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Encyclopedia > Television network

A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. Until the mid-1980s, television programming in most countries of the world was dominated by a small number of broadcast networks. Many early television networks (e.g. the BBC, NBC or CBS) evolved from earlier radio networks. It may be confused with a television channel. A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... A television station is a type of broadcast station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A broadcast network is an organization, such as a corporation or other association, that provides live or recorded content, such as movies, newscasts, sports, and public affairs programs for broadcast over a television station. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ... It has been suggested that NBC, NBC Radio City Studios, NBC Studios be merged into this article or section. ... CBS (an abbreviation for Columbia Broadcasting System, its former legal name) is one of the largest television networks, and formerly one of the largest radio networks, in the United States. ... A radio network is a network system which distributes programming to multiple stations simultaneously, or slightly delayed, for the purpose of extending total coverage beyond the limits of a single broadcast signal. ... The term television channel generally refers to either a television station or its cable/satellite counterpart (both outlined below). ...


Within the industry, a tiering is sometimes created among groups of networks based on whether their programming is simultaneously originated from a central point, and whether the network master control has the technical and administrative capability to take over the programming of their affiliates in real-time when it deems this necessary—the most common example being breaking national news events.


In countries where most networks broadcast identical, centrally originated content from all their stations and where most individual stations are therefore nothing more than large "repeater stations", the terms television network, television channel and television station have become interchangeable in everyday language, with only professionals in TV-related occupations continuing to make a difference between them, if one was ever made. This applies to most countries outside Northern America, the United Kingdom, Australia and Japan. Northern America is a name for the parts of North America besides Mexico when Mexico is considered as Latin America. ...


However, in North America in particular, many television channels available via cable and satellite television are branded as "networks" but are not truly networks in the sense defined above, as they are singular operations – they have no affiliates or component stations. Such channels are more precisely referred to by terms such as "specialty channels" (Canada) or "cable networks" (U.S.), although the latter term is somewhat of a misnomer. Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Artists impression of a Boeing 601 satellite, as configured for digital television transmission by SES Astra Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... A specialty channel or specialty service is a television channel, generally not available through conventional broadcast television, which consists of programming focused on a single type or targeted at a specific demographic. ... A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ...


In the U.S., television networks are simply identified as "networks" (such as ABC, CBS or NBC), while the local stations are identified by the station's call sign and city of license. In Europe and much of Asia, Africa and South America, television networks are often more or less numbered (for example, Britain's BBC One, BBC Two, ITV, Channel 4 and five etc, or the Netherlands' Nederland 1, Nederland 2, Nederland 3. In Australia, television networks are identified by the channel number in the capital cities (such as Seven, Nine or Ten). The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... CBS (an abbreviation for Columbia Broadcasting System, its former legal name) is one of the largest television networks, and formerly one of the largest radio networks, in the United States. ... It has been suggested that NBC, NBC Radio City Studios, NBC Studios be merged into this article or section. ... BBC One (or BBC1 as it was formerly styled) is the primary channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation. ... BBC Two (or BBC2 as it was formerly styled) was the second UK television station to be aired by the BBC and Europes first television channel to broadcast regularly in colour (from 1967), envisaged as a home for less mainstream and more ambitious programming. ... ITV (Independent Television) is the name popularly given to the original network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. In England, Wales and southern Scotland, the network has been rebranded to ITV1 by ITV plc, the owners of... Channel 4 is a public-service television broadcaster in the United Kingdom (see British television). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Seven Network is an Australian television network. ... The Nine Network is an Australian television network, available in major markets across Australia. ... now. ...


History

NBC set up the first permanent coast-to-coast radio network in the United States by 1928, using dedicated telephone line technology. But the signal from an electronic television system, containing much more information than a radio signal, required a broadband transmission medium. Transmission by a nationwide series of microwave relay towers would be possible but extremely expensive. It has been suggested that NBC, NBC Radio City Studios, NBC Studios be merged into this article or section. ... Broadband in telecommunications is a term which refers to a signaling method which includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies which may be divided into channels or frequency bins. ... Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths longer than those of terahertz (THz) wavelengths, but relatively short for radio waves. ...


Researchers at the AT&T subsidiary Bell Telephone Laboratories patented coaxial cable in 1929, primarily as a telephone improvement device. But its high capacity (transmitting 240 telephone calls simultaneously) also made it ideal for long-distance television transmission, where it could handle a frequency band of 1 megahertz.[1] German television first demonstrated such an application in 1936 by relaying televised telephone calls from Berlin to Leipzig, 180 km (112 miles) away, by cable.[2] The network was later extended to television viewing offices in Nuremberg and Munich. This article describes the present AT&T Inc. ... Bell Telephone Laboratories or Bell Labs was originally the research and development arm of the United States Bell System, and was the premier corporate facility of its type, developing a range of revolutionary technologies from telephone switches to specialized coverings for telephone cables, to the transistor. ... Coaxial cable is an electrical cable consisting of a round conducting wire, surrounded by an insulating spacer, surrounded by a cylindrical conducting sheath, usually surrounded by a final insulating layer. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). ... Map of Germany showing Leipzig Leipzig [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich: St. ...


AT&T laid the first coaxial cable between New York and Philadelphia, with automatic signal booster stations every 10 miles (16 km), and in 1937 they experimented with transmitting televised motion pictures over the line.[3] Bell Labs gave demonstrations of the New York-Philadelphia television link in 1940-1941. AT&T used the coaxial link to transmit the Republican national convention in June 1940 from Philadelphia to New York City, where it was televised to a few hundred receivers over the NBC station.[4] Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... An Icom Radio Repeater. ... Bell Telephone Laboratories or Bell Labs was originally the research and development arm of the United States Bell System, and was the premier corporate facility of its type, developing a range of revolutionary technologies from telephone switches to specialized coverings for telephone cables, to the transistor. ... GOP redirects here. ...


NBC had earlier demonstrated an inter-city television broadcast on February 1, 1940, from its station in New York City to another in Schenectady, New York by General Electric relay antennas, and began transmitting some programs on an irregular basis to Philadelphia and Schenectady in 1941. Wartime priorities suspended the manufacture of television and radio equipment for civilian use from April 1, 1942 to October 1, 1945, temporarily shutting down expansion of television networking. February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Union Colleges Nott Memorial, one of the most recognized buildings in Schenectady Schenectady (IPA ) is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. ... GE redirects here. ...


AT&T made its first postwar addition in February 1946, with the completion of a 225-mile (362 km) cable between New York City and Washington, D.C., although a blurry demonstration broadcast showed that it would not be in regular use for several months. NBC launched what it called "the world's first regularly operating television network" on June 27, 1947, serving New York, Philadelphia, Schenectady and Washington.[5] Baltimore and Boston were added to the NBC television network in late 1947. Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ... Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more, Balmerr,Bodymore, Murderland Motto: The Greatest City in America (formerly The City That Reads; Get In On It is not the citys motto, but rather the advertising slogan of the Baltimore Area Convention and Visitors Association; BELIEVE is not the... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe) (The State House, according to Oliver Wendell Holmes, is the hub of the Solar System), Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino...


References

  1. ^ "Coaxial Cable", Time, Oct. 14, 1935.
  2. ^ Television in Germany, Berlin, 1936.
  3. ^ "Television 'Piped' From New York to Philadelphia," Short Wave & Television, February 1938, pp. 534, 574-575.
  4. ^ GOP Convention of 1940 in Philadelphia, UShistory.org.
  5. ^ "Beginning," Time, July 7, 1947.

6. 2005 Book Publication: "We, the media...". On the Hollywood representation of news broadcasting industry, 1977-1999: http://www.peterlang.com/index.cfm?vID=51852&vLang=D&vHR=1&vUR=2&vUUR=1 (Clockwise from upper left) Notable Time magazine covers from the dates May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Notable Time magazine covers from the dates May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...


7. CNN Live channel


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Television network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (348 words)
A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations.
In the United States, television networks are simply identified as "networks" (such as ABC, CBS or NBC), while the local stations are identified by the station's call sign and city of license.
In Australia, television networks are identified by the channel number in the capital cities (such as Seven, Nine or Ten).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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