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Encyclopedia > Telecommunications


Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. Today this process almost always involves the tranmission of electromagnetic waves by electronic transmitters but in earlier years telecommunications may have involved the use of smoke signals, drums or semaphore. Today, telecommunication is widespread and devices that assist telecommunication such as the television, radio and telephone are ubiquitous in many parts of the world. There also a vast array of networks that connect these devices including computer networks, public telephone networks, radio networks and television networks. Computers communicating across the Internet is just one of many examples of telecommunication. Image File history File links Crystal_128_clock. ... Transmission is the following: Generally, transmission is the act of passing something on. ... Signaling, or a signal, may mean: Look up signal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Scientific concepts In information theory, a signal is a flow of information that can be represented as a mathematical function. ... Communication is the process of exchanging information, usually via a common protocol. ... A smoke signal is a form of visual communication used over a long distance, developed both in the Americas and in China. ... Often invented and used by cultures living in forested areas, drums served as an early form of long distance communication, and were used during ceremonial and religious functions. ... A Chappe semaphore tower near Saverne, France // The semaphore or optical telegraph is an apparatus for conveying information by means of visual signals, with towers with pivoting blades or paddles, shutters, in a matrix, or hand-held flags etc. ... The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device which is used to transmit and receive sound (most commonly voice and speech) across distance. ... // Look up network in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A computer network is a system for communication between computers. ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the concatenation of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concatenation of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ... A radio network is a network system which distributes radio programming to multiple radio stations. ... A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ...

Contents


Technical foundations

The basic elements of a telecommunication system are:

  1. a transmitter that takes information and converts it to a signal for tranmission
  2. a transmission medium over which the signal is transmitted
  3. a receiver that receives and converts the signal back into usable information

For example, consider a radio broadcast. In this case, the broadcast tower is the transmitter, the radio is the receiver and the transmission medium is free space. Often telecommunication systems are two-way and devices act as both a tranmitter and receiver or transceiver. For example, a mobile phone is a transceiver. Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an electronic device which with the aid of an antenna propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... Information as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. ... Signaling or signal may mean: Look up signal and signaling in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A transmission medium is any material substance, such as fiber-optic cable, twisted-wire pair, coaxial cable, dielectric-slab waveguide, water, or air, that can be used for the propagation of signals, usually in the form of modulated radio, light, or acoustic waves, from one point to another. ... The word receiver has a number of different meanings: In communications and information processing, a receiver is the recipient (observer) of a message (information), which is sent from a source (object). ... Masts of the Rugby VLF transmitter in England Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials in the UK) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. ... In physics, free space is a concept of electromagnetic theory, corresponding roughly to the vacuum, the baseline state of the electromagnetic field, or the replacement for the electromagnetic aether. ...


Signals can either be analogue or digital. In an analogue signal, the signal is varied continuously with respect to the information. In a digital signal, the information is encoded as a set of discrete values (e.g. 1's and 0's). For the Analog Science Fiction and Science Fact publication, see Astounding Magazine. ... A digital system is one that uses numbers, especially binary numbers, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (an analog system) or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons. ...


A collection of transmitters, receivers or transceivers that communicate with each other is known as a network. Digital networks may consist of one or more routers that route data to the correct user. An analogue network may consist of one or more switches that establish a connection between two or more users. For both types of network, a repeater may be necessary to amplify or recreate the signal when it is being transmitted over long distances. This is to combat noise which can corrupt the information carried by a signal. A telecommunications network is a network of telecommunications links arranged so that messages may be passed from one part of the network to another over multiple links. ... This article describes the computer networking device. ... In the field of telecommunications, a central office houses equipment that is commonly known as simply a switch, which is a piece of equipment that connects phone calls. ... A repeater is an electronic device that receives a weak or low-level signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. ... NOiSE is a one volume manga created by Tsutomu Nihei as a prequel to his acclaimed ten-volume work, Blame!. It offers some rather sketchy information concerning the Megastructures origins and initial size, as well as the origins of Silicon life. ...


A channel is a division in a tranmission medium so that it can be used to send multiple independent streams of data. For example, a radio station may broadcast at 96 MHz while another radio station may broadcast at 94.5 MHz. In this case the medium has been divided by frequency and each channel received a separate frequency to broadcast on. Alternatively one could allocate each channel a segment of time over which to broadcast. Look up Channel on Wiktionary, the free dictionary In general, channel refers to the path between two endpoints. ... Sine waves of various frequencies; the lower waves have higher frequencies than those above. ...


The shaping of a signal to convey information is known as modulation. Modulation is a key concept in telecommunications and is frequently used to impose the information of one signal on another. Modulation is used to represent a digital message as an analogue waveform. This is known as keying and several keying techniques exist — these include phase-shift keying, amplitude-shift keying and minimum-shift keying. Bluetooth, for example, uses phase-shift keying for exchanges between devices (see note). Modulation is the process of varying a carrier signal, typically a sinusoidal signal, in order to use that signal to convey information. ... The word keying has a number of meanings: keying (cryptography) is the installation of key material into a device. ... Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing, or modulating, the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). ... Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of modulation which represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. ... Like the OQPSK modulator (i. ... This article is about the Bluetooth wireless specification. ... Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing, or modulating, the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). ...


However, more relevant to earlier discussion, modulation is also used to boost the frequency of analogue signals. This is because a raw signal is often not suitable for tranmission over free space due to its low frequencies. Hence its information must be superimposed on a higher frequency signal (known as a carrier wave) before transmission. There are several different modulation schemes available to achieve this — the most basic being amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. An example of this process is a DJ's voice being superimposed on a 96 MHz carrier wave using frequency modulation (the voice would then be received on a radio as the channel "96 FM"). A carrier wave, or carrier is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) to represent the information to be transmitted. ... Amplitude modulation (AM) is a form of modulation in which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied in direct proportion to that of a modulating signal. ... Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation which represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ...


History

Etymology
The word telecommunication was adapted from the French word télécommunication. It is a contraction of the Greek prefix tele, meaning 'far off', and communications, meaning 'to exchange of information'.[1]

Early telecommunications

Early forms of telecommunication include smoke signals and drums. Drums were used by natives in Africa, New Guinea and tropical America where as smoke signals were used by natives in America and China. Contrary to what one might think, these systems were often used to do more than merely announce the presence of a camp. A smoke signal is a form of visual communication used over a long distance, developed both in the Americas and in China. ... Often invented and used by cultures living in forested areas, drums served as an early form of long distance communication, and were used during ceremonial and religious functions. ... A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... America is usually meant as either: the Americas, the lands of the Western hemisphere, usually subdivided into North America and South America the United States of America See also: Americas (terminology), Use of the word America, and Use of the word American America may also refer to: America, Netherlands in... America is usually meant as either: the Americas, the lands of the Western hemisphere, usually subdivided into North America and South America the United States of America See also: Americas (terminology), Use of the word America, and Use of the word American America may also refer to: America, Netherlands in...


In 1792, a French engineer, Claude Chappe built the first visual telegraphy (or semaphore) system between Lille and Paris. This was followed by a line from Strasbourg to Paris. In 1794, a Swedish engineer, Abraham Edelcrantz built a quite different system from Stockholm to Drottningholm. As opposed to Chappe's system which involved pulleys rotating beams of wood, Edelcrantz's system relied only upon shutters and was therefore faster.[2] However semphore as a communication system suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers often at intervals of only ten to thirty kilometres (six to nineteen miles). As a result, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. Claude Chappe Claude Chappe (December 25, 1763 – January 23, 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France. ... A Chappe semaphore tower near Saverne, France // The semaphore or optical telegraph is an apparatus for conveying information by means of visual signals, with towers with pivoting blades or paddles, shutters, in a matrix, or hand-held flags etc. ... City motto: – City proper (commune) Région Nord-Pas de Calais Département Nord (59) Mayor Martine Aubry (PS) (since 2001) Area 39. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, with the skyscrapers of La Défense business district 5 km/ 3 mi behind. ... City motto: – City proper (commune) Région Alsace Département Bas-Rhin (67) Mayor Fabienne Keller (UMP) (since 2001) Land area 78. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, with the skyscrapers of La Défense business district 5 km/ 3 mi behind. ... The Old town in Stockholm from the air is the capital of Sweden, located on the south east coast of Sweden. ... Drottningholm, or literally Queens Islet, is a village on the island Lovön in lake Mälaren on the outskirts of Stockholm, Sweden. ...


Telegraph and telephone

The first electromagnetic telegraph was created by Pavel Schilling in 1832. The first commercial electrical telegraph was constructed by Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke and started operating over thirteen miles (twenty-one kilometres) of the Great Western Railway on 9 April 1839. The electromagnetic telegraph is a special device for long-distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters over wire. ... Baron Pavel Lvovitch Schilling (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Telegraphy. ... Charles Wheatstone Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802 - October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina the Stereoscope an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) He was a major figure in the development of... William Fothergill Cooke (Ealing 1806- Farnham, Surrey 25 June 1879) was, with Charles Wheatstone, the co-inventor of the Cooke-Wheatstone electrical telegraph, which was patented in May 1837. ... The original Bristol Temple Meads station, first terminus of the GWR, is the building to the left of this picture The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company, linking South West England, the West Country and South Wales with London. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


An electrical telegraph was independently developed and patented in the United States in 1837 by Samuel Morse. He developed the Morse code signalling alphabet with his assistant, Alfred Vail. The Morse/Vail telegraph was quickly deployed in the following two decades. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was successfully completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telegraph communications for the first time. Earlier submarine cable transatlantic cables installed in 1857 and 1858 only operated for a few days or weeks before they failed. Portrait of Samuel F. B. Morse by Mathew Brady, between 1855 and 1865 Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor, and painter of portraits and historic scenes; he is most famous for inventing the electric telegraph and Morse code. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting information, using standardized sequences of short and long marks or pulses — commonly known as dots and dashes — for the letters, numerals and special characters of a message. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Alfred Lewis Vail (September 25, 1807 - January 18, 1859) was a machinist and inventor. ... The Transatlantic telegraph cable is a telegraph cable that crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Trinity Bay, in eastern Newfoundland. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... A submarine communications cable is a cable laid beneath the sea to carry telecommunications between countries. ...


The conventional telephone was then invented by Alexander Bell in 1857. Although in 1849 Antonio Meucci invented a device that allowed the electrical tranmission of voice over a line. Meucci's device depended upon the electrophonic effect and was of little practical value because it required users to place the receiver in their mouth to “hear” what was being said.[3] Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist and inventor. ... Antonio Meucci Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci (April 13, 1808–October 18, 1896) was an Italian inventor. ...


In 1867, Samuel Laws invented the gold indicator allowing a telegraph-like system to broadcast the price of gold. The gold indicator can be viewed as the predecessor to the stock ticker - a highly successful version of which was released by Thomas Edison in 1870.[4] Dr. Samuel S. Laws is a graduate of Miami University in Oxford, Ohio part of the Old Miami period from 1809 through the beginning of the civil war in which an impressive roster of men emerged from that small college in Ohio to accomplish great feats for society. ... Stock Ticker is a now out of print board game that was popular upon its release and is still played today. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847–October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life in the 20th century. ...


Radio and television

Main article: History of radio

As far back as Faraday and Hertz in the early 1800s, it was clear to most scientists that wireless communication was possible, and many people worked on developing many devices and improvements. In 1832, James Bowman Lindsay gave a classroom demonstration of wireless telegraphy to his students. By 1854 he was able to demonstrate transmission across the Firth of Tay from Dundee to Woodhaven (now part of Newport-on-Tay), a distance of two miles. The pre- and early history of radio is the history of its technology. ... Michael Faraday Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British chemist and physicist (who considered himself a natural philosopher) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... Heinrich Hertz Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22, 1857 - January 1, 1894), was the German physicist for whom the hertz, the SI unit of frequency, is named. ... Events and Trends Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1803 - 1815). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... James Bowman Lindsay (1799-1862) was born in Carmyllie near Arbroath in Angus, Scotland. ... Wireless telegraphy is the practice of remote writing (see telegraphy) without the wires normally involved in an electrical telegraph. ... 1854 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Firth of Tay is a firth in Scotland between the regions of Fife and City of Dundee into to which Scotlands largest river in terms of flow, the River Tay empties. ... For other uses see Dundee (disambiguation) Dundee is Scotlands fourth largest city, population 154 674 (2001), situated on the North bank of the Firth of Tay. ...


Patents for wireless telegraphy devices started appearing in the 1860s but it was not until 1893 that Nikola Tesla made the first public demonstration of such a system. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and the National Electric Light Association, he described and demonstrated in detail the principles of wireless telegraphy. The apparatus that he used contained all the elements that were incorporated into radio systems before the development of the vacuum tube. // Events and trends Technology The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Nikola Tesla (July 10, 1856 - c. ... The Franklin Institute is the memorial to Benjamin Franklin, that serves to perpetuate his legacy; the museum contains many of Franklins personal effects. ... Philadelphia is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ... The National Electric Light Association (NELA) was a national trade association including the operators of central power generation stations and interested individuals. ... In electronics, a vacuum tube (U.S. and Canadian English) or (thermionic) valve (outside North America) is a device generally used to amplify, or otherwise modify, a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ...


The later derived system (which used several patents of Tesla's) that achieved widespread use was demonstrated by Guglielmo Marconi in 1896. Marconi and Braun shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in physics for "contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy". Guglielmo Marconi Guglielmo Marchese Marconi, GCVO (25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian electrical engineer and Nobel laureate of partially Irish descent, known for the development of a practical wireless telegraphy system commonly known as the radio. Marconi was President of the Accademia dItalia and a member... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ...


A few decades later, the term radio became more popular. Early radio could not transfer sounds, only Morse code in the tones made by rotary spark gaps. Canadian-American scientist Reginald Aubrey Fessenden was the first to wirelessly transmit a human voice (his own) in 1900. 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting information, using standardized sequences of short and long marks or pulses — commonly known as dots and dashes — for the letters, numerals and special characters of a message. ... Reginald Fessenden Electrician and inventor Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (October 6, 1866 - July 22, 1932), was a Canadian inventor sometimes dubbed The Father of Radio Broadcasting, was born in East Bolton, Quebec, Canada the son of a Protestant minister. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ...


After the public demonstrations of radio communication that Tesla made in 1893, the principle of radio communication – sending signals through space to receivers – was publicised widely. The Telsa apparatus contained all the elements of radio systems used before the development of the vacuum tube. In radio terminology, a receiver is an electronic circuit that receives a radio signal from an antenna and decodes the signal for use as sound, pictures, navigational-position information, etc. ... In electronics, a vacuum tube (U.S. and Canadian English) or (thermionic) valve (outside North America) is a device generally used to amplify, or otherwise modify, a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ...


On 19 August 1894, British physicist Sir Oliver Lodge demonstrated the reception of Morse code signalling using radio waves using a detecting device called a coherer, a tube filled with iron filings which had been invented by Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti at Fermo in Italy in 1884. August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Vanity Fair cartoon. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Temistocle Calzecchi Onesti (b. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The first benefit to come from radio telegraphy was the ability to establish communication between coast radio stations and ships at sea. Wireless telegraphy using spark gap transmitters quickly became universal on large ships after the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912. The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea was convened in 1913 and produced a treaty requiring shipboard radio stations be manned 24 hours a day. The spark gap transmitter was the first practical way to send radio signals. ... RMS Titanic was the second of a trio of superliners intended to dominate the transatlantic travel business. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) is the most important treaty protecting the safety of merchant ships. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


Computer networks and the Internet

Main article: History of the Internet

History of the Internet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Monument in Bern, Switzerland. ... Federal Standard 1037C entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a U.S. Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... These are lists of public utilities. ... Internet traffic engineering Internet traffic engineering refers to all the work related to the physical network (usually fiber optic cables, routers, exchanges) that carries Internet traffic between different networks with the objective of reaching the highest levels of capacity in the Internet backbone. ... Active networking is a communication paradigm that allows packets flowing through a communication network to dynamically modify the operation of the network. ... Next Generation Networking (NGN) is a broad term for a certain kind of emerging computer network architectures and technologies. ... A compact cellular repeater including a directiona antenna, an amplifier and a monopole rebroadcast antenna. ... Not to be confused with Get Some Mates The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... General Information Generically (as a multiplexing scheme), code division multiple access (CDMA) is any use of any form of spread spectrum by multiple transmitters to send to the same receiver on the same frequency channel at the same time without harmful interference. ... The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device which is used to transmit and receive sound (most commonly voice and speech) across distance. ... History of the Internet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

References

Notes

Note I — Bluetooth 2.0 uses for its enhanced data rate (EDR). Specifically π/4-shifted DQPSK at 2 Mbps and 8DPSK at 3 Mbps.[5]

Citations

  1. ^ Telecommunication, tele- and communication, New Oxford American Dictionary (2nd edition), 2005.
  2. ^ Les Télégraphes Chappe, Cédrick Chatenet, l'Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2003.
  3. ^ Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci, Eugenii Katz.
  4. ^ History of the Stock Ticker, Stock Ticker Company.
  5. ^ Bluetooth Specification Version 2.0 + EDR (p 27), Bluetooth, 2004.

The New Oxford American Dictionary (NOAD) is a dictionary of North American English created by the American editors at the Oxford University Press U.S. Dictionaries program. ...

External links

  • International Telecommunication Union
  • Federal Communications Commission
  • IEEE Communications Society
  • Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
  • Read Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Telecommunications
  • Aronsson's Telecom History Timeline
  • Alcatel Telecommunications Review Telecom magazine published since 1922
  • Ericsson's Understanding Telecommunications at archive.org (Ericsson removed the book from their site in Sep 2005)

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