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Encyclopedia > Telencephalon

The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. Many people refer to it as the cerebrum, but due to naming conventions of organs, is technically referred to as the telencephalon. Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), acts as the control center of the central nervous system. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...

The lobes of the cerebral cortex include the frontal (red), temporal (green), occipital (yellow), and parietal lobes (orange). The cerebellum (blue) is not part of the telencephalon.
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The lobes of the cerebral cortex include the frontal (red), temporal (green), occipital (yellow), and parietal lobes (orange). The cerebellum (blue) is not part of the telencephalon.

As a more technical definition, the telencephalon refers to the cerebral hemispheres and other, smaller structures within the brain, despite the fact that the telencephalon is one of the larger divisions (in terms of number). This term is technically the anterior-most embryological division of the brain that develops from the prosencephalon. ImageMetadata File history File links Lobes of the brain, color-coded. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Lobes of the brain, color-coded. ... The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of vertebrates. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... Embryology is the subdivision of developmental biology that studies embryos and their development. ... In the anatomy of vertebrates, the prosencephalon is a part of encephalon, or brain. ...

Contents


Structure

The telencephalon, in name, refers to the region of the brain which is composed of the following sub-regions;

The limbic system is a group of brain structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression, fear, pleasure and also in the formation of memory. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei in the brain associated with motor and learning functions. ... The corpus striatum is composed of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. ... The olfactory bulb (1) is relatively large in the rabbit brain The olfactory bulb is a part of the brain that is a distinct outgrowth from the forebrain of mammals. ...

Composition

The telencephalon comprises what most people think of as the "brain". It lies on top of the brainstem and is the largest and most well-developed of the 5 major divisions of the brain. Phylogenetically it is the newest structure, with mammals having the largest and most well-developed among all species. It emerges from the prosencephalon, the first of three vesicles that form from the embryonic neural tube. Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), acts as the control center of the central nervous system. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ... Embryos (and one tadpole) of the wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa). ... The neural tube is the embryonal structure that gives rise to the brain and spinal cord. ...


Originally,indeed there was thought to be four divisions of the telencephalon, although through later reasearch other sub-divisions were described. This four-division scheme is referred to as the traditional division


In humans, the telencephalon surrounds older parts of the brain. Limbic, olfactory, and motor systems project fibers from subcortical (deeper) areas of the cerebrum to parts of the brainstem. Cognitive and volitive systems project fibers from cortical areas of the cerebrum to thalamus and to other regions of the brainstem. The neural networks of the telencephalon facilitate complex learned behaviors, such as language. Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu(extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens Homo (genus). ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The term cognition (Latin, cogito: to think) is used in several different loosely related ways. ... Volition is the study of will, choice, and decision. ... MRI cross-section of human brain, with thalamus marked. ...


The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, and contains white matter and grey matter. Grey matter is highly folded; functionally this is thought to allow a greater number of cells in the same volume due to the increase in its surface area. The telencephalon includes regions of archipalliar, paleopalliar, and neopalliar origin. Profound development of the neopallium, which comprises the cerebral cortex, is unique among humans and Old World monkeys. White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... Grey matter is a category of nervous tissue with many nerve cell bodies and few myelinated axons. ... This article explains the meaning of area as a Physical quantity. ... In anatomy of animals, the archipallium the oldest region of the brains pallium. ... In anatomy of animals, the paleopallium is a region within the telencephalon in brain. ... In the anatomy of animals, the neopallium or neocortex is a part of the telencephalon in the brain. ... Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 9 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ...


Functions

Note: As the telencephalon is a gross division with many subdivisions and sub-reigons, it is important to state that this section lists the functions which the telencephalon as a whole serves.


Language and communication

Speech and language are mainly attributed to parts of the cerebral cortex, which is one portion of the telencephalon. Motor portions of language are attributed to Broca's area within the frontal lobe. Speech comprehension is attributed to Wernicke's area which lies at the temporal-parietal lobe junction. These two regions are interconnected by a large white matter tract known as the arcuate fasciculus. One might be looking for the academic discipline of communications. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... Wernickes area is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex, on the left posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus, posterior to the primary auditory cortex, on the temporo-parietal junction (part of the brain where the temporal lobe and parietal lobe meet). ... Figure one illustrates significant language areas of the brain. ...


Movement

The telencephalon is the part of the brain which attributes motor function to the body. These functions originate within the primary motor cortex and other frontal lobe motor area. In many cases when this part of the brain is damaged the brain has an inability to send signals to nerves that innervate muscles motoneurons, and can lead to diseases such as Motor Neurone Disease. This kind of damage results in loss of muscular power and precision rather than total paralysis. This is because there are other, older portions of the brain that also subserve motor function. The primary motor area is a group of networked cells in mammalian brains that controls movements of specific body parts associated with cell groups in that area of the brain. ... In vertebrates, motoneurons (also called motor neurons) are efferent neurons that originate in the spinal cord and synapse with muscle fibers to facilitate muscle contraction and with muscle spindles to modify proprioceptive sensitivity. ... The motor neurone diseases (MND) are a group of progressive neurological disorders that destroy motor neurons, the cells that control voluntary muscle activity such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing. ... Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. ...


Olfaction

The olfactory bulb lies on the underside of the most anterior portion of the brain. This is a rather large portion of the telencephalon in most mammals. However in humans this part of the brain has become orders of magnitude smaller as other functions have taken over after being proven more evolutionarily advantageous. Damage to this portion of the brain results in a loss of the sense of smell. A speculatively rooted phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, as described initially by Carl Woese. ...


Memory

Memory formation is associated with the hippocampus. This association was originally described after a patient (HM) had both his hippocampuses (left and right) surgically removed to treat severe epilepsy. After surgery this patient suffered from anterograde amnesia, or the inability to form new memories. This problem is also addressed slightly in the film Memento, in which the protagonist has to take pictures of people he has met in order to be able to remember what to do in the days following his accident, so in that respect, the film is factually accurate. The location of the hippocampus in the human brain. ... A memory impaired patient known as HM (an acronym used to keep his identity confidential) has been widely studied since the late 1950s and has been very important in the development of theories that explain the link between brain function and memory, and in the development of cognitive neuropsychology, a... Anterograde amnesia is a form of amnesia, or memory loss, where new events are not transferred to long-term memory. ... Memento is a film written and directed by Christopher Nolan based on his brother Jonathans short story Memento Mori. It stars Guy Pearce, Carrie-Anne Moss, and Joe Pantoliano. ...


Emotion

Emotional functions are attributed to a wide network of telencephalic and other regions grouped together as the limbic system. The amygdala is a nucleus known to contribute a great deal to the emotion of fear. This region is part of the Papez circuit, which is the anatomical loop between various brain regions responsible for cortical control of information. The limbic system is a group of brain structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression, fear, pleasure and also in the formation of memory. ... Location of the amygdala in the human brain Located deep in the brains medial temporal lobe, the almond-shaped amygdala (in Latin, corpus amygdaloideum) is believed to play a key role in the emotions. ... In neuroanatomy, a nucleus is a central nervous system structure that is composed mainly of gray matter, and which acts as a hub or transit point for electrical signals in a single neural subsystem. ... Fear is an unpleasant feeling of perceived risk or danger, whether it be real or imagined. ... The Papez circuit of the limbic system of the brain was first described by James Papez in 1937. ...


Programmed cell death

Purpose

Programmed Cell Death (PCD) is not uncommon within the telencephalon or it's sub-regions. It is thought to be one of the processes by which growth and differentation grows, and is a universal feature of the embryonic and postnatal central nervous system [1], and has been noted to be at work within the telencephalons of animals such as rats, mice, and other vermin. In some animals such as the monkey, over 50% of neurons within their cerebral cortex have been found to be affected by PCD during early stages of life. This is thought to solicit growth of the brain due to the grown of the size of the cranium and other parts of the body expected to grow throughout the life cycle of a monkey. This is an article about wild rats; for pet rats, see Fancy rat Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Definition of MICE IAPCO (the International Association of Professional Congress Organizers) publishes a book called Meetings Industry Terminology which functions as a dictionary for the meetings industry. ... The bane of Australian farmers - the wild rabbit Mouse Vermin is a term given to animals which are considered by humans to be pests or nuisances, most associated with the carrying of disease. ... Cynomolgus Monkey at Batu Caves, Malaysia Monkeys, Mori Sosen (1749-1821) A monkey is any member of two of the three groupings of simian primates. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ...


The main reason for PCD is because cells need to die so other ones can be made, for spatial reasons. If a neuron does not establish the correct synaptic connection, it will die shortly thereafter. This is seen as some form of "competition" within the space of the telencephalon and is a form of the "survival of the fittest". However there are exceptions to the rule; within rats some cells are even programmed die during proliferation within the ventricular zones of the telencephalon. It is thought that this is at a stage during which axons are not yet formed nor synaptically connected.


Effects

PCD within the brain affects glial cells and neurons through apoptosis (4). According to extensive research on rodents this period is usually during developmental or adolescent stages. During this time the regeneration process can take place because the "materials" and environment are a perfect breeding ground for cell regeneration. Neuroglia cells of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... Apoptosis In biology, apoptosis (from the Greek words apo = from and ptosis = falling, commonly pronounced ap-a-tow-sis[1]) is one of the main types of programmed cell death (PCD). ...


Stages

During the stages of apoptosis, which seems to constitute the majority of PCD within the brain, various morphological changes occur, such as:

  1. Cell shrinkage.
  2. Membrane blebbage, or inconsistency within the structure of the membrane.
  3. Pyknosis, or a condensation of chromatin within the nucleus.
  4. Karyorrhexis, or fragmentation of the nuclei.
  5. Organelles and plasma membrane remain intact throughout the process.
  6. A lack of inflammation.
  7. Removal by microphages or adjacent glial cells.

Of course, there are some differences to these stages, but they are relatively similar in practice. The apoptosis within the telencephalon can also be characterised distinctly by it's DNA pattern, which becomes fragmented into oligonucleosomal fragments of around 180-200 pairs. These give a typical "ladder" pattern when viewed on or in agarose gel electrophoresis. Pyknosis, or karyopyknosis, is the condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing programmed cell death (see Naoufal Zamzami and Guido Kroemer: Apoptosis: Condensed matter in cell death, Nature Vol. ... Chromatin is found inside the nucleus of a cell. ... Karyorrhexis is the fragmentation of the nucleus of a cell undergoing programmed cell death (see Naoufal Zamzami and Guido Kroemer: Apoptosis: Condensed matter in cell death, Nature Vol. ... In cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. ... An agarose is a polysaccharide polymer material, generally extracted from seaweed. ... Electrophoresis is the movement of an electrically charged substance under the influence of an electric field. ...


Cell regeneration

Xenopus laevis

Larval stage

In a study of the telencephalon conducted in Hokkaido University on African clawed frogs (xenopus laevis)[2], it was discovered that during larval stages the telencephalon was able to regenerate around half of the anterior portion (otherwise known as partially truncated), after a reconstruction of a would-be accident, or malformation of features. Main Gate of the Sapporo Campus (Feb. ... Binomial name Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, also known as platanna) is a species of South African aquatic frog of the genus Xenopus. ... A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ...


The actual regeneration and active proliferation of cells within the clawed frog is quite remarkable; regenerated cells being almost functionally identical to the ones originally found in the brain after birth despite the obvious lack of brain matter for a sustained period of time.


This kind of regeneration is completely dependant upon ependymal layer cells covering the cerebral lateral ventricles, within a short period before, or within the initial stage of wound healing. This is observed within the stages of healing within larvae of the clawed frog.


Developed stage

Unfortunately the regeneration within the developed stage of the clawed frog is completely different than within the larval stage. Because the cells adhere to one another they are unable to form an entity which is able to cover the cerebral lateral ventricles. Thus the telencephalon remains truncated and the loss of function becomes permanent.


Effects of abnormality

After removing over half of the telencephalon in the developed stage of the clawed frog, the lack of functions within the animal was apparent, manifesting with obvious difficulties in movement, nonverbal communication between other species, as well as other difficulties thought to be similar to those seen in humans. Often defined as communication without words, nonverbal communication (NVC) refers to all aspects Sex which are not conveyed by the literal meaning of words. ...


This kind of regeneration is still relatively unknown in regard to regeneration within larval stages, similar to the human fetal stage. Fetus at eight weeks Foetus redirects here. ...


References

  1. ^  Yoshino J, Tochinai S. Successful reconstitution of the non-regenerating adult telencephalon by cell transplantation in Xenopus laevis. Dev Growth Differ. 2004;46(6):523–34. PMID 15610142
  2. ^  Levi-Montalcini, R. (1949) Proliferation, differentiation and degeneration in the spinal ganglia of the chick embryo under normal and experimental conditions. Pages 450 - 502
  3. ^  Yaginuma, H., Tomita, M., Takashita, N., McKay, S., Cardwell, C., Yin, Q.- Aminobuytric acid immunoreactivity within the human cerebral cortex. Pages 481 - 500
  4. ^  Haydar, T. F, Kuan, C., Y., Flavell, R. A. & Rakic, P. (1999) The role of cell death in regulating the size and shape of the mammalian forebrain. Pages 621 - 626

See also


Human brain image constructed from MRI data // Brain (neural tube) Brainstem (rhombencephalon),(mesencephalon) Rhombencephalon (hindbrain) Metencephalon pons fourth ventricle cerebellum cerebellar vermis cerebellar hemispheres anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculonodular lobe cerebellar nuclei fastigial nucleus globose nucleus emboliform nucleus dentate nucleus Myelencephalon medulla oblongata medullary pyramids Mesencephalon (midbrain) tectum inferior colliculi...

Prosencephalon (forebrain)

DIENCEPHALON: epithalamus (pineal body, habenula, habenular nuclei), hypothalamus (optic chiasm, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, posterior nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, infundibulum, mammillary body, median eminence), pituitary gland (anterior and posterior), subthalamus (zona incerta, subthalamic nucleus), thalamus (pulvinar, medial geniculate nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, thalamic reticular nucleus), third ventricle, interventricular foramina In the anatomy of vertebrates, the prosencephalon is a part of encephalon, or brain. ... The diencephalon is the region of the brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. ... The epithalamus is a dorsal posterior segment of the diencephalon (a segment in the middle of the brain also containing the hypothalamus and the thalamus) which includes the habenula, the stria medullaris and the pineal body. ... The pineal gland (pronunciation: pI-nE-&l, pI-), or epiphysis, is a small endocrine gland located near the middle of the brain. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... The habenular nuclei are a group of small nuclei which are part of the diencephalon. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Visual pathway with optic chiasm circled The optic chiasm (from the Greek χλαζειν to mark with an X, after the letter Χ chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross, those parts of the right eye which see things on the right side being connected to the... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... The paraventricular nucleus is a nucleus of mostly magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus, their axons extend into posterior pituitary. ... The posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus is one of the many nuclei that make up the hypothalamic region of the brain. ... In biology, the supraoptic nucleus is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus, their axons extend into posterior pituitary. ... The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus and is so named because it resides immediately above the optic chaism (OX). ... The ventromedial hypothalamus has two parts; The superior and anterior parts. ... An infundibulum is the latin for funnel and is a funnel-shaped cavity or organ. ... The mammillary bodies (Latin: corpus mamillare) are a pair of small round bodies in the brain forming part of the limbic system. ... Median Eminence The median eminence is part of the inferior boundary for the hypothalamus. ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The subthalamus, or ventral thalamus, is part of the diencephalon. ... The zona incerta is a small region of gray matter that is part of the subthalamus. ... The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus of the basal ganglia. ... MRI cross-section of human brain, with thalamus marked. ... The pulvinar is the caudal-most nucleus of the thalamus that is conventionally divided into oral, inferior, lateral, and medial subnuclei. ... The medial geniculate nucleus is a nucleus of the thalamus that acts as a relay for auditory information. ... The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus is a part of the brain, which is the primary processor of visual information, received from the retina, in the CNS. Schematic diagram of the primate lateral geniculate nucleus. ... The thalamic reticular nucleus is part of the ventral thalamus that forms a capsule around the thalamus laterally. ... The third ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... The interventricular foramen (aka the foramen of Monro) joins the lateral ventricles of the brain with the anterior third ventricle. ...


TELENCEPHALON: cerebral cortex, cerebral hemispheres, primary sensory areas, primary sulci (lateral, central, medial longitudinal fissure) Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... Human brain viewed from above, showing cerebral hemispheres. ... The primary sensory areas are the main cerebral areas that receive sensory information from thalamic nerve projections. ... Sulcus (pl. ... Lateral sulcus The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. ... Central sulcus of the human brain. ... The medial longitudinal fissure is the deep groove which separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain. ...


frontal lobe: superior frontal gyrus (6, 8), middle frontal gyrus (Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, 44, 45, 46), inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis, 11, 47), orbitofrontal cortex (9, 10), precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex, 4), precentral sulcus The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of vertebrates. ... Superior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... // Human Brodmann area 8, or BA8, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Middle frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... // Location and Function The prefrontal cortex is the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and associative areas. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... // Where is it? Brodmann area 46, or BA46, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Inferior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... The Pars Opercularis is part of the inferior frontal gyrus and is part of the mirror neurons. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Where is it? Brodmann area 47, or BA47, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... The orbitofrontal cortex is a region of association cortex the human brain involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The precentral gyrus (a. ... The primary motor area is a group of networked cells in mammalian brains that controls movements of specific body parts associated with cell groups in that area of the brain. ... Brodmann area 4 of human brain. ... Precentral sulcus of the human brain. ...


temporal lobe: superior temporal gyrus (38, 22-Wernicke's area, 41-42-primary auditory cortex), transverse temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus (21), inferior temporal gyrus (37), fusiform gyrus (20), The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... Superior temporal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... On the left side of the brain is an area called Brodmann’s area 22, that help generate and help the understanding of individual words, and on the right side of the brain it helps tell the difference between melody, pitch, and sound intensity. ... Wernickes area is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex, on the left posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus, posterior to the primary auditory cortex, on the temporo-parietal junction (part of the brain where the temporal lobe and parietal lobe meet). ... The primary auditory cortex the region of the brain which is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... The transverse temporal gyri (also called Heschls gyri) are found in the area of primary auditory cortex in the superior temporal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Please observe: the above picture was copied from this fantastic brain atlas The Fusiform gyrus is part of the temporal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ...


parietal lobe: postcentral gyrus (1, 2, 3), superior parietal lobule (5), inferior parietal lobule (39, 40), precuneus (7), postcentral sulcus The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... Brodmann area 5 is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The precuneus is a structure in the brain positioned above the cuneus and located in the parietal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Postcentral sulcus of the human brain. ...


occipital lobe: primary visual cortex (17), cuneus, 18, 19 The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The primary visual cortex (usually called V1) is the most well-studied visual area in the brain. ... Cuneus (Latin for wedge; plural, cunei), the architectural term applied to the wedge-shaped divisions of the Roman theatre separated by the scalae or stairways; see Vitruvius v. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 19 is shown in yellow in this image which also shows ares 17 (red) and 18 (orange) Brodmann area 19, or BA19, is part of the occipital lobe cortex in the human brain. ...


fornicate gyrus: parahippocampal gyrus (piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, 25, 27, 34, 35, 36), cingulate cortex/cingulate gyrus, anterior cingulate (24, 32, 33), posterior cingulate (23, 26, 29, 30, 31), cingulate sulcus The Fornicate Gyrus is connected to the amydala, the mid region of the parietal region of the skull. ... The parahippocampal gyrus is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. ... In anatomy of animals, the piriform cortex, or pyriform cortex is a region in the brain. ... The entorhinal cortex (EC) is an important memory center in the brain. ... // Human Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. ... The term area 27 of Brodmann-1909 refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined cortical area that is a rostral part of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS of the guenon (Brodmann-1909). ... You have new messages. ... // Human This area is known as perirhinal area 35, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined hippocampal region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as ectorhinal area 36, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined temporal region of cerebral cortex. ... The cingulate cortex is part of the brain and situated roughly in the middle of the cortex. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex and includes Brodmanns area 24 (ventral ACC) and 32 (dorsal ACC). ... 24 - ventral anterior cingulate (area cingularis anterior ventralis). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This area is known as pregenual area 33, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... Brodmann area 23 (BA23) is a region in the brain corresponding to some portion of the posterior cingulate cortex. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... This area is known as granular retrolimbic area 29, and it refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as agranular retrolimbic area 30, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ...


subcortical/insular cortex: hippocampus (dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis, subiculum), basal ganglia (amygdala, striatum, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, putamen, claustrum, nucleus accumbens), rhinencephalon, olfactory bulb, lateral ventricles The insular cortex (also often referred to as just the insula) is a structure of the human brain. ... The location of the hippocampus in the human brain. ... The dentate gyrus is part of the hippocampal formation. ... Daigram of hippocampal regions. ... The subiculum (Latin: support) forms the most inferior portion of the hippocampus. ... The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei in the brain associated with motor and learning functions. ... Location of the amygdala in the human brain Located deep in the brains medial temporal lobe, the almond-shaped amygdala (in Latin, corpus amygdaloideum) is believed to play a key role in the emotions. ... The striatum is a subcortical part of the brain consisting of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. ... The globus pallidus (Latin for pale body) is a sub-cortical structure in the brain. ... The caudate nucleus is a telencephalic nucleus, one of the input nuclei of the basal ganglia; involved with control of voluntary movement in the brain. ... The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus describes the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia. ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ... The claustrum is a thin layer of grey matter lying between the extreme capsule and external capsule in the brain. ... The nucleus accumbens (also known as the accumbens nucleus or nucleus accumbens septi) is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... In anatomy of animals, the rhinencephalon is a part of the brain involved with olfaction. ... The olfactory bulb (1) is relatively large in the rabbit brain The olfactory bulb is a part of the brain that is a distinct outgrowth from the forebrain of mammals. ... The ventricular system is a fluid conducting system within the brain. ...


neural pathways: arcuate fasciculus, corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, corona radiata, dopamine pathways (mesocortical, mesolimbic, nigrostriatal, tuberoinfundibular), capsules (external, extreme, internal) A neural pathway is a neural tract connecting one part of the nervous system with another, usually consisting of bundles of elongated, myelin insultated neurons, known collectively as white matter. ... Figure one illustrates significant language areas of the brain. ... Grays FIG. 733– Corpus callosum from above. ... The corticospinal or pyramidal tract is a massive collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain, and the spinal cord. ... The corona radiata surround an ovum or unfertilized egg cell, and consist of two or three strata (layers) of follicular cells. ... The mesocortical pathway is a neural pathway which connects the ventral tegmentum to the cortex, particularly the frontal lobes. ... The mesolimbic pathway is one of the neural pathways in the brain which links the ventral tegmentum area in the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens in the limbic system. ... The nigrostriatal pathway is a neural pathway which connects the substantia nigra with the striatum. ... The tuberoinfundibular pathway is a neural pathway which runs between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. ... The extremem capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. ... The internal capsule is an area of white matter in the brain that separates the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the lenticular nucleus. ...


Some categorizations are approximations, and some Brodmann areas span gyri.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Telencephalon - definition of Telencephalon in Encyclopedia (210 words)
In anatomy of mammals, the telencephalon (or cerebrum) is a part the brain.
The telencephalon includes the cerebral cortex of the cerebral hemispheres, a limbic lobe and an olfactory lobe.
The telencephalon emerges from the prosencephalon, which is the most rostral of three vesicles that form from the embrionic neural tube.
Telencephalon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1580 words)
The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species.
Note: As the telencephalon is a gross division with many subdivisions and sub-reigons, it is important to state that this section lists the functions which the telencephalon as a whole serves.
After removing over half of the telencephalon in the developed stage of the clawed frog, the lack of functions within the animal was apparent, manifesting with obvious difficulties in movement, nonverbal communication between other species, as well as other difficulties thought to be similar to those seen in humans.
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