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Encyclopedia > Teleprinter
Teletype machines in World War II
Teletype machines in World War II

A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY for TeleTYpe/TeleTYpewriter) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. WACs assigned to the Eighth Air Force in England operate Teletype machines during World War II. US Department of Defense photograph. ... WACs assigned to the Eighth Air Force in England operate Teletype machines during World War II. US Department of Defense photograph. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ...


The most modern form of these devices are fully electronic and use a screen instead of a printer. These teletypewriters are still in use by the deaf for typed communications over the telephone, usually called a TDD (Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf) or TTY (although TTY, as indicated in the previous paragraph, refers to teleprinters in general). A telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) is an electronic device for text communication via a telephone line, used when one or more of the parties has hearing or speech difficulties. ...


The teleprinter evolved through a series of inventions by a number of engineers, including Royal Earl House, David E. Hughes, Edward Kleinschmidt, Charles Krum and Emile Baudot. A predecessor to the teleprinter, the stock ticker machine, was used as early as the 1870s as a method of displaying text transmitted over wires. A specially-designed telegraph typewriter was used to send stock exchange information over telegraph wires to the ticker machines. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... David E. Hughes David Edward Hughes (May 16, 1831 - January 22, 1900) was an accomplished musician and a professor of music as well as chair of natural philosophy at St. ... Charles L. Krum was a key figure in the development of the Teletype, a machine which played a key role in the history of telegraphy and computing. ... Émile Baudot, (September 11, 1845 - March 28, 1903), French telegraph engineer and inventor of the Baudot code. ... Ticker tape was used by ticker tape machines, stock ticker machines, or just stock tickers. ... // Events and Trends Technology The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... Optical Telegraf of Claude Chappe on the Litermont near Nalbach, Germany Telegraph and telegram redirect here. ...

Contents

Teleprinter operation

Most teleprinters used the 5-bit Baudot code (also known as ITA2). This limited the character set to 32 codes. One had to use a "FIGS" shift key to type numbers and special characters. Special versions had FIGS codes for specific applications like weather reports. Print quality was poor by modern standards. The Baudot code was used asynchronously with start and stop bits: the asynchronous code design was intimately linked with the start-stop electro-mechanical design of teleprinters. (Early systems had used synchronous codes, but were hard to synchronise mechanically). Other codes, such as Fieldata and Flexowriter, were introduced but never became as popular as Baudot. The Baudot code, named after its inventor Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII and used originally and primarily on teleprinters. ... The Baudot code, named after its inventor Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII and used originally and primarily on teleprinters. ... The asynchronous start-stop is the more common of two basic modes of teletypewriter operation, allowing a common means of encoding characters over a serial link such as RS-232. ... Fieldata was a pioneering computer project run by the US Army Signal Corps in the late 1950s that intended to create a single standard for collecting and distributing battlefield information. ... The Friden Flexowriter was a teleprinter based on a 1940s IBM product that was spun off as an independent company and later sold to the Friden Corp. ...


Mark and space are terms describing logic levels in teletype circuits. The native mode of communication for a teletype is a simple series DC circuit that is interrupted, much like a rotary dial interrupts a telephone signal. The marking condition is when the circuit is closed, the spacing condition is when the circuit is open. The start of a character is signalled by a space. The stop bits are marking. When the line is broken, a teletype cycles continuously but prints nothing because it is receiving all zeros, the ASCII (or Baudot) NUL character. Each teletype circuit was leased from AT&T and consisted of twisted pair copper wires through ordinary telephone cables. These teletype circuits were wired in series but were not connected to telephone switches. The rotary dial is a device mounted on or in a telephone or switchboard that is designed to send interrupted electrical pulses, known as pulse dialing, corresponding to the number dialled. ... There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The Baudot code, named after its inventor Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII and used originally and primarily on teleprinters. ...


The teletype circuit was often linked to a paper tape punch and reader, allowing messages received to be resent on another circuit. Complex military and commercial communications networks were built using this technology. Message centers had rows of teleprinters and large racks for paper tapes awaiting transmission. Skilled operators could read the priority from the hole pattern and might even feed a "FLASH PRIORITY" tape into a reader while it was still coming out of the punch. Routine traffic often had to wait hours for relay. Many teleprinters had built-in paper tape readers and punches, allowing messages to be created and edited off-line. A roll of punched tape Punched tape is an old-fashioned form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. ... In telecommunication, the term off-line has the following meanings: 1. ...


More than two teleprinters could be connected to the same wire circuit by means of a current loop. Communication by radio, RTTY, was also common. Amateur radio operators still use this communications mode. A current loop describes two different electrical signalling schemes. ... RadioTeleType (RTTY) is a telecommunications system consisting of two teleprinters linked by a radio link. ... Ham radio station with separate transmitter, receiver and power supply. ...


Teletype machines

Teletype model 33-ASR
Teletype model 33-ASR

Teletype was a trademark of the Teletype Corporation of Skokie, Illinois, USA. The predecessor Morkrum Company was founded in 1906 by Charles Krum and Mr. Joy Morton (of Morton Salt). They made their first commercial installation of a printing telegraph with the Postal Telegraph Company in Boston and New York in 1910. It became popular with railroads, and the Associated Press adopted it in 1914 for their wire service. Morkrum merged with their competitor E.E. Kleinschmidt to become Morkrum-Kleinschmidt Corporation shortly before being renamed the Teletype Corporation. The company became part of AT&T in 1930. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (511x857, 146 KB) Teletype ASR33, photographed in the HNF (Heinz-Nixdorf Computer Forum), one of the biggest computer museums world wide. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (511x857, 146 KB) Teletype ASR33, photographed in the HNF (Heinz-Nixdorf Computer Forum), one of the biggest computer museums world wide. ... Skokie is a village located in Cook County, Illinois. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 0 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Morton Salt is a United States company specializing in the production of salt for food, water conditioning, industrial, agricultural, and road/highway use. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Official language(s) None Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... This article describes the present AT&T Inc. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ...


The two parts kept their own peculiar design styles. "Teletype" machines tended to be large, heavy, and extremely robust-- capable of running non-stop for months at a time. In particular the Model 15 and Model 28 lines had very strong cast-iron frames, heavy-duty mechanisms, and heavy sound-proofed cases. The "Kleinschmidt" line tended to be somewhat more typewriter-like-- lighter, quieter-- more aluminum and less iron.


Operations ceased around 1990. This article is about the year. ...


Teletype machines were given a model number, often followed by letters indicating the configuration:

  • RO - Receive only
  • KSR - Keyboard send and receive
  • ASR - Automatic send and receive (i.e. built-in paper tape reader and punch)

Major models and their dates:

  • 12 - 1922 - the first general purpose teletype
  • 14 - 1925 - about 60,000 were built
  • 15 - 1930 - the mainstay of U.S. military communications in WWII. About 200,000 were built
  • 20 - 1950s - upper/lower case printer machine with four rows of keys, using a six-bit code for TeleTypeSetter (TTS) use
  • 28 - 1950s - regarded as the most rugged machine Teletype ever built
  • 29 - 1950s - eight-bit machine using an IBM BCD code
  • 32/33 - 1961 - a low-cost, all-mechanical design. The 32 was Baudot, the 33 ASCII, but still upper case only. The 33 ASR was ubiquitous as a console device in the early minicomputer era
  • 35 - 1961 - an ASCII version of the model 28
  • 38 - 1970s - upper/lower case, wide carriage version of the model 33
  • 42/43 - 1979 - an electronic, dot-matrix printer design, 42 being Baudot and 43 ASCII

Earlier Teletype machines had 3 rows of keys and only supported upper case letters. They used the 5 bit baudot code and generally worked at 60 words per minute. Teletypes with ASCII code were an innovation that came into widespread use in the same period as computers began to become widely available. 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The 1950s was the decade spanning from the 1st of January, 1950 to the 31st December, 1959. ... The 1950s was the decade spanning from the 1st of January, 1950 to the 31st December, 1959. ... The 1950s was the decade spanning from the 1st of January, 1950 to the 31st December, 1959. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Introduced about 1963, Teletype Corporations ASR33 was a very popular model of teleprinter. ... The console is the text output device for system administration messages, particularly those from the BIOS or boot loader, the kernel, from the init system and from the system logger. ... Minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (traditionally, mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer normally refers to a type of computer printer with a print-head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. ... The Baudot code, named after its inventor Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII and used originally and primarily on teleprinters. ...


Speed, intended to be roughly comparable to words per minute, was the standard designation introduced by Western Union for a mechanical teleprinter data transmission rate using the 5-bit baudot code that was popular in the 1940s and for several decades thereafter. Such a machine would send 1 start bit, 5 data bits, and 1.42 stop bits. This unusual stop bit time was actually a rest period to allow the mechanical printing mechanism to recycle. Since modern computer equipment cannot easily generate 1.42 bits for the stop period, common practice is to either approximate this with 1.5 bits, or to send 2.0 bits while accepting 1.0 bits receiving. Words per minute, commonly abbreviated wpm, is a measure of input or output speed. ... The Western Union Company (NYSE: WU) is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. ... The Baudot code, named after its inventor Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII and used originally and primarily on teleprinters. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ...


For example, a 60 speed machine is geared at 45.5 baud (22.0 ms per bit), a 66 speed machine is geared at 50.0 baud (20.0 ms per bit), a 75 speed machine is geared at 56.9 baud (17.5 ms per bit), a 100 speed machine is geared at 74.2 baud (13.5 ms per bit), and a 133 speed machine is geared at 100.0 baud (10.0 ms per bit). Only 66 speed was in common use commercially for news agency wires and similar services, with migration to 100 speed as more reliable devices were introduced. Military users tended to operate at 60 speed, and the widespread availability of military surplus equipment during the 1960s made this the de facto standard for amateur radio RTTY operation. Most Teletype sound effects in existence today are at 60 speed, and mostly of the Model 15. In telecommunications and electronics, baud (pronounced , unit symbol Bd) is a measure of the symbol rate, that is the number of distinct symbolic changes (signalling event) made to the transmission medium per second in a digitally modulated signal. ... One millisecond is one-thousandth of a second. ... In telecommunications and electronics, baud (pronounced , unit symbol Bd) is a measure of the symbol rate, that is the number of distinct symbolic changes (signalling event) made to the transmission medium per second in a digitally modulated signal. ... A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... Military surplus are goods, usually matériel, that are sold at public auction when no longer needed by the military. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Ham radio station with separate transmitter, receiver and power supply. ... RadioTeleType (RTTY) is a telecommunications system consisting of two teleprinters linked by a radio link. ... Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ...


Another measure of the speed of a Teletype machine was in total operations per minute (OPM). For example, 60 speed was usually 368 OPM, 66 speed was 404 OPM, 75 speed was 460 OPM, and 100 speed was 600 OPM. Western Union Telexes were usually set at 390 OPM, with 7.0 total bits instead of the customary 7.42 bits.


A major difference should be noted between the majority of "teletypes" and the Model 26, 32, 33 and 38 series. All the older teletypes were built for heavy-duty 24-hour continuous use with only occasional oiling and cleaning, and a eventual lifetime of tens of thousands of hours until completely worn out. By contrast, the Model 26, 32, 33, and 38's were designed for light-duty use, just a few hours a day, and wearing out beyond economical refurbishment in just a few thousand hours. The older models were built with long-lasting parts: steel levers, ball-bearings, cast-iron frames. The 26, 32,33, and 38 were mostly "monkey-metal" castings, thin levers, plastic gears, and plastic cases.


The Model 15 stands out as one of a few machines that remained in production for many many decades. It was introduced in 1935 and remained in production until 1963, a total of 28 years of continuous production. Very few complex machines can match that record. To be fair, the production run was stretched somewhat by World War II-- the Model 28 was scheduled to replace the Model 15 in the mid-1940's, but Teletype built so many factories to produce the Model 15 during World War II, it was more economical to continue mass production of Model 15's for another couple of decades.


There were about 100,000 33-ASR Teletypes made in total. Now any personal computer equipped with a serial port can emulate the functionality of a Teletype. About the only feature that was required by Teletypes that has been generally abandoned is that a real Teletype required two stop bits to work reliably, so that each ASCII character (7 bits plus one parity bit) took 11 bit times. This is why 100 word per minute Teletypes transmitted at 110 baud. Today, most asynchronous serial data connections use one stop bit. A male DE-9 connector used for a serial port on a PC style computer. ... There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... A parity bit is a binary digit that indicates whether the number of bits with value of one in a given set of bits is even or odd. ...


Telex

A global teleprinter network, called the Telex network, was established in the 1920s, and was used through most of the 20th century for business communications. The main difference from a standard teleprinter is that telex includes a switched routing network, originally based on pulse-telephone dialing. AT&T developed a competing network called TWX. Telex is still in use for certain applications such as shipping, news, weather reporting and military command. Many business applications have moved to the Internet. Optical Telegraf of Claude Chappe on the Litermont near Nalbach, Germany Telegraph and telegram redirect here. ... The 1920s was a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Look up Telephone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Optical Telegraf of Claude Chappe on the Litermont near Nalbach, Germany Telegraph and telegram redirect here. ...

Further information: telegraphy

Optical Telegraf of Claude Chappe on the Litermont near Nalbach, Germany Telegraph and telegram redirect here. ...

TeleTypeSetter

In addition to the 5-bit Baudot code and the much later eight-bit ASCII code, there was a six-bit code known as the TTS code (TeleTypeSetter) used by news wire services. A Model 20 Teletype machine with a punch ("reperforator") was installed at subscriber newspaper sites. Originally these machines would simply punch paper tapes and these tapes could be fed directly to a suitably equipped Linotype machine. In later years the incoming 6-bit current loop signal was coupled directly into a minicomputer or mainframe for editing and eventual feed to a phototypesetting machine.


Teleprinters in computing

Some of the earliest computers (for example, the LGP-30) used teleprinters for input and output. Teleprinters were also used as the first interactive computer terminals. They had no video display. Users typed commands after a prompt character appeared. This was the origin of the text terminal and the command line interface. The paper tape function was sometimes used to prepare input for the computer session offline, or to capture computer output. The popular ASR33 teletype used 7-bit ASCII code (with an eighth parity bit) instead of Baudot. The common modem communications settings, Start/Stop Bits and Parity, stem from the teletype era. The LGP-30, made by the Librascope division of General Precision, Inc. ... A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. ... A computer display is an interface between the computer and the operator. ... Command Prompt on Windows XP. A command prompt (or just prompt) is a character or string of characters used in a command line interface to indicate that the computer is ready to accept typed input. ... A typical text terminal produces input and displays output and errors A text terminal or often just terminal (sometimes text console) is a serial computer interface for text entry and display. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Command prompt. ... Introduced about 1963, Teletype Corporations ASR33 was a very popular model of teleprinter. ... There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... A parity bit is a binary digit that indicates whether the number of bits with value of one in a given set of bits is even or odd. ... A modem (from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ...


In computing, especially under Unix and Unix-like operating systems, teletypewriter has become the name for any text terminal, like an external console device, a user dialing in to the system on a modem on a serial port device, or even a terminal emulator application in the window system using a pseudo terminal device. Such devices have the prefix tty, such as /dev/tty13. Even USB ports on Linux are usually named like /dev/ttyUSB0 even though no USB teleprinter was ever made. Originally, the word computing was synonymous with counting and calculating, and a science and technology that deals with the original sense of computing mathematical calculations. ... Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy. ... An operating system (OS) is a computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... Knoppix system console showing the boot process The system console, root console or simply console is the text entry and display device for system administration messages, particularly those from the BIOS or boot loader, the kernel, from the init system and from the system logger. ... A modem (from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... A male DE-9 connector used for a serial port on a PC style computer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Overview In Unix, a pseudo terminal is a kernel device pair that simulates an ordinary terminal but without the associated terminal hardware. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... Linux, or GNU/Linux, refers to any Unix-like computer operating system which uses the Linux kernel. ...


Teleprinters in popular culture

  • The characteristic rhythmic "chunking" sound of a teleprinter in operation has long been audio shorthand for news, and countless television news themes have been based on musical emulations of the staccato teleprinter sound.
  • A misprint caused by a bug falling into a teleprinter sets into motion the plot of Terry Gilliam's Brazil.

NEWS is the abbreviation of North,East,West,South. ... Television news refers to the practice of disseminating current events via the media of television. ... The theme music of a radio or television program is a piece that is written specifically for that show and usually played during the title sequence and/or end credits. ... John Michael Crichton (born October 23, 1942, pronounced [1]) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... The Andromeda Strain is a techno-thriller novel by author Michael Crichton about a team of scientists who investigate a deadly disease of extraterrestrial origin which causes rapid, fatal clotting of the blood. ... Terry Gilliam at Karlovy Vary 2006. ...

See also

Creed & Company was a British company founded by Frederick George Creed, and was first incorporated in 1912 as Creed, Bille & Company Limited. The company dealt with teleprinter equipment. ... A letter-quality printer was a form of computer impact printer that was able to print with the quality typically expected from a business typewriter such as an IBM Selectric. ...

External links

Patents

  • U.S. Patent 1665594  "Telegraph printer" (Type 12 Teletype), filed June 1924, issued April 1928
  • U.S. Patent 1745633  "Telegraph receiver" (Type 14 Teletype), filed December 1924, issued February 1930
  • U.S. Patent 1904164  "Signalling system and apparatus therefor" (Type 15 Teletype) - filed July 1930, issued April 1933

  Results from FactBites:
 
Teleprinter encryption (327 words)
Soon after the first teleprinters were put into operation, equipment for the encryption of teleprinter signals was constructed.
The teleprinter could be directly connected to the cipher equipment, hence it was possible to transmit and receive in ``real time'', so saving a lot of time.
In the crypto department this encryption method, consisting of adding a key character to a plaintext character, irrespective of how the key character was generated, was called ``overlaying''.
Teleprinter Summary (2167 words)
Because Telex I teleprinters use the Baudot code and Telex II (TWX) teleprinters use the ASCII code, and transmit at different speeds, exchange of messages between the two systems is somewhat delayed while a processing computer does the necessary conversions.
A predecessor to the teleprinter, the stock ticker machine, was used as early as the 1870s as a method of displaying text transmitted over wires.
A global teleprinter network, called the Telex network, was established in the 1920s, and was used through most of the 20th century for business communications.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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