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Encyclopedia > Television program

A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. It may be a one-off broadcast or, more usually, part of a periodically returning television series. A television series that is intended to be broadcast a finite number of episodes is usually called a miniseries or serial (although the latter term also has other meanings). Americans call a short run lasting less than a year a season; People of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland generally call this a series. This season or series usually consists of 6–26 installments. U.S. industry practice tends to favor longer seasons than those of some other countries. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... Serials in television and radio are series, often in a weekly prime time slot, that rely on a continuing plot that unfolds in a serial fashion, episode by episode. ...


A single instance of a program is called an episode, although this is sometimes also called a "show" or "program." A one-off broadcast may be called a "special". A television movie ("made-for-TV" movie) is a film that is initially broadcast on television rather than being released in theaters or direct-to-video, although many successful television movies are later released on video. An episode is a part of a dramatic work such as a serial television or radio program. ... “Telefilm” redirects here. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, United States). ... A film that is released direct-to-video (also straight-to-video) is one which has been released to the public on home video formats first rather than first being released in movie theaters. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ...


Today, advertisements play a role in most television programming, such that each hour of programming can contain up to 15 minutes of advertisements in some countries. By contrast, being publicly funded, the BBC in the United Kingdom does not run advertisements, except to trail (promote) its own output. Its promotions appear between and near the end of shows but not in the middle of them, much like the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in the United States and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) in Australia. With rise of internet video clips, there is serious debate about where the future of television programs is going. A television advertisement, advert or commercial is a form of advertising in which goods, services, organizations, ideas, etc. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... PBS redirects here. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Video clips are short clips in video format and predominantly found on the internet where the massive influx of new video clips during 2006 was dubbed as a new phenomenon having a profound impact on both the internet and other forms of media. ...

Contents

Program content

The content of television programs may be factual, as in documentaries, news, and reality television, or fictional as in comedy and drama. It may be topical as in the case of news and some made-for-television movies or historical as in the case of such documentaries or fictional series. It may be primarily instructional as in the case of educational programming, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy, reality TV, or game shows, or for income as advertisements. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... For the trade organisation, see Federation Against Copyright Theft. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... // This article is about the genre of TV shows. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... This article is about a genre of comedy. ... A game show is a radio or television program involving members of the public or celebrities, sometimes as part of a team, playing a game, perhaps involving answering quiz questions, for points or prizes. ...


A drama program usually features a set of actors in a somewhat familiar setting. The program follows their lives and their adventures. Many shows, especially before the 1980s, maintained a status quo where the main characters and the premise changed little. If some change happened to the characters lives during the episode, it was usually undone by the end. (Because of this, the episodes could usually be watched in any order.) Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ...


Common TV program periods include regular broadcasts (like TV news), TV series (usually seasonal and ongoing with a duration of only a few episodes to many seasons), or TV miniseries which is an extended film, usually with a small pre-determined number of episodes and a set plot and timeline. Miniseries usually range from about 3 to 10 hours in length, though critics often complain when programs hit the short end of that range and are still marketed as "minis." In the UK, the term "miniseries" is only usually used in references to imported programmes, and such short-run series are usually called "serials". A news program is a regularly scheduled radio or television program that reports current events. ... A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Serials in television and radio are series, often in a weekly prime time slot, that rely on a continuing plot that unfolds in a serial fashion, episode by episode. ...


Older American television shows began with a Pilot title sequence, showed opening credits at the bottom of the screen during the beginning of the show, and included closing credits at the end of the show. However, beginning in the 1990s some shows began with a "cold open," followed by a title sequence and a commercial break. Many serialistic shows begin with a "Previously on..." (such as 24) introduction before the teaser. And, to save time, some shows omit the title sequence altogether, folding the names normally featured there into the opening credits. The title sequence has not been completely eliminated, however, as many major television series still use them in 2007. The name PILOT is an acronym, and stands for Programmed Instruction, Learning, Or Teaching. ... This example of a title sequence, from long-running serial drama Another World, was seen from 1966 to 1981, making it one of the longest-running continuous title sequences on television. ... Opening credits, in a television program, motion picture or videogame, are shown at the beginning of a show and list the most important members of the production. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A cold open (also referred to as a teaser) in a television program or movie is the technique of jumping directly into a story at the beginning or opening of the show, before the title sequence or opening credits are shown. ... Serials in television and radio are series, often in a weekly prime time slot, that rely on a continuing plot that unfolds in a serial fashion, episode by episode. ... A narrative device used by many television series shows to bring the viewer up to date with the current events and plots. ... For other uses, see 24 (disambiguation). ...


While television series appearing on TV networks are usually commissioned by the networks themselves, their producers earn greater revenue when the program is sold into syndication. With the rise of the DVD home video format, box sets containing entire seasons or the complete run of a program have become a significant revenue source as well. A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... In the television industry (as in radio), syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast programs to multiple stations, without going through a broadcast network. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Genres

  • Category:Television series by genre

Scripted entertainment

Television drama series is a genre that deals with generally non-epic situations in a serious, dramatic manner. ... Dramedy, a portmanteau of drama and comedy, is a genre of movies and television in which the lines between these very different genres were blurred. ... The police procedural is a sub-genre of the mystery story which attempts to accurately depict the activities of a police force as they investigate crimes. ... Serials in television and radio are series, often in a weekly prime time slot, that rely on a continuing plot that unfolds in a serial fashion, episode by episode. ... For the song from The Rocky Horror Show, see Science Fiction/Double Feature. ... The first TIME cover devoted to soap operas: Dated January 12, 1976, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of Our Lives are featured with the headline Soap Operas: Sex and suffering in the afternoon. A soap opera is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction, usually broadcast on television... Television comedy had a presence from the earliest days of broadcasting. ... This article is about a genre of comedy. ... Sketch Show redirects here. ... An animated series or cartoon series is a television series produced by means of animation. ... A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... A television movie (also TV movie, TV-movie, made-for-TV movie, telefilm, etc. ... Category for awards presented within the television industry. ...

Unscripted entertainment

A talk show (U.S.) or chat show (Brit. ... // This article is about the genre of TV shows. ... Quiz show redirects here. ...

Informational

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... A newsmagazine, sometimes called news magazine, is a usually weekly magazine featuring articles on current events. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Development

What follows is the standard procedure for shows on network television in the United States.

A person decides to create a new television series. The show's creator develops the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, and various actors (in some cases, "big-name" actors). They will then offer ("pitch") it to the various television networks in an attempt to find one that is interested in the series and order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot . A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... For other uses, see Prototype (disambiguation). ... A television pilot is a test episode of an intended television series. ...


To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series needs to be put together. If the network likes the pilot, they will "pick up" the show for their next season (UK: series). Sometimes they'll save it for "midseason" or request re-writes and further review (known in the industry as "Development hell"). And other times they'll pass entirely, leaving the show's creator forced to "shop it around"' to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage. Development hell is media-industry jargon for a film, television screenplay, or computer game[1] (or sometimes just a concept or idea) getting stuck in development and never going into production. ...


If the show is picked up, a "run" of episodes is ordered. Usually only 13 episodes are ordered at first, although a series will typically last for at least 22 episodes (the last nine episodes sometimes being known as the "back nine", borrowing a term from golf). This article is about the sport. ...


The show hires a "stable" of writers, who usually work in parallel: the first writer works on the first episode, the second on the second episode, and so forth. When all of the writers have been used, the assignment of episodes continues starting with the first writer again. On other shows, however, the writers work as a team. Sometimes they will develop story ideas individually, and pitch them to the show's creator, who then folds them together into a script and rewrites them. A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ...


A UK/US comparison

In contrast to the US model illustrated above, the UK procedure is operated on a sometimes similar, but much smaller scale.


The method of "team writing" is employed on some longer dramatic series (usually running up to a maximum of around thirteen episodes). The idea for such a show may be generated "in-house" by one of the networks; it could originate from an independent production company; it will sometimes be a product of both. For example, the BBC's long-running soap opera EastEnders is wholly a BBC production, whereas its popular drama Life on Mars was developed by Kudos in association with the network. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... EastEnders is a popular BBC television soap opera, first broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC1 on 19 February 1985[4] and continuing to date. ... Life on Mars is a BAFTA and International Emmy award-winning British television drama series, which was first shown on BBC One in January and February 2006. ... Kudos Film & Television is a British television production company, which has produced drama series for most of the major television networks in the UK. Its best-known series are the spy drama Spooks (known as MI5 in the United States) and con-artist thriller series Hustle for BBC One and...


However, there are still a significant number of programs (usually sitcoms) that are built around just one or two writers and a small, close-knit production team. These are "pitched" in the traditional way, but since the creator(s) will handle all the writing requirements, there will be a run of six or seven installments per series once approval has been given. Many of the most popular British comedies have been made this way, including Monty Python's Flying Circus (albeit with an exclusive team of six writer-performers), Fawlty Towers, Blackadder and The Office. This article is about the television series. ... Fawlty Towers is a British sitcom made by the BBC and first broadcast on BBC2 in 1975. ... For other uses, see Blackadder (disambiguation). ... The Office is a British television comedy series, created, written and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant, and first aired in the UK on BBC Two on July 9, 2001. ...


Production

The executive producer, often the show's creator, is in charge of running the show. They pick crew and cast (subject to approval by the network), approve and often write series plots, and sometimes write and direct major episodes. A whole host of other producers of various names work under him or her, to make sure the show is always running smoothly. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


As with films or other media production, production of an individual episode can be divided into three parts: pre-production, principal photography, and post-production.


Pre-production begins when a script is approved for production. A director is chosen to plan what the episode will actually look like in the end. Pre-production tasks include storyboarding, construction of sets, props, and costumes, casting guest stars, budgeting, acquiring resources like lighting, special effects, stunts, etc. Once the show is planned, it must then be scheduled; scenes are often filmed out of sequence, guest actors or even regulars may only be available at certain times, sometimes the principal photography of different episodes must be done at the same time, complicating the schedule (i.e. a guest star might shoot scenes from two episodes on the same afternoon). Complex scenes are translated from storyboard to animatics to further clarify the action. Scripts are adjusted to meet altering requirements. A television director is usually responsible for directing the actors and other taped aspects of a television production. ...


Some shows have a small stable of directors, but also usually rely on outside directors. Given the time constraints of broadcasting, a single show might have two or three episodes in pre-production, one or two episodes in principal photography, and a few more in various stages of post-production. The task of directing is complex enough that a single director can usually not work on more than one show at a time, hence the need for multiple directors.


Principal photography is the actual filming of the episode. Director, actors and crew will gather at soundstages or on location to film a scene. A scene is further divided into shots, which should be planned during preproduction; depending on scheduling, a scene may be shot not in the chronological order of the story. Conversations may be filmed twice from different angles, often using stand-ins, so one actor might perform all their lines in one set of shots, and then the other side of the conversation will be filmed from the opposite perspective. In order to complete a production on time, a second unit may be filming a different scene on another set or location at the same time, using a different set of actors, an assistant director, and a second unit crew. A director of photography takes care of making the show look good, doing things with lighting and so on. A cinematographer (from cinema photographer) is one photographing with a motion picture camera. ...


Once principal photography is complete, producers coordinate post-production tasks. Visual and digital effects are added to the film; this is often outsourced to companies specializing in these areas. Often music is performed with the conductor using the film as a time reference (other musical elements may be previously recorded). An editor cuts the various pieces of film together, adds the musical score and effects, determines scene transitions, and assembles the completed show. Film editing is the connecting of one or more shots to form a sequence, and the subsequent connecting of sequences to form an entire movie. ... Sheet music is written represenation of music. ...


Distribution

The show is then turned over to the network, which sends it out to its affiliates, which broadcast it in the specified timeslot. If the Nielsen Ratings are good, the show is kept alive as long as possible. If not, the show is usually cancelled. The show's creators are then left to shop around remaining episodes, and the possibility of future episodes, to other networks. On especially successful series, the producers sometimes call a halt to a series on their own like The Cosby Show and end it with a concluding episode which sometimes is a big production called a series finale. The American Broadcasting Company, or ABC, is an American network with literally hundreds of affiliates. ... When TV viewers or entertainment professionals in the United States mention ratings they are generally referring to Nielsen Ratings, a system developed by the New York City-based firm Nielsen Media Research to determine which shows television viewers watch at what times. ... In television, cancellation refers to the termination of a program by the network, typically because of low viewership. ... The Cosby Show is an American television sitcom starring Bill Cosby, first broadcast on September 20, 1984 and ran for eight seasons on the NBC television network, until April 30, 1992. ... For the Paranoia Agent episode, see Final Episode. ...


If the show is popular or lucrative, and a number of episodes (usually 100 episodes or more) are made, it goes into syndication where broadcast rights are then resold. 100 episodes is considered to be the general threshold at which point a television series produced for the United States becomes viable for syndication. ... In the television industry (as in radio), syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast programs to multiple stations, without going through a broadcast network. ...


Seasons/Series

The terminology used to define a set of episodes produced by a television series varies from country to country.


In North America and Australia, the term used to describe a regular run of episodes is a television season or simply, season. For example, a season of a television series might consist of 22-24 episodes broadcast regularly between September and April with a hiatus during the holidays. Alternatively, it may comprise 22-24 consecutive episodes between September and December or January and May. The latter is often referred to as a "non-stop season", which are usually used for serial television series (e.g., 24 and Lost). Another example might be a series that airs only 6-13 episodes broadcast during the summer. In television scheduling, a hiatus refers to a break of at least several weeks in the normal schedule of a television program. ... Serials in television and radio are series, often in a weekly prime time slot, that rely on a continuing plot that unfolds in a serial fashion, episode by episode. ... For other uses, see 24 (disambiguation). ... LOST redirects here. ...


In the United Kingdom, on the ABC in Australia and in other countries, these sets of episodes are now referred to as series (the term is used separately from "television series" which refers to a complete production), although in the UK historically "season" was used on certain series, and remains in use in reference to them (e.g. Doctor Who, Blake's 7, etc.). Look up ABC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the television series. ... Blakes 7 is a British science fiction television series made by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for their BBC 1 channel. ...


In the United States, most regular television series have 22 episodes per year. In general, dramas usually last 44 minutes (an hour with advertisements), while comedies last 22 (30 with advertisements). However, with the rise of cable networks, especially pay ones, series and episode lengths have been changing. Cable networks usually feature series lasting around thirteen episodes (e.g. The Sopranos from HBO, with 12- to 13-episode seasons). Many British series have significantly shorter yearly runs, such as The Office and Extras, which feature 6 episodes per series (see below). Recently, American non-cable networks have also begun to experiment with shorter seasons for some programs, particularly reality shows such as Survivor. This article is about the television series. ... HBO (Home Box Office) is a premium cable television network with headquarters in New York City. ... The Office is a British television comedy series, created, written and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant, and first aired in the UK on BBC Two on July 9, 2001. ... Not to be confused with Extra (TV series). ... Survivor is an American version of the Survivor reality television game show based on the Swedish television series Expedition Robinson originally created in 1992 by Charlie Parsons. ...


This is a reduction from the 1950s, in which many American shows (e.g., The Twilight Zone) had between 29 to 39 episodes per season. Actual storytelling time within a commercial television hour has also gradually reduced over the years, from 50 minutes out of every 60 in the early days down to the current 44 (and, on some networks, less) in the 2000s. The Twilight Zone title. ...


The Japanese have sometimes subdivided television series into "cours", from the French term for "course", which is a mere 13 episodes long. Each cours generally has its own opening and ending image sequence and song, recordings of which are often sold.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Television program - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1583 words)
A television series that is intended to air a finite number of episodes is usually called a miniseries or serial (although the latter term also has other meanings).
The content of television programs may be factual, as in documentaries, news, and reality television, or fictional as in comedy and drama.
While television series appearing on TV networks are usually commissioned by the networks themselves, their producers earn greater revenue when the program is sold into syndication.
Space Program and Television (1676 words)
The space program was a Puritan narrative, with its crew-cut NASA technocrats tirelessly striving toward the Moon, and a Western narrative, with lone heroes conquering a formidable new frontier (from mostly western facilities).
In 1967 three astronauts died in an early Apollo program test and the theme of astronaut as hero was tragically revived, and the public reminded of the risks of conquering space.
Television was unprepared for such a tragedy, with speechless anchors, an unfortunate tendency to repeat the videotape of the explosion constantly, and irresponsible speculation about the possibility of survivors.
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