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Encyclopedia > Telepathy
Paranormal Terminology
An experiment in sensory deprivation aiming to demonstrate TP
Details
Terminology: Telepathy (TP)
Definition: The transference of thoughts of feelings between two or more subjects through Psi
Signature: One subject said to gain information from another that was shielded from their traditional senses by distance, time, or physical barriers.
Misc
Coined by: Fredric W. H. Myers (1882) [1]
AKA: Thought-transference
See Also: Extra-sensory perception,
Anomalous cognition,
Ganzfeld experiment

Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, "remote"; and πάθεια, patheia, "to be effected by", describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses.[2][1] The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Fredric W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research,[1] and has superseded earlier expressions such as thought-transference.[2][1] Telepathy and telekinesis are the main branches of Psi research. Image File history File links Ganzfeld. ... In parapsychology, psi is defined as the active agent by which mind influences matter and is able to receive ESP impressions. ... Extra-sensory perception (ESP) is defined in parapsychology as the ability to aquire information by paranormal means. ... Anomalous cognition is a general term describing a transfer of information to a subject through currently unknown means. ... The ganzfeld (total field) experiment uses audio and visual sensory deprivation to test for extra-sensory perception (ESP). ... Senses Senses are a UK based alternative rock band from Coventry. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) was founded in 1882 by three dons of Trinity College, Cambridge, Edmund Gurney, Frederic William Henry Myers, and Henry Sidgwick, because of their interest in spiritualism. ... Psychokinesis (Greek ψυχή + κίνησις, literally spirit-movement)[1][2] or PK, also known as telekinesis[3] (Greek + , literally distant-movement referring to telekinesis) or TK, is the proposed paranormal ability of the mind to influence matter or energy without the use of any currently known type of physical means. ... In parapsychology, psi is defined as the active agent by which mind influences matter and is able to receive ESP impressions. ...


A person who is able to make use of telepathy is said to be able to read the minds of others.

Contents

Telepathy in parapsychology

Within the field of Parapsychology, telepathy is considered to be a form of extra-sensory perception (ESP) or anomalous cognition in which information is transfered through Psi. It is often categorized similarly to precognition and clairvoyance.[3] Various experiments have been used to test for telepathic abilities. Among the most well know are the use of Zener cards and the Ganzfeld experiment. Parapsychology is the study of certain types of paranormal phenomena (parapsychology comes from the Greek para, “beside, beyond,” + psychology, derived from the Greek psyche, “soul, mind,” + logos “rational discussion”). The term was coined by Max Dessoir (1889). ... Extra-sensory perception (ESP) is defined in parapsychology as the ability to aquire information by paranormal means. ... Anomalous cognition is a general term describing a transfer of information to a subject through currently unknown means. ... In parapsychology, precognition (from the Latin præ-, “prior to,” + cognitio, “a getting to know”) is a form of extra-sensory perception wherein a person perceives information about future places or events before they happen (as distinct from merely predicting them based on deductive reasoning and current knowledge). ... In parapsychology, clairvoyance [from late 17th century French clair (clear) and voyant (seeing)] denotes a form of extra-sensory perception in which a psychic acquires knowledge about a contemporary object, situation, or event by paranormal means. ... Zener cards Zener cards are cards used to conduct experiments for extra-sensory perception, most often clairvoyance. ... The ganzfeld (total field) experiment uses audio and visual sensory deprivation to test for extra-sensory perception (ESP). ...

Zener cards are cards marked with five distinctive symbols. When using them, one individual is designated the "sender" and another the "receiver". The sender must select a random card and visualize the symbol on it, while the receiver must attempt to determine that symbol using Psi. Statistically, the receiver has a 20% chance of randomly guessing the correct symbol, so in order to demonstrate telepathy, they must score a success rate that is notably higher than 20% and on numerous occasions.[4] If not conducted properly, the experimental results can be distorted by sensory leakage and card counting.[4] Image File history File links Cartas_Zener. ... Image File history File links Cartas_Zener. ... Zener cards Zener cards are cards used to conduct experiments for extra-sensory perception, most often clairvoyance. ... Sensory leakage is a term used to refer to information that transferred to a person by conventional means (means other than Psi) during an experiment into Psi. ... Card counting is a card game strategy used to determine when a player has a probability advantage. ...


When using the Ganzfeld experiment to test for telepathy, one individual is designated the receiver and is placed inside a controlled environment where they are deprives of sensory input, and another is designated the sender and is placed in a separate location. The receiver is then required to receive information from the sender. The exact nature of the information may vary between experiments.[5] The ganzfeld (total field) experiment uses audio and visual sensory deprivation to test for extra-sensory perception (ESP). ... A prisoner at the United States Camp X-ray facility at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba being subjected to sensory deprivation, through the use of ear muffs, visor, breathing mask and heavy mittens. ...


Types of telepathy

Parapsychology describes several different forms of telepathy, including latent telepathy and precognitive telepathy.[2] Parapsychology is the study of certain types of paranormal phenomena (parapsychology comes from the Greek para, “beside, beyond,” + psychology, derived from the Greek psyche, “soul, mind,” + logos “rational discussion”). The term was coined by Max Dessoir (1889). ...


Latent Telepathy, formerly known as "deferred telepathy", [6] is described as being the transfer of information, through Psi, with an observable time-lag between transmission and receipt.[2]


Precognitive Telepathy is described as being the transfer of information, through Psi, about the future state of an individual's mind.[2]


Future of telepathy

Converging Technologies, a 2002 report exploring the potential for synergy among nano-, bio-, informational and cognitive technologies (NBIC) for enhancing human performance.

Some people, occasionally referred to by themselves or others as "transhumanists", believe that technologically enabled telepathy, coined "techlepathy", will be the inevitable future of humanity. Kevin Warwick of the University of Reading, England is one of the leading proponents of this view and has based all of his recent Cybernetics research around developing practical, safe devices for directly connecting human nervous systems together with computers and with each other. He believes techno-enabled telepathy will in the future become the primary form of human communication. He predicts that this will happen by means of the principle of natural selection, through which nearly everyone will have the need for such technology for economic and social reasons.[7][8] Image File history File links Converging_technologies. ... Image File history File links Converging_technologies. ... Natasha Vita-Mores Primo is an artistic depiction of a hypothetical posthuman of transhumanist speculation. ... Kevin Warwick is a cybernetics professor at the University of Reading, England. ... The University of Reading is a Red brick, campus university in the English town of Reading, UK. Established in 1892, receiving its Royal Charter in 1926, the University has a long tradition of research, education and training at a local, national and international level. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Cybernetics is the study of communication and control, typically involving regulatory feedback in living organisms, machines and organisations, as well as their combinations. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


Skepticism and controversy

The field which studies certain types of paranormal phenomena such as telepathy is called parapsychology. There is a consensus within that field that some instances of telepathy are real.[9][10] Skeptics say that instances of what seem to be telepathy are explained as the result of fraud or self-delusion and that telepathy does not exist as a paranormal power.[11] Paranormal is an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of reported anomalous phenomena. ... Parapsychology is the study of certain types of paranormal phenomena (parapsychology comes from the Greek para, “beside, beyond,” + psychology, derived from the Greek psyche, “soul, mind,” + logos “rational discussion”). The term was coined by Max Dessoir (1889). ...


Parapsychologists and skeptics agree that many of the instances of more popular psychic phenomena such as mediumism, can be attributed to non-paranormal techniques such as cold reading.[12][13][14] Magicians such as Ian Rowland and Derren Brown have demonstrated techniques and results similar to those of popular psychics, but they proffer psychological explanations instead of paranormal ones. They have identified, described, and developed complex psychological techniques of cold reading and hot reading. Mediumship is a term used mostly in spiritualism to denote the ability to produce psi phenomena of a mental or physical nature. ... For the theatrical training technique, see Cold reading (theatrical). ... Ian Rowland is a mentalist who lives in London, England. ... Derren Brown (born February 27, 1971) is an English psychological illusionist and skeptic of paranormal phenomena. ... For the theatrical training technique, see Cold reading (theatrical). ... In parapsychology, hot reading is the use of foreknowledge when giving a psychic reading. ...


A technique which shows statistically significant evidence of telepathy on every occasion has yet to be discovered. This lack of reliable reproducibility has led skeptics to argue that there is no credible scientific evidence for the existence of telepathy at all.[15] Skeptics also point to historical cases in which were discovered flaws in experimental design and occasional cases of fraud.[15] Parapsychologists such as Dean Radin, president of the Parapsychological Association, argues that the statistical significance and consistency of results shown by a meta-analysis of numerous studies provides evidence for telepathy that is almost impossible to account for using any other means.[5] Dean Radin is a researcher in parapsychology. ... The Parapsychological Association was formed in 1957 as a professional society for parapsychologists following an initiative by J.B. Rhine. ... A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ...


Telepathy in fiction

Telepathy is commonly used in fiction, with a number of superheroes and supervillains, as well as figures in many science fiction novels, etc., use telepathy. Notable fictional telepaths include the Jedi in Star Wars, Betazoids and Vulcans in Star Trek; Matt Parkman from the TV series Heroes; and J'onn J'onnz, Charles Xavier and Jean Grey from the Marvel and DC comic universes. For the Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode, see Super Hero (Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode). ... Doctor Doom, one of the most archetypal supervillains and his arch-enemies The Fantastic Four (in background). ... Jedi Master Qui-Gon Jinn (right) with his padawan Obi-Wan Kenobi (left) from The Phantom Menace. ... Opening logo to the Star Wars films Star Wars is an epic science fiction-fantasy, Star Wars started as a outer space saga and fictional universe created by writer/producer/director George Lucas, behind the story during the late 1970s. ... In the fictional Star Trek universe, Betazoids are a sentient humanoid species from the planet Betazed, a member of the United Federation of Planets. ... Vulcans are a humanoid species in the fictional Star Trek universe who reside on the planet Vulcan and are noted for their attempt to live by reason and logic. ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction franchise. ... Matthew Matt Parkman is a fictional character played by Greg Grunberg in the 2006 NBC drama Heroes with the ability to read minds. ... Heroes is an American science fiction drama television series, created by Tim Kring, which premiered on NBC on September 25, 2006. ... Martian Manhunter (Jonn Jonzz), alternately known as the Manhunter from Mars, is a comic book superhero who appears in DC Comics. ... Professor Charles Francis Xavier, also known as Professor X, is a fictional comic book superhero and founder of the X-Men in the Marvel Universe. ... This article or section on a comics-related subject may need to be cleaned up and rewritten because it describes a work of fiction in a primarily in-universe style. ... Marvel Comics (Stan Lee is behind many of the superheros) is an American comic book line published by Marvel Publishing, Inc. ... DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ...


The mechanics of telepathy in fiction vary widely. Some fictional telepaths are limited to receiving only thoughts that are deliberately sent by other telepaths, or even to receiving thoughts from a specific other person. For example, in Robert A. Heinlein's 1956 novel Time for the Stars, certain pairs of twins are able to send telepathic messages to each other. Some telepaths can read the thoughts only of those they touch. At the opposite end of the spectrum, some telepathic characters continuously sense the thoughts of those around them and may control or dampen this ability only with difficulty, or not at all. In such cases, telepathy is often portrayed as a mixed blessing or as a curse. Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Time for the Stars is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1956. ... Fraternal twin boys in the tub The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day. ...


Some fictional telepaths possess mind control abilities, which can include "pushing" thoughts, feelings, or hallucinatory visions into the mind of another person, causing pain, paralysis, or unconsciousness, altering or erasing memories, or completely taking over another person's mind and body (similar to spiritual possession). An example of this type of telepath include the Carpathians from the novels in the Dark Series. Characters with this ability may or may not also have the ability to read thoughts. Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Spiritual possession is a concept of many religions and tales, where it is believed that a demon, or disincarnate being, may take temporary control of a human body, resulting in noticeable changes in behaviour. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Dark Series is the name for a collection of paranormal/romance novels by the American author Christine Feehan which feature the Carpathians (race). ...


See also a composite list of fictional characters with telepathy.


See also

Origin of the brain's magnetic field

Image File history File links Magnetoencephalography. ... Image File history File links Magnetoencephalography. ... Empathy (from the Greek εμπάθεια, to make suffer) is commonly defined as ones ability to recognize, perceive and directly experientially feel the emotion of another. ... In parapsychology, precognition (from the Latin præ-, “prior to,” + cognitio, “a getting to know”) is a form of extra-sensory perception wherein a person perceives information about future places or events before they happen (as distinct from merely predicting them based on deductive reasoning and current knowledge). ... Parapsychology is the study of certain types of paranormal phenomena (parapsychology comes from the Greek para, “beside, beyond,” + psychology, derived from the Greek psyche, “soul, mind,” + logos “rational discussion”). The term was coined by Max Dessoir (1889). ... Psychokinesis (Greek ψυχή + κίνησις, literally spirit-movement)[1][2] or PK, also known as telekinesis[3] (Greek + , literally distant-movement referring to telekinesis) or TK, is the proposed paranormal ability of the mind to influence matter or energy without the use of any currently known type of physical means. ... Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the measurement of the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain, usually conducted externally, using extremely sensitive devices such as SQUIDs. ... The concept of neural oscillations is close to the concept of brain waves. ... A morphogenetic field, according to biologist Rupert Sheldrake, is a biological (and potentially social) equivalent to an electromagnetic field that operates to shape the exact form of a living thing, as part of its epigenetics, and may also shape its behaviour and coordination with other beings. ... In parapsychology, clairvoyance [from late 17th century French clair (clear) and voyant (seeing)] denotes a form of extra-sensory perception in which a psychic acquires knowledge about a contemporary object, situation, or event by paranormal means. ... In parapsychology, a Mentalist, as opposed to a psychic, is defined as someone who is believed not only to be able to read information mentally, but also to alter that information. ... Clever Hans performs Clever Hans (in German, der Kluge Hans) was a horse that was apparently trained to perform arithmetic and other intellectual tasks. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Non-verbal behaviour related to movement, either of any part of the body or the body as a whole. ... Seven Experiments That Could Change the World is the name of a book by Rupert Sheldrake. ... Rupert Sheldrake Dr. Rupert Sheldrake, born 28th June 1942 [1] is a British biologist and author. ... A morphogenetic field, according to biologist Rupert Sheldrake, is a biological (and potentially social) equivalent to an electromagnetic field that operates to shape the exact form of a living thing, as part of its epigenetics, and may also shape its behaviour and coordination with other beings. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Carroll, Robert Todd (2005). The Skeptic's Dictionary; Telepathy. SkepDic.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-13.
  2. ^ a b c d e Glossary of Parapsychological terms - Telepathy — Parapsychological Association, Retrieved Dec 19, 2006
  3. ^ Glossary of Parapsychological terms - ESP, Parapsychological Association, Retrieved Dec 19, 2006
  4. ^ a b Carroll, Robert (2006-02-17). Zener ESP Cards. The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  5. ^ a b The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena by Dean I. Radin Harper Edge, ISBN 0-06-251502-0
  6. ^ Rennie, John (1845), "Test for Telepathy", Scientific American,V3#1 (1847-09-25)
  7. ^ Dvorsky, George (2004). Evolving Towards Telepathy. Betterhumans.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  8. ^ TakeAway Media (2000). "Leviathan: Back to the Future: An interview with Kevin Warwick". BBC Two. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  9. ^ "What is parapsychology?" From the FAQ of the website of the Parapsychological Association, Retrieved February 3, 2007
  10. ^ "What is the state-of-the-evidence for psi?" From the FAQ of the website of the Parapsychological Association, Retrieved February 3, 2007
  11. ^ Skepdic.com on ESP, Retrieved February 22, 2007
  12. ^ Eberhard Bauer: Criticism and Controversy in Parapsychology - An Overview. European Journal of Parapsychology (1984), 5, 141-166, Retrieved February 09, 2007.
  13. ^ O',Keeffe, Ciarán and Wiseman Richard: Testing alleged mediumship: Methods and results. British Journal of Psychology (2005), 96, 165–17.
  14. ^ Rowland, Ian: The Full Facts Book of Cold Reading
  15. ^ a b See for examples, Randi, James. Flim-Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns, and Other Delusions. Prometheus Books (June 1982) ISBN-10: 0879751983 or
    Charpak, Georges and Henri Broch. Translated by Bart K. Holland. Debunked!: ESP, Telekinesis, and Other Pseudoscience. The Johns Hopkins University Press (March 25, 2004), ISBN-10: 0801878675

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... The Parapsychological Association was formed in 1957 as a professional society for parapsychologists following an initiative by J.B. Rhine. ... The Parapsychological Association was formed in 1957 as a professional society for parapsychologists following an initiative by J.B. Rhine. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Skeptics Dictionary is a web site with a collection of cross-referenced skeptical essays by Robert Todd Carroll, PhD. It primarily exposes claims that its editors consider pseudoscientific. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ...

External links

  • Evolving Towards Telepathy – an article on the potential for technologically endowed telepathy, or "techlepathy"
  • California Institute of Technology study using implanted electrodes in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vPF), yielding findings on predicting the intentions of subjects to make movements
  • PDF article in Nature Neuroscience on "Spatial selectivity in human ventrolateral prefrontal cortex"
  • Quantum Physicist Nick Herbert Ponders Instantaneous Communication
  • Primary Quantum Model of Telepathy (PDF)
  • Soal-Goldney Experiment - a critical evaluation of the Soal-Goldney Experiment, which claimed to prove the existence of telepathy

  Results from FactBites:
 
Telepathy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (411 words)
Telepathy (from the Greek τηλε, tele, "distant"; and πάθεια, patheia, "feeling") is the claimed ability of humans and other creatures to communicate information from one mind to another, without the use of extra tools such as speech or body language.
Considered a form of extra-sensory perception or anomalous cognition, telepathy is often connected to various paranormal phenomena such as precognition, clairvoyance and empathy.
Western scientific investigation of telepathy is generally recognized as having begun with the initial program or research of the Society for Psychical Research.
Telepathy - LoveToKnow 1911 (1216 words)
Although the word "telepathy" was first suggested by F. Myers in 1882, the suggestion had long before been made that the transmission of ideas, images and sensations could be brought about by other than the normally operative motor and sensory apparatus of the body.
More than one writer had explained wraiths at the moment of death, clairvoyance and the phenomena of spiritualism by the theory of "brain waves." But it was not until the advent of the Society for Psychical Research that the hypothesis attracted much notice or was backed by carefully collected evidence.
Telepathy is often invoked as an explanation of the facts of mediumship (see Medium, and Possession); but it seems insufficient to explain them unless we assume for the medium a far greater power of reading other people's minds than experimental evidence has so far shown to exist.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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