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Encyclopedia > Television station

A television station is a type of broadcast station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. Traditionally, TV stations made their broadcasts by sending specially-encoded radio signals over the air, called terrestrial television. Individual television stations are usually granted licenses by a government agency to use a particular section of the radio spectrum (a channel) through which they send their signals. Some stations use LPTV broadcast translators to retransmit or rebroadcast to further areas. Television stations are a form of television channel, but not all television channels are necessarily stations. The term television channel generally refers to either a television station or its cable/satellite counterpart (both outlined below). ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In radio terminology, a receiver is an electronic circuit that receives a radio signal from an antenna and decodes the signal for use as sound, pictures, navigational-position information, etc. ... Terrestrial television (also known as over-the-air, OTA or broadcast television) was the traditional method of television broadcast signal delivery prior to the advent of cable and satellite television. ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... An agency is a department of a local or national government responsible for the oversight and administration of a specific function, such as a customs agency or a space agency. ... Radio frequency, or RF, refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current fed to an antenna. ... Channel, in communications (sometimes called communications channel), refers to the medium used to convey information from a sender (or transmitter) to a receiver. ... Low-power broadcasting is the concept of broadcasting at very low power and low cost, to a small community area. ... In broadcasting, a translator is an FM radio station or a TV station which acts as a full-duplex repeater. ... A repeater is an electronic device that receives a weak or low-level signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. ... A rebroadcaster, in Canadian broadcasting, is a television or radio transmitter which airs the programming associated with a radio or television station in a different market. ... The term television channel generally refers to either a television station or its cable/satellite counterpart (both outlined below). ...


Many television stations are now in the process of converting from analogue (NTSC, PAL, or SECAM) to digital (ATSC, DVB, or ISDB). In some countries, this is being forced on consumers and stations, while in others it is entirely voluntary. Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ... An analog or analogue signal is any continuously variable signal. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Mexico, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ... A digital system is one that uses discrete values (often electrical voltages), especially those representable as binary numbers, or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (ie, as in an analog system). ... “ATSC” redirects here. ... Official DVB logo, found on compliant devices DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted open standards for digital television. ... A picture of ISDB-T (taken during a tour of the NHK Osaka broadcasting station) Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format that Japan has created to allow radio and television stations there to convert to digital. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that purchase and use goods and services generated within the economy. ...


In countries such as the United States, television stations usually just have one transmitter (or, more recently, two transmitters if the station broadcasts a digital signal in addition to its standard analog signal); most of these stations should be independent or affiliated to a television network such as ABC, CBS, Fox, or NBC. Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an electronic device which with the aid of an antenna propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... A digital system is one that uses discrete values (often electrical voltages), especially those representable as binary numbers, or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (ie, as in an analog system). ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... CBS Broadcasting, Inc. ... The Fox Broadcasting Company, usually referred to as just Fox (the company itself prefers the capitalized version FOX), is a television network in the United States. ... The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ...


In other countries such as the United Kingdom, television stations are generally associated with a nationwide television network, through which they get all of, or at least significant amounts of, their programming. In those countries, the signals broadcast in different areas have no well-known callsigns or other individual traits known to the general public (although a network might have regional variations, possibly broadcast from several different transmitters) and therefore there is no strong network/station split. A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. ... In broadcasting and radio communication, a callsign or call sign (also call letters) is a unique designation for a transmitting station. ... Regional variations is a common term used in British television listings publications to show the different programmes broadcast in different areas of the country. ...


In the United States, each nationwide terrestrial broadcast network can have a few "O&Os" — stations that it owns and operates, usually in the larger broadcast markets, like New York or Chicago,Illinois In the television industry (especially in North America), an owned and operated station (frequently abbreviated as O&O) is a television station that is owned by the network with which it is associated. ... A media market, broadcast market, or simply market is a region where the population can receive the same (or similar) television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media including newspapers or Internet content. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ...

Contents

Facilities

Production

Large television stations usually have some sort of television studio, which on major-network stations is often used for newscasts or other local programming. There is usually a news department, where journalists gather information. There is also a section where electronic news gathering operations are based, receiving remote broadcasts via remote pickup unit or satellite TV. Vans, trucks, or SUVs with this equipment are sent out with reporters, who may also bring back news stories on videotape rather than sending them back live. See: Station (telecommunication) Radio station Television station Station (network) Primary station Control station Slave station Station (Australian ranch) Public transport railway station or train station metro station (underground or elevated ) bus station Ground station Space station Gas station Power station (see Battersea Power Station) Work station Fire at the Station... A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, either for live television, for recording live on tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for postproduction. ... A newscast typically consists of the coverage of various news events and other information, either produced locally by a radio or television station, or by a broadcast network. ... The term Local Programme/Programming refers to a television programme made by a television station or independent producer for broadcast only within the stations transmission area or market. ... For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... A department is a part of a larger organization with a specific responsibility. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... In 1974, Joseph Flaherty, then vice-president at CBS Inc. ... In broadcast engineering, a remote broadcast (usually just called a remote or a live remote) is broadcasting done from a location away from the regular studio. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of orbiting communications satellites located 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the earths surface. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Lorry” redirects here. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... A Female Reporter A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ...


Weather is also a significant part of the station. Stations with newscasts also have their own meteorologists and Doppler radar, and produce their own forecasts, which often vary from station to station. In the U.S., most NBC stations now carry Weather Plus on a second digital channel, which mixes national and local segments. For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... A newscast typically consists of the coverage of various news events and other information, either produced locally by a radio or television station, or by a broadcast network. ... Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Doppler Effect Doppler radar uses the Doppler effect to measure the radial velocity of targets in the antennas directional beam. ... BBCs Alex Deakin presenting a weather report. ... The National Broadcasting Company or NBC is an American television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... NBC Weather Plus is a 24-hour weather-oriented broadcast/cable television network jointly owned by NBC Universal and its broadcast affiliates. ...


Stations not affiliated with major networks generally do not produce news or weather, or much other programming. Some stations (known as repeaters or translators) only simulcast another and have no production facilities of their own. This is common in most countries outside of the U.S., Canada, and Australia. Low-power stations typically also fall into this category worldwide. An affiliate is a commercial entity with a relationship with a peer or a larger entity. ... A repeater is an electronic device that receives a weak or low-level signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. ... In broadcasting, a translator is an FM radio station or a TV station which acts as a full-duplex repeater. ... Simulcast is a contraction of simultaneous broadcast, and refers to programs or events broadcast across more than one medium at the same time. ...


Most stations which are not simulcast produce their own station identifications, using digital TV graphics. TV stations may also advertise on or provide weather (or news) services to local radio stations, particularly co-owned sister stations. This may be a barter in some cases. Simulcast is a contraction of simultaneous broadcast, and refers to programs or events broadcast across more than one medium at the same time. ... Station identification (sometimes called a sounder or stinger) is the practice of any type of radio or television station or network identifying itself, typically with a call sign or brand name. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... In broadcasting, sister stations are broadcast stations owned by the same company. ... Barter is a type of trade in which goods or services are exchanged for other goods and/or services; no money is involved in the transaction. ...


Transmission

As with other stations, the radio antenna is often located on a summit, the top of a high skyscraper, or on a tall radio tower. A studio/transmitter link (STL), via either radio or T1/E1, is used to get the signal there. A transmitter/studio link (TSL) may also send telemetry back to the station, but this may be embedded in subcarriers of the main broadcast. Stations which retransmit or simulcast another may simply pick-up that station over-the-air, or via STL or satellite. The license usually specifies which other station is it allowed to carry. A yagi antenna Most simply, an antenna is an electronic component designed to send or receive radio waves. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Masts of the Rugby VLF transmitter in England Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials in the UK) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. ... A studio-transmitter link (or STL) sends a radio stations or television stations audio and video from the broadcast studio to a transmitter in another location. ... In telecommunications, T-carrier is the generic designator for any of several digitally multiplexed telecommunications carrier systems originally developed by Bell Labs and used in North America and Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ... Look up Embed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A subcarrier is separate analog or digital signal carried on a main radio transmission, which carries extra information such as voice or data. ... Terrestrial television (also known as over-the-air or OTA) is the traditional method of television broadcast signal delivery, by radio waves transmitted through open space. ...


VHF stations often have very tall antennas due to their long wavelength, but require much less effective radiated power (ERP), and therefore use much less transmitter power output, also saving on the electricity bill and emergency backup generators. In North America, full-power stations on band I (channels 2 to 6) are generally limited to 100 kW analog video (VSB) and 10 kW analog audio (FM), or 20 kW digital (8VSB) ERP. Stations on band III (channels 7 to 13) can go up by 5dB(W) to 316 kW video, 31.6 kW audio, or 63.2 kW digital. Low-VHF stations are often subject to long-distance reception just as with FM. There are no stations on channel 1. Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Transmitter power output (TPO) is the actual amount of power (in watts) of RF energy that a transmitter produces at its output. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Billing may mean: The process of sending accounts to customers for goods or services is called billing. ... Auxiliary power: Electric power that is provided by an alternate source and that serves as backup for the primary power source at the station main bus or prescribed sub-bus. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Band I is the name of a radio frequency range within the very high frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length... 8VSB is the 8-level vestigial sideband modulation method adopted for terrestrial broadcast of the ATSC digital television standard in the United States and Canada. ... Band III is the name of a radio frequency range within the very high frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... TV DX and FM DX are two terms, customarily grouped together, that mean distant reception of TV and FM radio stations, respectively. ... In North America, channel 1 is a former broadcast (over-the-air) television channel (44-50 MHz, with visual at 45. ...


UHF, by comparison, has a much shorter wavelength, and thus requires a shorter antenna, but also higher power. North American stations can go up to 5000 kW ERP for video and 500 kW audio, or 1000 kW digital. Low channels travel further than high ones at the same power, but UHF does not suffer from as much electromagnetic interference and background "noise" as VHF, making it much more desirable for TV. Despite this, in the U.S., the FCC is taking another large portion of this band (channels 52 to 69) away, in contrast to the rest of the world, which has been taking VHF instead. This means that some stations left on VHF will be harder to receive after the analog shutdown. Since at least 1974, there are no stations on channel 37 in North America. Ultra high frequency (UHF) designates a range (band) of electromagnetic waves whose frequency is between 300 MHz and 3. ... Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is electromagnetic radiation which is emitted by electrical circuits carrying rapidly changing signals, as a by-product of their normal operation, and which causes unwanted signals (interference or noise) to be induced in other circuits. ... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ... The FCC has notified U.S. television broadcasters that the standard for transmitting TV over-the-air shall change from analog to digital. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... In the United States and Canada, TV channel 37 occupies a band of frequencies from 608 to 614 MHz. ...


See also

Look up Television station in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Television and the State (1045 words)
It used to be, he said, that Washington DC would be abandoned in summertime because it was simply too hot and muggy for government workers to stay there, but with the advent of air conditioning, they could comfortably remain to plan and plot and control year round.
And the beauty part of it, at least for the State, is that it has no need to order the People either to obtain one of these devices or to submit themselves to it.
Without televisions in every home in America – without so many watching them so much – the power of the State would be greatly diminished, for its power in the end depends upon the consent of the People, and that consent would not and could not exist without the boob tube.
RTÉ Television: Altered State (237 words)
Ireland's development from a conservative, Church- dominated society to a progressive pluralist state, was not without pain and difficulties.
Altered State, a series of 3 x 1 hour documentaries, examines the period of dramatic upheaval which started in the 1970's.
It was an era when the Irish State began to shake off its Catholic heritage and value system for a modern, pluralist social outlook.
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