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Encyclopedia > Telescope

A telescope (from the Greek tele = 'far' and skopein = 'to look or see'; teleskopos = 'far-seeing') is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects. The term usually refers to optical telescopes, but there are telescopes for most of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation and for other signal types. Eight Inch refracting telescope. ... Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. ...

Contents

Types of telescope

50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory.
50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory.

Nice Observatory - 50cm Refractor Photograph available under GFDL license. ... Nice Observatory - 50cm Refractor Photograph available under GFDL license. ... The main cupola The 76-cm refractor at Nice Observatory The Nice Observatory (Observatoire de Nice) is located in Nice, France on the summit of Mont Gros. ...

Optical telescopes

Main article: Optical telescope

An optical telescope gathers and focuses light mainly from the visible part of the Electromagnetic spectrum (although some work in the infrared and ultraviolet). Optical telescopes increase the apparent angular size of distant objects, as well as their apparent brightness. Telescopes work by employing one or more curved optical elements - lenses or mirrors - to gather light or other electromagnetic radiation and bring that light or radiation to a focus, where the image can be observed, photographed or studied. Optical telescopes are used for astronomy and in many non-astronomical instruments including theodolites, transits, spotting scopes, monoculars, binoculars, camera lenses, and spyglasses. There are three main types: Eight Inch refracting telescope. ... An image that is partially in focus, but mostly out of focus in varying degrees. ... Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... “UV” redirects here. ... Angular size is a measurement of how large or small something is using rotational measurement (degrees of arc, arc_minutes, and arc-seconds). ... Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to emit a given amount of light. ... A lens. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... An image that is partially in focus, but mostly out of focus in varying degrees. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... An optical theodolite, manufactured in the Soviet Union in 1958 and used for topographic surveying. ... An optical theodolite, manufactured in the Soviet Union in 1958 and used for topographic surveying. ... A spotting scope is a portable telescope, optimized for the observation of terrestrial objects. ... A monocular is a modified refracting telescope used to magnify the images of distant objects by passing light through a series of lenses and prisms; the use of prisms results in a lightweight telescope. ... Porro-prism binoculars with central focusing Binocular telescopes, or binoculars, (also known as field glasses) are two identical or mirror-symmetrical telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point accurately in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects. ... A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an integrated system comprising one or more simple optical lens elements, used for a camera or microscope. ...

Image of a refracting telescope from the Cincinnati Observatory in 1848 A refracting or refractor telescope is a dioptric telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image. ... A reflecting telescope (reflector) is an optical telescope which uses a combination of curved and plane (flat) mirrors to reflect light and form an image (catoptric), rather than lenses to refract or bend light to form an image (dioptric). ... Optical systems which involve both lenses and mirrors. ...

Radio telescopes

The 76.0m Lovell radio telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory.
Main article: Radio telescope

Radio telescopes are directional radio antennae that often have a parabolic shape. The dishes are sometimes constructed of a conductive wire mesh whose openings are smaller than the wavelength being observed. Multi-element Radio telescopes are constructed from pairs or larger groups of these dishes to synthesize large "virtual" apertures that are similar in size to the separation between the telescopes: see aperture synthesis. As of 2005, the current record array size is many times the width of the Earth, utilizing space-based Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) telescopes such as the Japanese HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy) VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Program) satellite. Aperture synthesis is now also being applied to optical telescopes using optical interferometers (arrays of optical telescopes) and Aperture Masking Interferometry at single reflecting telescopes. Download high resolution version (800x890, 173 KB) The 76. ... Download high resolution version (800x890, 173 KB) The 76. ... The 76m Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory. ... The 64 meter radio telescope at Parkes Observatory A radio telescope is a form of directional radio antenna most often used in radio astronomy and in tracking and collecting data from satellites and space probes (see Deep Space Network), and are also used in the SETI project. ... Log-periodic dipole array A directional antenna is an antenna which transmits or receives maximum power in a particular direction. ... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna or aerial is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... The 64 meter radio telescope at Parkes Observatory A radio telescope is a form of directional radio antenna most often used in radio astronomy and in tracking and collecting data from satellites and space probes (see Deep Space Network), and are also used in the SETI project. ... Aperture synthesis is a type of interferometry that mixes signals from a collection instruments to produce measurements having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a type of astronomical interferometry used in radio astronomy, in which the data received at each antenna in the array is paired with timing information, usually from a local atomic clock, and then stored for later analysis on magnetic tape or hard disk. ... The HALCA satellite is an 8 meter diameter radio telescope used for Very Long Baseline Interferometry. ... This article is in need of attention. ... a) shows a simple experiment using an aperture mask in a re-imaged aperture plane. ...


X-ray and gamma-ray telescopes

X-ray and gamma-ray telescopes have a problem because these rays go through most metals and glasses. Some x-ray telescopes use ring-shaped "glancing" mirrors, made of heavy metals, that reflect the rays just a few degrees. The mirrors are usually a section of a rotated parabola. Gamma-ray telescopes give up on focusing entirely, and use coded aperture masks; the pattern of shadows the mask creates can be reconstructed to form an image. In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Gamma rays or gamma-ray (denoted as γ) are forms of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) or light emissions of a specific frequency produced from sub-atomic particle interaction, such as electron-positron annihilation and radioactive decay; most are generated from nuclear reactions occurring within the interstellar medium of space. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... A heavy metal is any of a number of higher atomic weight elements, which has the properties of a metallic substance at room temperature. ... This article describes the unit of angle. ... A parabola A graph showing the reflective property, the directrix (light blue), and the lines connecting the focus and directrix to the parabola (blue) In mathematics, the parabola (from the Greek: παραβολή) (IPA pronunciation: ) is a conic section generated by the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane...


These types of telescopes are usually on Earth-orbiting satellites or high-flying balloons, since the Earth's atmosphere is opaque to this part of the electromagnetic spectrum. An Earth observation satellite, ERS 2 For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[3] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ...

A diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum with the Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) and the types of telescopes used to image parts of the spectrum.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1650x1049, 189 KB)Plot of the transmittance/opacity of the atmosphere to electromagnetic radiation. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1650x1049, 189 KB)Plot of the transmittance/opacity of the atmosphere to electromagnetic radiation. ... Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High...

Other types

Porro-prism binoculars with central focusing Binocular telescopes, or binoculars, (also known as field glasses) are two identical or mirror-symmetrical telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point accurately in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects. ... An optical theodolite, manufactured in the Soviet Union in 1958 and used for topographic surveying. ... An optical theodolite, manufactured in the Soviet Union in 1958 and used for topographic surveying. ... A spotting scope is a portable telescope, optimized for the observation of terrestrial objects. ... A monocular is a modified refracting telescope used to magnify the images of distant objects by passing light through a series of lenses and prisms; the use of prisms results in a lightweight telescope. ... In photography and cinematography, a telephoto lens is a lens whose focal length is significantly longer than the focal length of a normal lens. ...

Notable telescopes

The Very Large Array at Socorro, New Mexico, United States.
The Very Large Array at Socorro, New Mexico, United States.

Very Large Array at Socorro, New Mexico, USA. Photo taken by Hajor, 08. ... Very Large Array at Socorro, New Mexico, USA. Photo taken by Hajor, 08. ... The Very Large Array (VLA) is a radio astronomy observatory located on the Plains of San Augustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, some fifty miles (80 km) west of Socorro, New Mexico, USA. U.S. Route 60 passes through the complex. ... The Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) is a 3. ... The Arecibo Observatory is located approximately 9 miles south-southwest from Arecibo, Puerto Rico (near the extreme southwestern corner of Arecibo pueblo). ... The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy project that consists of a system of radio telescopes in an array formation, located at Llano de Chajnantor Observatory in the Atacama desert in northern Chile. ... The Chandra X-ray Observatory is a satellite launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999. ... The CHARA Array is an astronomical optical interferometer operated by The Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) at Georgia State University. ... The Hale Telescope is the largest telescope at the Palomar Observatory. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... The IceCube Neutrino Detector is a neutrino telescope currently under construction at the South Pole. ... The INT dome by moonlight The Isaac Newton Telescope or INT is a 2. ... The Mauna Kea Observatory, an institute of the University of Hawaii, is considered one of the most important land-based observatories in the world for its isolated, unobstructed views of space without interference from man-made light sources. ... LIGO stands for Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. ... The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope is a 1. ... The McMath-Hulbert Solar Observatory located in Lake Angelus, Michiganis a decommissioned solar observatory which operated from 1929-1981. ... Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) is an astronomical observatory in Socorro County, New Mexico about 30 miles (48 kilometers) west of the town of Socorro. ... The Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is an interferometer operated by the US Naval Observatory, the Naval Research Laboratory and The Lowell Observatory. ... The big dish The Parkes Observatory is a radio telescope observatory, 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia. ... The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is a 10 metre (~32. ... Subaru Telescope (In Japanese: すばる望遠鏡) is the 8. ... The 1. ... The Very Large Array (VLA) is a radio astronomy observatory located on the Plains of San Augustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, some fifty miles (80 km) west of Socorro, New Mexico, USA. U.S. Route 60 passes through the complex. ... One of the four telescopes that make up the VLT, named Kueyen. ... This article is about the telescope on the Canary Islands. ... This article is about XMM-Newton. ...

See also

A group of Newtonian Telescopes at Perkins Observatory, Delaware, Ohio
A group of Newtonian Telescopes at Perkins Observatory, Delaware, Ohio

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1669 KB) A group of Newtonian telescopes at Perkins Observatory, Delaware, Ohio. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1669 KB) A group of Newtonian telescopes at Perkins Observatory, Delaware, Ohio. ... The Perkins Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Delaware, Ohio. ... The City of Delaware is located near the center of the state of Ohio, about 20 miles north of Columbus, Ohio. ... A 22 Newtonian reflector sits in front of the clubhouse at Stellafane, home of the Springfield Telescope Makers The field of amateur telescope making is considered an offshoot of the amateur astronomy community. ... Angular resolution describes the resolving power of any optical device such as a telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye. ... Aperture synthesis is a type of interferometry that mixes signals from a collection instruments to produce measurements having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Astronomy Common Object Model. ... BOOTES, the Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System, is located in Southern Spain and makes use of two sets of wide-field cameras, 240 km apart. ... In optics, particularly film and photography, the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus. ... A dynameter. ... A collection of different types of eyepieces. ... The first light is the moment when a telescope is first used to take an astronomical image after its construction. ... A 35mm lens set to f/11, as indicated by the white dot above the f-stop scale on the aperture ring In photography the f-number (focal ratio) expresses the diameter of the diaphragm aperture in terms of the effective focal length of the lens. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The following is a list of the largest optical reflecting telescopes sorted by mirror diameter. ... Paris 1900 exposition refractor. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... The Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML) is an XML dialect for controlling remote and/or robotic telescopes. ... A robotic telescope is an astronomical telescope and detector system that makes observations without the intervention of a human. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Timeline of telescopes, observatories, and observing technology. ...

External links

  • "The First Telescopes". Part of an exhibit from Cosmic Journey: A History of Scientific Cosmology by the American Institute of Physics
  • ESO 100-m telescope
  • The Resolution of a Telescope
  • Southern African Large Telescope (SALT)
  • The Digges telescope of the 1570s
  • The Swedish Solar telescope


  Results from FactBites:
 
Telescope - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2026 words)
Telescopes work by employing one or more curved optical elements - lenses or mirrors - to gather light or other electromagnetic radiation and bring that light or radiation to a focus, where the image can be observed, photographed or studied.
Newtonian or reflecting telescopes employ the reflective properties of light, using a concave paraboic primary mirror to collect and focus incoming light onto a flat secondary (diagonal) mirror that in turn reflects the image through an opening at the side of the main tube and into the eyepiece.
The telescope was aimed by the aid of a Foucault sidérostat, which is a movable plane mirror with a 2-meter diameter, mounted in a large cast-iron frame.
Encyclopedia4U - Telescope - Encyclopedia Article (1078 words)
Telescopes used for non-astronomical purposes are often referred to as transits, spotting scopes, monoculars, binoculars, camera lenses, or spyglasses.
The simpliest telescope mounting is an altazimuth mount.
The telescope was aimed by by the aid of a Foucault sidérostat, which is a movable plane mirror of diameter 6.56 feet, mounted in a large cast-iron frame.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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