy as for his phenomenal musical compositions and performances. ...


Syndication can take the form of either weekly or daily syndication. The game shows, some "tabloid" and entertainment news shows, and stripped talk shows are broadcast daily or weekdaily, while most other first-run syndicated shows are broadcast weekly.


Strip/Daily Syndication

Off-network syndication can take several forms. The most common form is known as strip syndication or daily syndication, when episodes of a television series are shown daily five times a week. Typically, this means that enough episodes must exist to allow for continual strip syndication to take place over the course of several months, without episodes being shown again. If a small number of episodes exist, the entire run of the series can be shown in a matter of weeks. Stripping is an industry term used to refer to the practice of running a syndicated television series every day of the week. ...


For example, the sitcom The Honeymooners ran in syndication for decades despite having produced only 39 episodes during its original one-season run (19551956). When shown in strip syndication, the entire series run could have been broadcast in seven weeks and four days. (Beginning in 1985, Jackie Gleason released additional episodes consisting of Honeymooners sketches which had originally aired as part of The Jackie Gleason Show and eventually became part of the Honeymooners syndication package.) Seinfeld had 180 episodes and thus could be aired in strip syndication for 36 weeks without repeating an episode, if one episode was shown daily. Cover of a book about the Honeymooners. ... 1955 (MCMLV in Roman) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Jackie Gleason and Audrey Meadows in a staged publicity shot for The Honeymooners. ... The Jackie Gleason Show was a popular television variety show that starred Jackie Gleason and ran in a variety of incarnations, from 1952 to 1970. ... Seinfeld was a television sitcom which ran from July 5, 1989, to May 14, 1998. ...


In some cases, more than one episode is shown daily. Half-hour sitcoms are sometimes syndicated in groups of two or four episodes, taking up one or two hours of broadcast time.


Weekly Syndication

If a series is not strip syndicated, it may be aired once a week, instead of five times a week. This allows shows with fewer episodes to last long in syndication, but it also may mean viewers will tire of waiting a week for the next episode of a show they have already seen and stop watching. More often, hourlong dramas in their first several runs in syndication are offered weekly; sitcoms are more likely to get stripped. In recent years there has been something of a trend toward showing two consecutive episodes of a program on Saturday and Sunday nights after prime time (generally following the local news). This pattern has been particularly prominent for shows which are still in production but have run long enough to have many episodes; both ER and The West Wing are currently being shown in this manner, as The X-Files was during and immediately after its network run. A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... Prime time is the block of programming on television during the middle of the evening. ... ER is a long-running serial drama created by novelist Michael Crichton and set primarily in the emergency room of a fictitious teaching hospital in Chicago, Illinois. ... The West Wing is a popular and widely acclaimed American television serial drama created by Aaron Sorkin and produced and co-written by John Wells. ... The X-Files is a popular American television series created by Chris Carter. ...


Barter vs. Cash

In syndication, the program is sold to stations for "cash" (rights are purchased by the stations to insert some or all of the ads at their level), given to stations for access to airtime (wherein the syndicators get the ad revenue), or the combination of both. The trade of program for airtime is called "barter."


First-run syndication

As with radio in the U.S., television networks in their early years particularly didn't offer full-days-worth of programming for their affiliates, even in the evening or "prime time" hours; and, from the beginning, there were some stations which were not affiliated with any network, and all sought to supplement their locally produced programming and whatever network feeds there were with items which could be flexibly scheduled. The development of videotape and, much later, enhanced satellite downlink access furthered these aims. Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording television pictures and accompanying sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which is known as its primary). ...


The 1950s and 1960s

Ziv Television Programs, Inc., after establishing itself as a major radio syndicator, was the first major first-run television syndicator, creating several long-lived series in the 1950s and selling them directly to regional sponsors, who in turn sold the shows to local stations. Among the most famous and widely watched Ziv offerings were Sea Hunt and Highway Patrol. Some first-run syndicated series were picked up by networks in the 1950s and early '60s, notably Superman and Mr. Ed. The networks started syndicating their reruns in the late 1950s, and first-run syndication shrank sharply, for a decade (CBS's first syndication arm, Viacom, would eventually be split off from the company and eventually come back to purchase CBS, having already purchased Paramount Studios and its interests, and created UPN). Some stalwart series continued, notably Death Valley Days; other ambitious projects were also to flourish, however briefly, such as The Play of the Week (1959–1961), produced by David Susskind (of the syndicated talk show Open End and also producer of such network fare as NYPD). Ziv Television Programs, Inc. ... // Events and trends This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. ... Sea Hunt was an American television adventure series from pioneering syndicator Ziv TV that ran from 1958 to 1961 and was popular in repeats for decades afterward. ... The term highway patrol can refer either to a police agency created primarily for the purpose of overseeing traffic safety compliance on a politys roads and highways, such as the California Highway Patrol, or to a detail within an existing local or regional police that primarily concerns its activity... // Events and trends This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. ... Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... Superman, aka Man of Steel, is a fictional character and superhero who first appeared in Action Comics #1 in 1938, and for several decades has been one of the most popular and well-known comic book icons of all-time. ... Mister Ed was a popular US television comedy show that aired on CBS from 1961-1966. ... For other uses, see CBS (disambiguation). ... Viacom is a high-growth media conglomerate with various worldwide interests in cable / satellite television networks (MTV Networks and BET), video gaming (Sega of America), and movie production and distribution (the Paramount Pictures movie studio and DreamWorks). ... The Paramount Pictures logo used from 1988 to 1989. ... UPN (which originally stood for the United Paramount Network) is a television network in the United States, owned by CBS Corporation, which also owns the more widespread CBS network. ... Death Valley Days was a long-running American radio and television anthology about true stories of the old American West, particularly the Death Valley area. ...


However, FCC rulings in the late 1960s curtailed the U.S. networks' ability to schedule programming in what has become known as the "early fringe," notably the 7-8pm (ET/PT) hour of "prime time," with the stated hope that this might encourage more local programming of social and cultural relevance to communities (off-network syndie repeats were also banned); some projects of this sort came to fruition, though usually relatively commercial and slick ones such as the Group W Evening Magazine/PM Magazine franchise, and such pre-existing national projects as the brief commercial-television run of William F. Buckley, Jr.'s interview/debate series Firing Line. The more obvious result was a rash of Canadian-produced syndicated dramatic series, such as the Gilligan's Island knock-off Dusty's Trail and the Colgate-sponsored Dr. Simon Locke; game shows, often evening editions of network afternoon series, flourished, and a few odd items such as Wild Kingdom, cancelled by NBC in 1971, had a continuing life as syndicated programming tailor-made for the early fringe. The FCCs official seal. ... Group W was a subdivision of Westinghouse Electric Corporation. ... William F. Buckley William Frank Buckley Jr. ... Firing Line (1966-1999) was a public affairs show founded and hosted by conservative William F. Buckley, Jr. ... Mutual of Omahas Wild Kingdom, or simply Wild Kingdom was an American television show that featured wildlife and nature. ... The National Broadcasting Company or NBC is an American television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ...


The 1970s

Into the 1970s, first-run syndication continued to be an odd mix: cheaply produced, but not always poor-quality, "filler" programming, such as the dance-music show Soul Train, several sports history series, and 20th Century Fox's That's Hollywood, a television variation on the popular That's Entertainment! theatrically released collections of film clips from the MGM library; imports such as the impressive documentary series Wild, Wild World of Animals (repackaged by Time Life with narration by William Conrad) and Thames Television's sober and necessarily grim The World at War; and a few ambitious, if not necessarily well executed, dramatic series, including the science fiction series The Starlost (1973; Canadian, though apparently corrupted from the vision and advice of U.S. SF writers Harlan Ellison and Ben Bova) and Space: 1999 (1975), from the UK team, the Andersons, previously best-known for their "Marionation" (puppet/animation) series. The most successful syndicated show in the US in the 1970s was probably the UK-based The Muppet Show. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Soul Train is a long-running American music-related syndicated television program. ... 20th Century Fox logo Fox Plaza, the company headquarters. ... 2004 DVD release Thats Entertainment! is a 1974 documentary film released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to celebrate its 50th anniversary. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Conrad in Cannon William Conrad (September 27, 1920 – February 11, 1994), born William Cann, was an American actor and narrator in radio, film and television noted for his gifted use of a marvelous baritone voice, as well as for his sizable girth. ... The classic Thames Television logo (1969 - 1989), featuring a geographically incorrect montage of London landmarks. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The Starlost was a Canadian-produced science fiction television series devised by writer Harlan Ellison and broadcast in 1973 on CTV in Canada and on NBC in the United States. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Harlan Jay Ellison (May 27, 1934, Cleveland, Ohio) is a prolific American writer of short stories, novellas, essays and criticism. ... Benjamin William Bova (born November 8, 1932) is an American science fiction author and editor. ... Left to right: Barbara Bain, Catherine Schell and Martin Landau from Space:1999s second season. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... The Muppet Show is a television program featuring a cast of Muppets (diverse hand operated puppets, typically with huge eyes and large moving mouths) produced by Jim Henson and his team from 1976 to 1981. ...


Game shows thrived in syndication in the decade. Five-day-a-week versions of What's My Line? and To Tell the Truth premiered in the late '60s and found loyal audiences until 1975 and 1978, respectively. Several daytime network games began producing once-a-week nighttime versions for the early-evening hours, usually with bigger prizes and often featuring different hosts (emcees were limited to appearing on one network and one syndicated game simultaneously) and modified titles (Match Game PM or The $25,000 Pyramid, for example). Of these shows, Let's Make a Deal and The Hollywood Squares were the first to jump to twice-a-week syndicated versions around 1973. The nighttime version of Family Feud (1977) quickly jumped from once-weekly to twice, and finally to five-days-a-week, and its massive popularity, along with that of new five-a-day entries like Jack Barry's The Joker's Wild (1977) and Tic Tac Dough (1978) and Chuck Barris's increasingly-raunchy remakes of his '60s hits The Dating Game and The Newlywed Game, brought an end (with rare exceptions) to the era of once-a-week games. A game show is a radio or television program involving members of the public or celebrities, sometimes as part of a team, playing a game, perhaps involving answering quiz questions, for points or prizes. ... Whats My Line? was a weekly panel game show originally produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman for CBS television. ... To Tell the Truth is a classic American television game show that has been seen in various forms on and off since 1956. ... Match Game was an American television game show where contestants tried to match a panel of six celebrities in answering fill-in-the-blank questions. ... Pyramid is a durable American television game show where contestants tried to guess a series of words or phrases, based on descriptions that were given to them, in the shortest amount of time. ... Lets Make a Deal is a television game show aired in the United States. ... Hollywood Squares is a American television comedy and game show in which two contestants play tic-tac-toe to win money and prizes. ... Family Feud is a popular television game show in the USA and Australia that pits two families against each other in a contest to name the most popular responses to a survey-type question posed of 100 people. ... The Jokers Wild was a popular American game show of the 1970s and 1980s, billed as the game where knowledge is king and lady luck is queen. // Broadcast History The Jokers Wild debuted on CBS September 4, 1972, incidentally on the same Labor Day as the modern incarnation... Tic-Tac-Dough (1956-59, NBC; 1978-86, CBS, syndication, 1990-91, syndication), a popular American television game show, had two lives almost two decades apart: one, in the thick of the mid-1950s craze for big-money quiz shows; and a second, longer-lasting run, primarily in syndication. ... The Dating Game is an ABC television show that first aired in 1965 and was created by Chuck Barris. ... The Newlywed Game was an American television game show where newly-married couples answered questions to find out how well the husband and wife knew each other. ...


Wait Till Your Father Gets Home (1973) was a Hanna-Barbera cartoon series attempting to ape the All in the Family-style sitcoms; Skippy the Bush Kangaroo (1969) was an Australian children's series in the manner of Flipper or Gentle Ben (a decade later, the decidedly not-for-children Australian Prisoner: Cell Block H would have a brief US syndicated run); and a Canadian sketch-comedy series began appearing on U.S. television stations in 1977—Second City Television would eventually find a home, for two seasons, on NBC, as SCTV Network 90 (and on cable station Showtime later). 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Cartoon Network Studios, formerly known as Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. ... All in the Family is a popular and acclaimed American situation comedy that was originally broadcast on the CBS television network from January 12, 1971 until April 8, 1979, when the final original episode aired. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... Second City Television, or SCTV, was a Canadian television sketch comedy show offshoot from the Toronto troupe of The Second City. ... Showtime is a subscription television brand used by a number of channels and platforms around the world, but primarily refers to a group of channels in the United States. ...


The Universal Studios-produced package of original programming, Operation Prime Time, began appearing on ad hoc quasi-networks of (almost by necessity) non-network stations in the U.S. in 1978, with a mini-series adaptation of John Jakes's The Bastard. The current Universal Studios logo Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal, has production studios and offices located at 100 Universal City Plaza Drive in Universal City, California, an unincorporated area of Los Angeles County between Los Angeles and Burbank. ... Link title 1978 (MCMLXXVIII in Roman) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... John Jakes (born on March 31, 1932) is a writer of fiction. ...


From the latter '60s into the late '70s, Westinghouse also found considerable success with The Mike Douglas Show, a variety/talk show hosted by a singer with an easygoing interview style, which played in afternoons in most markets; similar programs soon followed featuring Merv Griffin, who had been the host of CBS's most sustained late-night answer to The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson previously, and another network veteran, Dinah Shore. Also notable was the growing success of audience-participation talk shows, particularly that of the innovator of the format, Phil Donahue. The Mike Douglas Show was an American daytime televsion program starring singer Mike Douglas. ... Mervyn Merv Edward Griffin, Jr. ... For other uses, see CBS (disambiguation). ... The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson was the full name of NBCs The Tonight Show during the years that Johnny Carson hosted from 1962 to 1992. ... Dinah Shore (born Frances Rose Shore, February 29, 1916 – February 24, 1994) was an American singer, actress and talk show host. ... Phil Donahue Phillip John Donahue (born December 21, 1935 in Cleveland, Ohio) is the creator and star of The Phil Donahue Show (later called Donahue) (1967—1996), the first of the syndicated talk shows where the host walks through the audience to let audience members make comments and ask questions. ...


First-run syndication in the 1970s also made it possible for some shows no longer wanted by network television to remain on the air. In 1971, ABC cancelled The Lawrence Welk Show, which went on to produce new episodes in syndication for another 11 years. Also in 1971, CBS dropped Lassie and Hee Haw, the latter show's run ending as part of the network's cancellation of all of its rural-oriented shows (see The Beverly Hillbillies and Green Acres). Lassie entered first-run syndication for two years, while Hee Haw continued to produce new episodes until 1992. 1971 (MCMLXXI) is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is a television and radio network in the United States. ... Lawrence Welk during a taping of The Lawrence Welk Show Lawrence Welk (March 11, 1903 – May 17, 1992) was a musician, accordion player, bandleader, and television impresario. ... For other uses, see CBS (disambiguation). ... Lassie, a Rough Collie, is the worlds most famous dog and a fictional character who has starred in many movies, TV shows, and books over the years. ... Hee Haw was a long-running television variety show hosted by Buck Owens and Roy Clark and featuring country music and humor with rural Kornfield Kounty as a backdrop. ... Rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Sheep eating grass in rural Australia Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... Main cast of The Beverly Hillbillies: Donna Douglas (Elly May), Irene Ryan (Granny), Max Baer, Jr. ... Aerial photo featured in the opening sequence of Green Acres There is also the US town of Green Acres, Washington. ... 1992 (MCMXCII in Roman) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


The 1980s through today

During the latter 1980s and early 1990s and throughout the remainder of the decade there was a resurgence of dramatic first-run syndicated programs, many of them in the science fiction and fantasy fields, or adventure dramas with fantastic elements. Baywatch aired on NBC for one season and was cancelled, but became very popular in the U.S. with new episodes in syndication and extremely popular worldwide. Star Trek: The Next Generation debuted in 1987 and became one of the most-watched syndicated shows throughout its seven-year run. Star Trek: Deep Space Nine was also syndicated. Along with the latter-day Star Trek series, Hercules: The Legendary Journeys and its spin-off series Xena: Warrior Princess helped build the audiences for such shows; Babylon 5 and Forever Knight drew devoted "cult" audiences; Psi Factor and Poltergeist: The Legacy attempted to draw on the audience for the FOX series The X-Files (as did, even less probably, the shortlived spinoff Baywatch Nights). Among the slightly less fantasticated series were Relic Hunter and VIP, She Spies and Once a Thief. In 1997, Earth: Final Conflict, based on ideas from the late Gene Roddenberry, premiered in syndication. Three years later, a second Gene Roddenberry series, Andromeda also premiered in syndication. Baywatch was a popular American television show about the Los Angeles County Lifeguards who patrol the crowded beaches of Los Angeles County. ... The National Broadcasting Company or NBC is an American television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Space station Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (ST:DS9 or STDS9 or DS9 for short) is a science fiction television series produced by Paramount and set in the Star Trek universe. ... Star Trek collectively refers to a science-fiction franchise spanning six unique television series, 726 episodes and ten motion pictures in addition to hundreds of novels, video games, fan stories and other works of fiction all set within the same fictional universe created by Gene Roddenberry in the mid-1960s. ... Hercules: The Legendary Journeys was a television series produced from 1995 to 1999, very loosely based on the tales of the classical culture hero Hercules. ... A spin-off in television is a new series which contains either characters or theme elements from an old series. ... Xena. ... Babylon 5 is an epic science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... Screenshot from the opening credits of Forever Knight. ... Psi Factor: Chronicles of the Paranormal was a Canadian sci-fi/drama television series which aired from 1996 to 2000. ... Poltergeist: The Legacy is a 1996 Canadian/American horror television series. ... A Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) A fox is a member of any of 27 species of small omnivorous canids. ... The X-Files is a popular American television series created by Chris Carter. ... Relic Hunter is an American television series, starring Tia Carrere and Christien Anholt. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... She Spies cast (right to left): Williams, Henstridge and Miller. ... Once a Thief was a 1997 television show inspired by the 1996 film of the same name. ... Earth: Final Conflict is a science fiction television series posthumously created by Gene Roddenberry. ... Gene Roddenberry, the creator of Star Trek Eugene Wesley Roddenberry (August 19, 1921 – October 24, 1991) was an American scriptwriter and producer. ... Gene Roddenberry’s Andromeda was a science fiction television series, created by Gene Roddenberry but produced posthumously. ...


Also in the 1980s, news programming of various sorts began to be offered widely to stations. Independent Network News, which was produced at WPIX studios in New York City, was a half-hour weekdaily program that ran for several years on independent stations; CNN would offer a package of its Headline News to broadcast stations later. Entertainment Tonight began its long and continuing run as a "soft" news daily strip, with a number of imitations following; and "tabloid" television, in the wake of ABC's 20/20 and, more immediately, Fox's A Current Affair, would become a syndication staple with such series as Extra and Real TV. Another area where network dominance was challenged by syndicated programming in the 1980s was in late-night talk shows; The Arsenio Hall Show was the first and only very successful one, but Alan Thicke's earlier shortlived Thicke of the Night, Lauren Hutton's innovatively-shot Lauren Hutton and..., and Dennis Miller, Whoopi Goldberg, David Brenner and Keenan Ivory Wayans attempted similar programs; the only syndicated latenight contender to fail as infamously in ratings and critical reception as CBS's The Pat Sajak Show and Fox's The Chevy Chase Show was Magic Johnson's The Magic Hour. WPIX (WB 11) is a television station in New York City. ... Nickname: The Big Apple Motto: Official website: City of New York Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ... The Cable News Network, usually referred to as CNN, is a cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner and Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although the latter is not currently recognized in CNNs official history). ... CNN Headline News is a spin-off network from the original Cable News Network (CNN) television news network in the United States. ... Entertainment Tonight is a daily television entertainment news magazine that is syndicated by CBS Paramount Domestic Television throughout the United States and Canada. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is a television and radio network in the United States. ... 20/20 is an American television newsmagazine broadcast on ABC since June 6, 1978. ... A Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) A fox is a member of any of 27 species of small omnivorous canids. ... A Current Affair homepage A Current Affair is a television magazine that ran from 1986 to 1996 before reappearing in 2005. ... The term extra has many meanings: in drama, an extra is a character who has no role or purpose other than to appear in the background (for example, in an audience scene or a busy street scene). ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... // Introduction The Arsenio Hall Show, a syndicated late-night talk show starring African American stand-up comedian Arsenio Hall, ran from January 1989 to May 1994. ... Alan Thicke Alan Thicke, born Alan Willis Jeffrey (March 1, 1947 in Kirkland Lake, Ontario, Canada) is a Canadian actor, songwriter, game show host and talk-show emcee. ... Lauren Hutton (born November 17, 1943) is an American actress and model. ... Dennis Miller on his self-titled CNBC show Dennis Miller born November 3, 1953 in Pittsburgh is an American entertainer, stand-up comedian, political and social commentator and television personality. ... Sarafina movie poster featuring Whoopi Goldberg Whoopi Goldberg (born November 13, 1955), is an Academy Award winning American film actress, comedian, and singer. ... David Brenner (born 1945) is a standup comedian, actor, author, and filmmaker. ... Keenen Ivory Wayans (born June 8, 1958 in New York City, New York, USA) is an American actor, comedian, director and writer. ... Pat Sajak appears on a 1980s episode of Wheel of Fortune rerunning on the Game Show Network Pat Sajak (born Patrick Sajdak, October 26, 1946 in Chicago, Illinois) is the current host of the Wheel of Fortune game show and hosts The Pat Sajak Baseball Hour, a syndicated radio show... Chevy Chase Cornelius Crane Chase, better known as Chevy Chase (born October 8, 1943) is an American comedian, writer and television and film actor from Woodstock, New York. ... Earvin Magic Johnson, Jr. ... The Magic Hour was a talk show hosted by Earvin Magic Johnson that debuted in 1998 on syndicated television. ...


As UPN and the WB began offering their affiliates ever-more nights of primetime programming, less call has been felt for first-run drama, at least, in the U.S.; much as with the closing of windows that provided opportunity for Ziv in the '50s and various producers in the early '70s. The more expensive dramatic projects are less attractive to syndicators (particularly when they might be sold, with somewhat less risk, to cable channels); "reality" series such as Cheaters and Maximum Exposure and several series about dating stunts began to be more common in the early 2000s; even among these, a few programs have gained some positive critical attention, notably Animal Rescue and Jack Hanna's Animal Adventures. The WB Television Network, casually referred to as The WB, is a television network in the United States, founded as a joint venture between the Warner Bros. ... 2000s - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Several game shows are currently syndicated; the most popular by far are Wheel of Fortune and the latest incarnation of Jeopardy!, premiering in 1983 and 1984 respectively. The shows have been 1-2 or 1-3 in the syndication ratings consistently since at least the late-'80s. Family Feud ended its first syndication run in 1985; a revival was a moderate hit from 1988 to 1994 and still another revival has been airing since 1999. By far the most successful entry into the market in the 2000s has been the daily version of Who Wants to be a Millionaire, premiering in 2002. New game show concepts (that is, not based on an existing or pre-existing format) are rarely tried and usually unsuccessful in syndication; Street Smarts was somewhat of an exception. A game show involves members of the public or celebrities, sometimes as part of a team, playing a game, perhaps involving answering quiz questions, for points or prizes. ... Wheel of Fortune intro (1983–1989) Wheel of Fortune is a television game show originally devised by Merv Griffin which runs in local editions around the world. ... Jeopardy! logo (1994–1996). ... Family Feud is a popular television game show in the USA and Australia that pits two families against each other in a contest to name the most popular responses to a survey-type question posed of 100 people. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII in Roman) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Logo from the UK version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? is a television game show which offers very large cash prizes for correctly answering successive multiple-choice questions. ...


The dominant form of first-run syndication in the US for the last three decades has been the "stripped" talk show, such as Donahue, Oprah Winfrey, The Tyra Banks Show, and The Jerry Springer Show. In many markets, a stripped show will be seen twice daily, usually with different episodes. Sometimes, station groups with more than one station in a market, or a "duopoly," will run one episode of a strip on one of their stations in the morning, and the other available episode on another of their stations that night. Phillip John Donahue (born December 21, 1935 in Cleveland, Ohio) is the creator and star of The Phil Donahue Show (1969—1996), the first of the syndicated talk shows where the host walks through the audience to let audience members make comments and ask questions. ... It has been suggested that Legends Weekend be merged into this article or section. ... Tyra Banks host of Tyra Banks Show The Tyra Banks Show is a U.S. daytime talk show hosted by former American supermodel Tyra Banks. ... The Jerry Springer Show (first aired September 30, 1991) is a television talk show videotaped in Chicago, Illinois that has aired during the morning hours of many syndicated TV stations since the late 1990s. ... A true duopoly is a form of oligopoly where only two producers exist in a market. ...


Meanwhile, the popularity of some of the audience-participation talk shows continues to encourage new participants, some of whom, such as Morton Downey, Jr. and Rosie O'Donnell, have brief periods of impressive ratings and influence; others, such as Oprah Winfrey and Maury Povich, have a sustained run. A notable scheduling decision was made by KRON-TV in San Francisco; a dispute with NBC led to their disaffiliation from the network, and since all the other larger networks were already represented in San Francisco, KRON decided to become the largest-market independent commercial station on the VHF band in the US, with the exception of Los Angeles's Viacom-owned KCAL (coincidentally once owned by KRON's current owners, Young Broadcasting), and soon tried running Dr. Phil, a popular new stripped series hosted by Winfrey-associate Phil McGraw, in primetime, with impressive ratings results. Morton Downey Jr. ... Rosie ODonnell (on right) and life-partner Kelli Carpenter-ODonnell speaking after their legal union on February 26, 2004 in San Francisco. ... KRON is an independent television station in the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz (wavelength 10 m) to 300 MHz (wavelength 1 m). ... Viacom is a high-growth media conglomerate with various worldwide interests in cable / satellite television networks (MTV Networks and BET), video gaming (Sega of America), and movie production and distribution (the Paramount Pictures movie studio and DreamWorks). ... Dr. Phil can refer to the person as well as the titular self-help television show. ...


While in earlier times, independent TV stations thrived on syndicated programming (including some venerable and quite profitable stations such as KMSP in the Minneapolis-St. Paul market), with the loosening of FCC regulations and the creation of new additional TV networks (Fox, The WB, UPN and i), most of these independents have joined one or another of these or smaller (religious or low-budget) networks. KMSP is a television station in the Minneapolis-St. ... The Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. ... The Fox Broadcasting Company, usually referred to as just Fox (the company itself prefers the capitalized version FOX), is a television network in the United States. ... UPN (which originally stood for the United Paramount Network) is a television network in the United States, owned by CBS Corporation, which also owns the more widespread CBS network. ... The i Network: Independent Television, or simply i, is a broadcast and cable television network first broadcasted on August 31, 1998. ...


Off-network Syndication

It is commonly said in the U.S. industry that "syndication is where the real money is" when producing a TV show. In other words, while the initial run of any particular television series may theoretically lose money for its producing studio, the ensuing syndication will generate enough profit to balance out any losses. Off-network syndication occurs when a network television show is syndicated in packages containing some or all episodes, and sold to as many television stations/markets as possible. Sitcoms (short for "situation comedies") often do better in syndication than some dramatic shows due to the fact that most sitcoms have few ongoing storylines; a viewer can tune into many half-hour sitcoms without worrying about having missed the last episode. With some dramatic series, missing an episode can throw off the viewer, even if the episode itself is a self-contained story. Syndicators and stations often will run episodes of some series out of order, for a variety of reasons; often this is easier with a sitcom than with a series with more pronounced serial elements. To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ...


As an example of off-network syndication, the comedy show "Seinfeld" ran on the NBC television network from 1989 to 1998. Sony/Columbia Pictures syndicated the show to local TV stations in 99% of the markets in the country in 1994, the year that the show entered the top 10 list of network shows, and it became the most successfully syndicated rerun ever. In 1998, TBS bought cable rights to all 180 episodes of the show for 4 years, paying somewhere between US$120 million and US$180 million. Seinfeld was a television sitcom which ran from July 5, 1989, to May 14, 1998. ... The National Broadcasting Company or NBC is an American television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Columbia Pictures logo, since 1996. ... Turner Broadcasting System logo The Turner Broadcasting System (often abbreviated to Turner or TBS) is the company managing the collection of cable networks and properties started by Ted Turner in the mid-1970s. ... This article is about general United States currency. ...


Cable stations have been known to vie among themselves for off-net syndication; in 2006, episodes of the series Full House were appearing on two cable channels (ABC Family and Nick at Nite); Roseanne likewise was visible on multiple cable channels. Other series seen on multiple cable channels simultaneously were often being shared by channels which had the same corporate owners. Full House was a television sitcom that ran on the ABC network from 1987 until 1995. ... ABC Family is a U.S. cable television network currently owned by Disney/ABC. The network was founded by Pat Robertson in April 1977 as CBN Cable, an arm of his Christian Broadcasting Network. ... Nick at Nite is an evening programming block broadcast over Nickelodeon from 9 PM – 6 AM Eastern and Pacific Standard Time. ... This article refers to the sitcom Roseanne. For the actress/comedian, see Roseanne Barr. ...


In recent years, more and more fee plugs have appeared during off-network syndication non-game shows such as Seinfeld and CSI. Some of these fees charged pay for the distribution and editing of these shows for syndication.


In any event, the amount of stations airing syndicated shows depends on which station in a particular market airs a particular show.


Sometimes, how a program is acquired for syndication varies. In the case of shows syndicated by King World, stations loyal to the company generally have first choice on any program King World offers. For example, Sacramento, California's KXTV is a charter affiliate of King World, and is offered first choice in the Sacramento/Stockton/Modesto market on King World's programming, and thus has first right of refusal--for example, KXTV passed on the local syndicated rights to CSI, so King World offered it to other stations in the market in order of importance (this is generally the rule of thumb for all available television markets). For other shows syndicated by other companies, the syndication rights may be auctioned off to the highest bidder in a particular market. Nickname: City of Trees Motto: Official website: http://www. ... KXTV (aka News10) is an ABC affiliate in Sacramento, California. ...


Public-broadcasting syndication

As with commercial stations, not all the air time nor all the perceived audience are met by the productions offered U.S. public-broadcasting stations by PBS; additionally, there are some independent public stations in the U.S. which take no programming from that (somewhat) decentralized network. As a result, there are several syndicators of programming for the non-profit stations, several of which are descendents of the regional station groups which combined some, not all, of their functions into the creation of PBS in 1969. American Public Television (APT) is the largest of these, nearly matched by NETA, the National Educational Telecommunications Association; similarly, the recently defunct Continental Program Marketing was another of the syndicator-descendents (of the Northeastern, Southeastern, and Rocky Mountain educational networks, respectively) of the pre-PBS era. Among the other notable organizations in the U.S. are Westlink Satellite Operations (based at Alburquerque's KNME), BBC Worldwide Americas (which often works with other distributors and individual stations, since it has no satellite access of its own in the U.S.), Deutsche Welle, Executive Program Services, the Program Resource Group and its member-station WLIW, Long Island, NY's PBS station, which is (with the arguable exception of KNME) the most prolific contributor of any individual station of syndicated programming, most obviously the BBC World News in the U.S. 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... American Public Television (APT) is a distributor and source of programming for public television stations in the United States and networks worldwide. ... The Deutsche Welle building in Bonn This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... WLIW is a Long Island PBS affiliate that serves the New York City area. ... BBC World News ident, currently used after relaunch in December 2003. ...


International syndication

Syndication also applies to international markets. Programs from the United Kingdom, Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina are syndicated to local TV stations in the United States, and programs from the United States are syndicated elsewhere in the world.


One of the best-known internationally syndicated television series has been "The Muppet Show," which was produced in the United Kingdom and shown on ITV, and appeared around the world, including the United States, where it aired in syndication. Colombian, Brazilian, Mexican and Venezuelan telenovelas are programmed throughout the Portuguese and Spanish-speaking world and even in India and Russia. The Muppet Show is a television program featuring a cast of Muppets (diverse hand operated puppets, typically with huge eyes and large moving mouths) produced by Jim Henson and his team from 1976 to 1981. ... Current ITV logo. ... A telenovela is a Spanish and Portuguese term for a television serial. ...


See also

100 episodes is considered to be the magic number at which point many television series produced for the United States (which usually run 22–26 episodes per year) are viable for syndication. ... Rerun van Pelt is the name of Linus and Lucys younger brother in the comic strip Peanuts. ... This is a list of television shows currently in syndication in the United States. ... Syndication Exclusivity also known as SyndEx is a Federal Law designed to protect a local television stations rights to syndicated television programs by granting exclusive rights to the station for that program in the local market. ...

Sources

  • The Museum of Broadcast Communications
  • TVObscurities.com - Syndicated Shows Of 1987

  Results from FactBites:
 
Television Syndication (944 words)
Television Programming and Video is sold with a commonsense approach.
This streaming channel is the solution to save you thousands in syndication front fees and your show could start earning you income now.
While serving the internet community with 24/7 shows on demand, this is a great vehicle to sell advertisement (we can help you get some National direct ads for insertion in your show) We will be inviting networks and stations to view the webcast to look for new programming.
Television syndication - Definition, explanation (2666 words)
First-run syndication refers to programming that is broadcast for the first time as a syndicated show, or at least first so offered in a given country (foreign programs, first presented on a network in their country of origin, have often been syndicated in the US and in some other countries).
Syndication differs from selling the show to a television network; once a network picks up a show, it is usually guaranteed to run on all the network's affiliates, on the same day of the week and at the same time (in a given timezone, in countries where this is a concern).
In syndication, the program is sold to stations for "cash" (rights are purchased by the stations to insert some or all of the ads at their level), given to stations for access to airtime (wherein the syndicators get the ad revenue), or the combination of both.
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