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Encyclopedia > Television encryption
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Television encryption, often referred to as "scrambling", is encryption used to control access to pay television services, usually cable or satellite television services. Jump to: navigation, search In cryptography, encryption is the process of obscuring information to make it unreadable without special knowledge. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house Cable television or Community Antenna Television (CATV) (often shortened to cable) is a system of providing television, FM radio programming and other services to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted directly to people’s televisions through fixed optical... Jump to: navigation, search Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites in highly-elliptical (with inclination of +/-63. ...

Contents


History

Originally, encryption was not used in pay television systems for controlling access to programming. Cable television systems have traditionally relied on controlling access by directly connecting and disconnecting the physical cable that provides programming from the subscriber's home to the actual cable network itself. Satellite television first began using encryption in 1986 when HBO began encrypting its signals. Jump to: navigation, search 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... HBO logo HBO (Home Box Office) is a premium cable television network. ...


Selective access

Cable and early satellite television encryption

A scrambled cable channel (algorithm unknown) as viewed without a decoder
A scrambled cable channel (algorithm unknown) as viewed without a decoder

Analog and digital pay television have several selective access systems that are used for pay per view (PPV) and other subscriber related services. Originally, analog-only cable TV systems relied on set-top boxes to control access to programming, as television sets originally were not "cable ready". Analog encryption was typically limited to "premium" channels such as HBO or channels with adult-oriented content. In those cases, various proprietary video synchronization suppression algorithms were used to control access to programming. Analog set-top boxes have largely been replaced by digital set-top boxes that can directly control access to programming as well as digitally encrypt signals. Image File history File links Scrambled_cable_channel. ... Image File history File links Scrambled_cable_channel. ... Pay-per-view is the system in which television viewers can purchase events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event to their homes later. ...


VideoCipher II RS (VCII RS) is the scrambling system that C-Band satellite pay TV channels originally used. A VCII-capable satellite receiver is required to decode VCII channels. VCII has largely been replaced by DigiCipher 2 in North America. Originally, VCII-based receivers had a separate modem technology for pay-per-view access known as Videopal. This technology became fully-integrated in later generation analog satellite television receivers. VideoCipher is a brand name of analog scrambling equipment for satellite television invented in the early 1980s by Linkabit systems, which was bought out by MA/COM in 1985. ... C band (compromise band) is a portion of electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4 to 6 GHz. ... DigiCipher 2, or simply DCII, is the name of the digital signal compression standard used on many communications satellite television and audio signals. ... Jump to: navigation, search World map showing North America (geographically) A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere, bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and...

  • VideoCipher I (deprecated)
  • VideoCipher II (deprecated)
  • VideoCipher II+
  • VideoCipher II RS (Renewable Security)

Digital cable and satellite television encryption

DigiCipher 2 is Motorola's proprietary video distribution system. DCII is based upon MPEG-2. A 4DTV satellite receiver is required to decode DCII channels. In North America, most digital cable programming is accessed with DigiCipher 2-based set-top boxes. 4DTV is the name of the digital TVRO communications satellite receiver box manufactured by Motorola. ... Digital cable is a term for a type of cable digital television that delivers more channels than possible with analog cable by using digital video compression. ...

PowerVu is another popular digital encryption technology used for non-residential usage. PowerVu was developed by Scientific Atlanta. Other commercial digital encryption systems are Irdeto (by Irdeto Access), Nagravision (by Kudelski), Viaccess (by France Telecom), and Wegener. DigiCipher 2, or simply DCII, is the name of the digital signal compression standard used on many communications satellite television and audio signals. ... Scientific Atlanta is a large manufacturer of cable television, telecommunications, and broadband equipment. ... Irdeto Access is a provider of content protection technologies for digital video and IP networks. ... Irdeto Access is a provider of content protection technologies for digital video and IP networks. ... // Nagravision Nagravision is a company which develops conditional access control for Cable and Satellite TV systems. ... Viaccess is an encrypting system for Digital television developed by France Télécom, it is used by TPS. There are three versions in use today, Viaccess PC2. ... Wegener may refer to: The disease Wegeners granulomatosis Alfred Wegener, German geologist and meteorologist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In the United States, both DirecTV and Dish Network direct broadcast satellite systems use digital encryption standards for controlling access to programming. DirecTV uses Videoguard, a system designed by NDS. DirecTV has the dubious distinction of being a relatively easy system to hack, which has led to an abundance of pirated access cards being available for that system. Dish Network uses Nagravision (1 and 2) encryption, which is thought to be a more secure encryption method. Jump to: navigation, search DirecTV is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States and the rest of the Americas. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dish Network is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that broadcasts digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, owned by EchoStar Communications Corporation. ... Direct broadcast satellite, or DBS, is a relatively recent development in the world of television distribution. ... VideoGuard is a conditional access television system produced by NDS. It is used almost exclusively on digital satellite television systems operated by News Corporation, who own a majority of NDS. It is also used on Viasat. ... // Nagravision Nagravision is a company which develops conditional access control for Cable and Satellite TV systems. ...


In Canada, both Bell ExpressVu and StarChoice DBS systems use digital encryption standards. Bell ExpressVu, like Dish Network, uses Nagravision for encryption. StarChoice uses a DigiCipher 2-based system very similar to that of 4DTV large dish satellite systems. Bell ExpressVu is the division of Bell Canada that sells digital television services in Canada. ... StarChoice is Canadas second direct broadcast satellite television distributor (the other being Bell ExpressVu), and is majority-owned by cable TV operator Shaw Communications Inc. ...


Older television encryption systems

  • Oak Orion

Oak Orion was originally used for analog satellite television pay channel access in Canada. It has been completely replaced by digital encryption technologies.

Leitch (aka Leitch Viewguard) is an analog encryption standard used primarily by broadcast TV networks in the United States. Its method of scrambling is by re-ordering the lines of video, but leaves the audio intact and listenable. It is only occasionally used today. Jump to: navigation, search Leitch Technololgy Corporation was a Canadian corporation based in Toronto, Ontario specializing in the design & manufacture of equipment for the broadcast television and video post-production industries. ...

  • B-MAC

B-MAC has not been used for DTH applications since Primestar switched to an all-digital delivery system in the mid-1990s. PrimeStar is a now-defunct U.S. direct broadcast satellite organization formed in 1991. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but otherwise retaining the same mindset. ...

  • Viewguard

Like VCII, the Viewguard system digitally encrypts video through the use of the cut and rotate method. The audio component of the satellite TV signal also is digitally encrypted.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Television encryption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (603 words)
Television encryption, often referred to as "scrambling", is encryption used to control access to pay television services, usually cable or satellite television services.
Cable television systems have traditionally relied on controlling access by directly connecting and disconnecting the physical cable that provides programming from the subscriber's home to the actual cable network itself.
Analog encryption was typically limited to "premium" channels such as HBO or channels with adult-oriented content.
InData Group - Institutional Video Networking (1141 words)
The other problem with broadcast television is that the signal is often distorted even in the viewing area.
The television satellites are all in geosynchronous orbit, meaning that they stay in one place in the sky relative to the Earth.
Encryption scrambles the digital data in such a way that it can only be decrypted (converted back into usable data) if the receiver has the correct decryption algorithm and security keys.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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