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Encyclopedia > Tehran
Tehran
تهران
Tehran skyline with Milad Tower in the background.
Tehran skyline with Milad Tower in the background.
Official seal of Tehran
Seal
Nickname: The city of 72 nations.
Tehran (Iran)
Tehran
Coordinates: 35°41′46.28″N 51°25′22.66″E / 35.6961889, 51.4229611
Country Flag of Iran Iran
Province Tehran
Government
 - Mayor Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
Area
 - City 686 km² (265 sq mi)
 - Metro 18,814 km² (7,264 sq mi)
Elevation 1,200 m (3,900 ft)
Population (2006)
 - City 11,000,000
 - Density 11,360.9/km² (29,424.6/sq mi)
 - Urban 7,705,036
 - Metro 13,413,348
  Population Data from 2006 Census and Tehran Municipality.[1][2] Metro area figure refers to Tehran Province.
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 - Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3:30)
Website: http://www.tehran.ir

Tehran (tʰehˈɾɒn ; Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest city of Iran, and the administrative center of Tehran Province. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Tehran or Teheran may refer to: Tehran, the capital city of Iran Tehran Province of Iran Tehran TV Tehran Metro Tehran University Tehran Conference Tehran, a song on The Offsprings first album Teheran 43, a 1981 film Pas Tehran, an Iranian football club Tehrans Grand Bazaar Tehran International... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Borj-e Milad is a very tall tower built in Tehran, Iran. ... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 723 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 849 pixels, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... Tehran province has been the seat of Irans capital, Tehran, since 1778. ... Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf (محمد باقر قالیباف; born September 1961 in Mashhad) is an Iranian General and the former commander of Police Forces of Iran. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tehran province has been the seat of Irans capital, Tehran, since 1778. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Iran Standard Time (IRST) is the time zone used in Iran. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Tehran province has been the seat of Irans capital, Tehran, since 1778. ...


Most Iranian industries are headquartered in Tehran. The industries include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment, military weaponry, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical products. It is also a leading center for the sale of carpets and furniture. There is also an oil refinery located in south of the city.[3]


Tehran is a sprawling city at the foot of the Alborz mountain range with an immense network of highways unparalleled in Western Asia. It is also the hub of the country's railway network. Although a relatively new city that does not evoke the history of other Iranian cities such as Isfahan, Shiraz, or Tabriz, Tehran has numerous large museums, art centers, palace complexes and cultural centers. For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ...


In the 20th century, Tehran faced a large migration of people from all around Iran. Today, the city contains a mix of various ethnic and religious minorities, and is filled with many historic mosques, churches, synagogues and Zoroastrian fire temples. The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... A Zoroastrian Fire Temple is a place of worship for Zoroastrians. ...

Contents

Geography

History

Toopkhaneh Square, Tehran, in the early to mid-20th century.
Toopkhaneh Square, Tehran, in the early to mid-20th century.
Iranian Foreign Ministry
Iranian Foreign Ministry
Green Palace at the Sadabad Palace complex.
Green Palace at the Sadabad Palace complex.

Excavations place the existence of settlements in Tehran as far back as 6000 BCE.[citation needed] Tehran was well known as a village in the 9th century, but was less well-known than the city of Rhages (Ray) which was flourishing nearby in the early era. In the 13th century, following the destruction of Ray by Mongols, many of its inhabitants escaped to Tehran. In some sources of the early era, the city is mentioned as "Rhages's Tehran" . The city is later mentioned in Hamdollah Mostowfi's Nuz'hat al-Qulub (written in 1340) as a famous village. Image File history File linksMetadata Toopkhooneh_ghadeem. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Toopkhooneh_ghadeem. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 226 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Compounds of the Foreign Ministry of Iran. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 226 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Compounds of the Foreign Ministry of Iran. ... Rescue excavation in Southwark, London by the Museum of London Excavation is the best-known and most commonly used technique within the science of archaeology. ... Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Tomb of Hamdollah Mostowfi, Qazvin, Iran. ...


Don Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo, a Castilian ambassador, was probably the first European to visit Tehran, stopping in July 1404, while on a journey to Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan) and the Mongol capital at the time. At this time, the city of Tehran was unwalled. Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo (? - April 2, 1412), Spanish traveler and writer. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


Tehran became a residence of the Safavid rulers in the 17th century. Tahmasp I built a bazaar and a wall around the city, but it somewhat fell out of favor after Abbas I turned sick when he was passing the city to go to a war with the Uzbeks. The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun palace; Isfahan Shah Abbas King of the Persians Copper engraving by Dominicus Custos, from his Atrium heroicum Caesarum pub. ...


In the early of 18th century, Karim Khan Zand ordered a palace, a harem[citation needed], and a government office to be built in Tehran, possibly to declare the city his capital, but later moved his government to Shiraz. Tehran finally became the capital of Persia in 1795, when the Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan was crowned in the city. It remains the capital to this day. Karim Khan Zand (Persian: کریم خان زند) was a king of Persia who reigned from 1760 until 1779. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... In traditional Arab culture, the harîm حريم (cf. ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... This engraving depicts Agha Mohammad Khan wearing the Taj-i-kiyani, or the Kiyanid Crown. ...


During World War II, British and Soviet troops entered the city. Tehran was the site of the Tehran Conference in 1943, attended by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... CCCP redirects here. ... Left to right: General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom . ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР) (1946-1991), who... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


Following the war, the city's older landmarks suffered under the rule of Mohammad Reza Shah. The Shah believed that ancient buildings such as large parts of the Golestan Palace, Takieh-ye Dowlat, the Toopkhaneh Square (pictured to the right), the magnificent city fortifications and the old citadel among others should not be part of a modern city. They were systematically destroyed and modern 1950s and 1960s buildings were built in their place. Tehran bazar was divided in half and many historic buildings were destroyed in order to build wide straight avenues in the capital. Many excellent examples of Persian Gardens also became targets to new construction projects. The decision to carry these out is presently largely seen as a foolish mistake that hurt the visual fabric and the cultural identity of the city beyond repair. Apartment blocks are introduced in this period. His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ... A view of the Gulistan Palaces garden from Khalvat e Karimkhani. ... Toopkhaneh (also spelt Tupkhaneh) is a major Maidan and a neighborhood in the south of the central district of the city of Tehran in Iran. ...


On September 8, 1978, demonstrations against the Shah led to riots. The army reportedly opened fire on the demonstrating mob. Martial law was installed in the wake of the ensuing revolution, from 1978–79. is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


During the 1980–88 Iran-Iraq War, Tehran was the scene of repeated Scud missile attacks and air strikes against random residential and industrial targets within the city, resulting in thousands of civilian casualties. Material damage was repaired soon after each strike. Tehran attracted war refugees by the millions. Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... For other uses, see Scud (disambiguation). ...


After the war, cheap Soviet-style apartments multiplied throughout the city without any plan. At present, little is left of Tehran's old quarters. Instead, modern high-rise buildings dominate the city's skyline and new modern apartments have and are replacing the few remaining old houses at a rapid pace. Tehran-style home architecture has almost vanished completely. This is often referred to as "Tehran Identity Disaster".[citation needed] Tehran is a relatively old city. ...


Tehran is also home to many grand mansions in the north of the city and the "Shahrak e Gharb" District.


Climate

Climate chart for Mehrabad, Tehran
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
34
 
8
-1
 
 
32
 
10
1
 
 
40
 
15
5
 
 
31
 
22
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15
 
28
16
 
 
3
 
34
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2
 
37
24
 
 
2
 
36
23
 
 
1
 
32
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11
 
24
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26
 
16
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34
 
10
2
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: Iran Meteorological Organization
Northern part of Tehran with Tochal mountain on the background.
Northern part of Tehran with Tochal mountain on the background.

Tehran's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz mountains to its North and the central desert to the South. It can be generally described as mild in the spring, hot and dry in the summer, cool and rainy in autumn and cold in the winter. As a large city with a significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly north as compared to the flat southern part of Tehran. Summer is usually hot and dry with very little rain. The majority of precipitation occurs from mid-autumn to mid-spring. The hottest month is July (mean minimum temperature 23°C, mean maximum temperature 36°C) and the coldest is January (mean minimum temperature -1°C, mean maximum temperature 8°C)[4]
Although compared to other parts of the country, Tehran enjoys a moderate climate, weather conditions can sometimes be unpredictably harsh. The record high temperature is 48°C and the record low is -20°C. On January 5 & 6, 2008, after years of relatively little snow, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures shocked the city covering it in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the Council of Ministers to officially declare an state of emergency and calling the following two days (January 6th and 7th) off for the capital.[5] Mehrabad International Airport (IATA Code THR/ICAO Code OIII) is an airport that serves Tehran, Iran. ... Image File history File links Tochal-Tehran. ... Image File history File links Tochal-Tehran. ... Categories: Mountains of Iran | Iran geography stubs ...


Demographics

Historical population of Tehran
Historical population of Tehran

The city of Tehran had a population of about 11 million people at the time of the last official census in 2006 [6].


With its cosmopolitan air, Tehran houses diverse ethnic and linguistics groups from all over the country and represents the ethnic/linguistic composition of Iran (though with a different percentage). More than 60 percent of Tehranis were born outside Tehran.


Tehran is the largest Persian-speaking city in the world and Tehrani-spoken Persian is the standard spoken form of Persian language used throughout the country. Although indigenous people of Tehran before 19th century were Mazandaranis (still residing in the southern slops of Elburz), today the majority of Tehran residents are known as Persians who speak many different dialects of Persian corresponding to their hometown, including Esfahani, Shirazi, Yazdi, Khuzestani, Dari, Judeo-Persian, etc. The second largest linguistic group is that of the Azeri-speakers.[citation needed] Farsi redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... now. ... Alborz Mountains underneath clouds seen from Tehran Alborz (in Persian البرز), also written as Alburz or Elburz, is a mountain range in northern Iran, stretching from the borders of Armenia in the north-west to the southern end of the Caspian Sea, where also Tehran and Irans highest peak... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Esfahan. ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province, one of the most ancient and historic cities in Iran and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. ... There are a number of Khuzestani Persian dialects unique to the province of Khuzestan in southwestern Iran. ... Dari is the language of the Zoroastrians of Iran. ... Judeo-Persian was a language spoken by the Jews living in Persia. ... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ...


Other minority linguistic groups include Kurds, Mazandarani, Gilaks, Lurs, Baluch,Qashqa'i, Turkmen, Arab, Armenian, Bakhtiari, Assyrian, Talysh etc. There are also a number of a few long established linguistic minorities such as Punjabi-speaking sikhs & Domari-speaking Romas as well as a small amount ethnic Georgians who have resided in Northern Iran for centuries. A number of Levantine Arabic speakers of Lebanese origin also live in Tehran. Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Guilak (in Persian: Gilak) are an Iranian ethnic group whose homeland is the Gilan Province. ... Lurs are an ethnic group of Iranian peoples. ... Language(s) Balochi Religion(s) Islam Sunni (predominantly) and Zikris around Turbat[17][18] [19] Related ethnic groups Iranian people Especially Pashtuns, Kurds, Laks, Zazas Persians and Mazandaranis The Baloch (بلوچ; alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Bloach,Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... Qashqai /qash qa: ee/ (also spelled Ghashghai, Kashgai, Qashqay and Qashqai) are a Turkic-speaking tribal confederation of clans in Iran. ... Iranian Arabs (Persian: عربان ايران) are the Arabic-speaking citizens of Iran. ... Armenian-Iranians (Armenian: Իրանահայ translit. ... The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a group of southwestern Iranian people. ... The once thriving Assyrian community in Iran was diminished from around 200,000 at the close of the 20th century to a mere 5,000 while the total population of Assyrians in all of Iran hovers at around 15,000 to 20,000 (total population of Iran is estimated at... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak Talysh language one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... Domari is an Indo-Aryan language closely related to Romani, Rajasthani and eastern Punjabi. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


Tehran saw a drastic change in its ethno-social composition in early 1980s. Following the political, social and economic consequences of the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979 and onwards, many wealthier Tehranis left for abroad (mostly to Europe and the United States) in search of a safer haven.[citation needed] Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


With the start of the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) following an Iraqi invasion, a second wave of inhabitants fled the city especially under Iraqi air offensive on the capital. With most major powers backing Iraq at that time, economic isolation caused even more reasons for the inhabitants to leave the city (and the country). Having left all they had and having struggled to adopt to a new country and build a life, most of them never came back when the war was over. During the war, Tehran also received a great number of migrants from the west and the southwest of the country bordering Iraq. Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ...


The unstable situation and the war in neighboring Afghanistan and Iraq prompted a rush of refugees into the country who came in millions, with Tehran being a magnet for modest workers who helped the city to recover from war wounds, charging far less than local construction workers. Many of these refugees are being repatriated with the assistance of UNHCR but there are still sizeable Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Tehran who are reluctant to leave, being pessimistic about the situation in their country. Afghan refugees are mostly Persian-speaking Hazara or Tajiks, speaking a dialect of Persian, and Iraqi refugees, who are mainly Shiite Mesopotamian Arabic-speakers of Iranian origin. Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... Tajikmay refer to: Tajiks, an ethnic group living in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and China The Tajik language, the official language of Tajikistan The Arabic-schooled, ethnically Persian administrative caste of the Turco-Persian society. ...


The majority of Tehranis are the followers of Twelver Shia Islam which is also the state religion. Religious minorities include followers of various sects of Sunni Islam, Zoroastrianism, Bahá'í Faith, Judaism, and Christianity (including the adherents of the Assyrian Church of the East, Armenian Apostolic Church, Roman Catholic Church, Chaldean Catholic Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Iranian Protestant churches, Kelisa-ye Khanegi-ye Iraniyan, Armenian Evangelical Church, Jama'at-e Rabbani (Assemblies of God), Armenian Brotherhood Church, Russian Orthodox Church, and the Presbyterian Church). There are also small groups of Sikhs, Hindus, Buddhists, Mandeans, Spiritualists, Atheists, Azalis, Yazidis, Yarsan, Ismaili, Secular Muslims and the followers of Mystic Islam. Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... Catholic Church redirects here. ... These are the only peoples in this region that were fully and originally Semitic. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath. ... The Armenian Evangelical Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Ö‚Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¡Õ¶Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի) was established on July 1, 1846 by thirty-seven men and three women in Constantinople. ... Jamaat-e Rabbani is the Iranian branch of the Assemblies of God, one of the largest evangelical Pentecostal Christian churches. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... Spiritualism is a religion in which contact with the spirits of the dead through a medium is central. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Mirza Yahya Nuri ( 1831 - 29 April 1912) or often called Subh-i Azal (Morn of Eternity) was a Persian religious leader. ... Malak Ta’us, the peacock angel The Yazidi or Yezidi (Kurdish: Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... Yarsan or Ahl-i Haqq (Kurdish:Yarsan/Yaresan or Kakeyi, Arabic,Persian:اهل حق, Ahl-e Haqq, derived from an Arabic phrase translatable as People of the Truth and as Men of God[1]) is a religious sect, and its followers are primarily found in western Iran. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... In modern times there have been a number of liberal movements within Islam (sometimes called in Arabic: الإسلام الإجتهادية or interpretation-based Islam, also الإسلام المتقدمة or Progressive Islam). These generally denote religious outlooks which depend mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...


Despite being the seat of a theological government and the fact that most important religious unions and academies of the country are based in Tehran, the city remains the most secular and liberal in the nation, a fact that attracts many youngsters from elsewhere to study in the capital.


Architecture and landmarks

Khalvat Karimkhani
Khalvat Karimkhani
Post-Modern Architecture A commercial building in Tehran
See also Architecture of Tehran

Tehran is a relatively old city; as such, it has an architectural tradition unique to itself. Archaeological investigations and excavations in Tehran demonstrate that this area was home to civilizations as far back as 6,000 years BC. Tehran served only as a village to a relatively small population for most of its history, but began to take a more considerable role in Iran after it was made the capital in the 19th century. Despite the occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar period and before, some buildings still remain from Tehran's era of antiquity.[7] Today Tehran is Iran's primate city, and has the most modernized infastructure in the country; however, the gentrification of old neighborhoods and the demolition of buildings of cultural significance has caused concerns.[8] Image File history File links Photo by Zereshk, using Sony 5. ... Image File history File links Photo by Zereshk, using Sony 5. ... Karim Khan Zand (Persian: کریم خان زند) was a king of Persia who reigned from 1760 until 1779. ... Tehran is a relatively old city. ... A primate city is a major city that works as the financial, political, and population center of a country and is not rivaled in any of these aspects by any other city in that country. ... In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ...


The Azadi Tower has been the longstanding symbol of Tehran. It was constructured to commemorate the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian empire, and was originally named "Shahyad Tower"; after the Iranian revolution, its name changed to "Azadi Tower," meaning "Freedom Tower." The recently constructed Milad Tower may eventually replace the Azadi Tower as Tehran's new symbol. The Milad complex contains the world's fourth tallest tower, several restaurants, a five star hotel, a convention center, a world trade center, and an IT park.[9] Traditionally a low-lying city due to seismic activity in the region, modern high rise developments in Tehran have been undertaken in order to service its growing population. The Azadi Tower (Persian: , Borj-e Azadi meaning in English: ) (previously known as the Shahyād Āryāmehr Persian: , English: ) is the symbol of Tehran, Iran, and marks the entrance to this large metropolitan city. ... Symbol of 2,500 Year Celebration, Cyrus Cylinder in Center The 2,500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place October 12-16, 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Iranian monarchy by Cyrus... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... The Borj-e Milad is a very tall tower built in Tehran, Iran. ... The following fall under the definition of a tower which is a tall man-made structure, always taller than it is wide, and usually much higher. ...


The tallest residential building in Iran is a 54-story building located North of Youssef Abad district, the Tehran International Tower. It is architecturally designed similar to Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada, USA.[10] Appealing to the principle of vertical rather than horizontal expansion of the city, the Tehran International Tower is bound to the North by Youssef Abad, to the South By Hakim Highway, to the East by Kordesstan Highway and to the West by Sheikh Bahai Highway, all of which facilitate access to various parts of the city.[11] Mandalay Bay casino from the north Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino is a hotel/casino on the Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... The south end of The Strip; approximately one third of the entire Strip is represented here. ... Looking west toward Paradise Road and the Las Vegas Strip in the CDP of Paradise, Nevada Paradise is a census-designated place located in Clark County, Nevada. ...

Location and subdivisions

Tehran county borders Shemiranat county to the north, Damavand county to the east, Eslamshahr, Pakdasht, and Ray counties to the south, and Karaj and Shahriar counties to the west. Shariati Ave, looking north, toward the Alborz Mountains towering over Shemiran district, Tehran, Iran. ... The Congregation mosque of Damavand, built in 1409CE, has traces of Sassanid architecture in it. ... Eslamshahr with a population of 4,000,000 is located the central of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Pakdasht with a population of 2,300,000 is located the southwest of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... Karaj Country Iran Province Tehran Population 2000000 (2005) Area 1000 km² Coordinates Lat. ... Shahriar may refer to: Shahriar, an Iranian city to the southwest of Tehran Mohammad Hossein Shahriar, an Iranian poet This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Neighborhoods and districts of Tehran

Municipal Districts of Tehran
Municipal Districts of Tehran

The city of Tehran is divided into 22 municipal districts, each with its own administrative centers. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Within these 22 districts, Tehran contains the following major neighborhoods:


Abbas Abad, Afsariyeh, Amir Abad, Bagh Feiz, Baharestan, Darakeh, Darband, Dardasht, Dar Abad, Darrous, Dehkadeh Olampik, Ekhtiyariyeh, Elahiyeh, Evin, Farmanieh,Gheitariye, Gholhak, Gisha, Gomrok, Hasan Abad, Jamaran, Jannat Abad, Javadiyeh, Jomhuri, Jordan, Lavizan, Narmak, Navab, Nazi Abad, Niavaran, Park-e Shahr, Pasdaran, Punak, Ray, Sa'adat Abad, Sadeghiyeh, Seyed Khandan, Sohrevardi, Shahrara, Shahr-e ziba, Shahrak-e Gharb, Shemiran, Tajrish, Tehranpars, Tehransar, Vanak, Velenjak, Yaft Abad, Yusef Abad, Zafaraniyeh, etc. Abbas Abad is a large north-central neighborhood of Tehran. ... Afsariyeh with a population of 1,000,000 is located the south of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... A province of Tehran in northern Tehran. ... Bagh Feiz with a population of 2,000,000 is located the south of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Baharestan is a place in the city of Tehran, capital of Iran. ... Darakeh with a population of 1,000,000 is located north of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... The foot of Darbands popular hiking trail, Tehran Darband is a former village, now a neighbourhood inside Tehrans city limits. ... Dardasht (in persian دردشت) is a neighbourhood in the eastern part of Tehran, the capital of Iran. ... Darabad (in Persian: دارآباد) is a quarter of Tehran, the capital city of Iran. ... Darrous is a neighborhood in Shemiran, northern Tehran, Iran. ... Dehkadeh Olampik with a population of 1,000,000 is located the central of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Ekhtiareh is an old neighbourhood of Shemiran,northren part of Tehran , served by Pasdaran Ave. ... The towering Alborz mountains in Tehran rising above modern high rises of Elahiyeh district. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Farmanieh is one of the districts located within the upper-class Shemiran district of Tehran, the capital of Iran. ... Gheitariye with a population of 150,000 is located the north of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Gholhak is a neighbourhood in Northern Tehran,a part of Shemiran,located between Zargandeh/Elahiyeh to the west and Ektiarieh/Dolat to the east and is served by Shariati st, which at the old times was known as shemiran road and later with the construction of highways,Old shemiran road... The 435m Milad Tower nears its completion as it towers over the Gisha district of Tehran. ... Gomrok with a population of 850,000 is located the central of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Hasan Abad is one of Tehrans oldest business districts. ... Jamaran with a population of 1,250,000 is located the central of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Janat Abad is an area around the Janat Abad Street located in West Tehran. ... Javadiyeh with a population of 3,000,000 is located the central of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Jomhuri is offically known as Jomhuri Islami Avenue which means Islamic republic. ... Lavizān (Persian: لویزان) is a northeastern neighborhood of Tehran, the capital of Iran. ... Narmak is a neighbourhood in the north-east of the Tehran, the capital city of Iran. ... Nazi Abad is a neighborhood with a population of 750,000 and is located the central district of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... The Niavaran branch of the National Library of Iran offers a pleasant environment for its users. ... Park-e Shahr with a population of 250,000 is located the central of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Pasdaran Ave. ... Punak with a population of 950,000 is located the northwest of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... Saadat Abad (سعادت آباد) is a neighbourhood located North of Shahrak-e Gharb. ... Sadeghiyehs latest addition to its commercial district. ... Seyed Khandan is a locality of the city of Tehran in Iran. ... Shahrara with a population of 1,000,000 is located the central of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Shahr-e ziba with a population of 2,000,000 is located the central of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Shahrak-e Gharb (in Persian شهرک غرب) (or Shahrak-e Qods) is a planned town built as a massive project of modern apartment buildings in the western part of Tehran, Iran. ... Shemiran (sometimes Shemiranat) is the name of the northern part of the city of Tehran, capital of Iran. ... Another view of the square looking northward. ... Tehranpars or Tehran Pars (in Persian: تهران‌پارس) is a planned city inside the Greater Tehran Area. ... Corner of 14th street in Tehransar Boulevard Tehransar is a locality west of the city of Tehran in Iran. ... Vanak (in Persian ونک) is a neighbourhood in the northern part of Tehran city, capital of Iran. ... Velenjak is a beautiful place in the very north of Tehran , capital of Iran . ... Yaft Abad with a population of 2,500,000 is located the west of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... Yusef Abad is very respectful,if not neccesarily fashionable,locality of Theran,consisting of an area developed through parallel streets called Yousef abad,Ibn sina,Jahan ara and Mostoufi,latter being the most beautiful and consequently the most expensive part of it. ... Zafaraniyeh with a population of 250,000 is located the north of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ...


For a map of the relative locations of the neighborhoods and the full list, see List of the localities around Tehran. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Older neighborhoods

Tehran's old city fabric changed dramatically during the Pahlavi era. Some of the older remaining districts of Tehran are: Udlajan, Sangelaj, Bazaar, Chaleh Meydan, Doulat. Chaleh Meydan is the oldest neighborhood of the aforementioned... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... An 1873 illustration of Tehrans bustling Bazaar. ... Doulat (also spelled Dowlat) is a district in northern Tehran, Iran. ...


Economy

See also: Economy of Iran

About 30% of Iran’s public-sector workforce and 45% of large industrial firms are located in Tehran and almost half of these workers work for the government.[citation needed] Most of the remainder of workers are factory workers, shopkeepers, laborers, and transport workers. Few foreign companies operate in Tehran because of the Islamic government and its poor relations with the west. But before the Islamic revolution many western companies were active in this region. Today many modern industries of this city include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment, weaponry, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical products. It is also a leading center for the sale of carpets and furniture. There is an oil refinery near Ray, south of the city. Tehran has three airports, including Mehrabad International Airport, Imam Khomeini International Airport, and Ghal'eh Morghi airfield. The economy of Iran is a transition economy where a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%.[8] According to experts, annual economic growth above five per cent would be needed... An Islamic republic in its modern context has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... , Mehrabad International Airport (Persian: ) (IATA: THR, ICAO: OIII) is an airport that serves Tehran, Iran. ... , For the similarly named Swedish furniture company, see IKEA. For the company IKA, see Industrias Kaiser Argentina. ...


Tehran relies heavily on private cars, buses, motorcycles, and taxis, and is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world. The Tehran Stock Exchange, which is a full member of the Federation Internationale des Bourses de Valeurs (FIBV) and a founding member of the Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges, has been one of the world's best performing stock exchanges in recent years.[12] TSE Logo The Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) (Persian: بورس اوراق بهادار تهران) is Irans largest stock exchange, which first opened in April 1968. ... The Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges (FEAS) is a non-profit international organization comprising the main stock exchanges in Europe and Asia. ...


Transportation

See also: Transport in Iran
Current Tehran Metro coverage of the metropolitan area
Current Tehran Metro coverage of the metropolitan area

The metropolis of Tehran enjoys a huge network of highways (280 km) and of interchanges’ ramps & loops (180km). In 2007 there were 130 kilometers of highways and 120 kilometers of ramps and loops under construction.[13] Major routes and railways of Iran Iran has a long paved road system linking most of its towns and all of its cities. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 645 pixel, file size: 112 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 645 pixel, file size: 112 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tehran Metro // The initial plans of the Tehran Metro, which was to be Irans first metro system, were laid out before the Iranian revolution in the 1970s. ...


Tehran has one of the cleanest and most convenient metro systems, in terms of accessibility to different parts of the city, in the region. The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the construction were started in 1970s. In 2001, the first two of its seven envisaged lines of metro were opened to public usage.


Development of the Tehran metro system had been interrupted by the Islamic Revolution and the Iran-Iraq War. Problems arising from the late completion of the metro led to buses taking on the role of the metro lines, serving mainly long distance routes. Taxis filled the void for local journeys. The taxis only drive on main avenues, and only within the local area, so it may be necessary to take several taxis to get to one's final destination. This has all led to extreme congestion and air pollution within the city. Since the completion of the first 3 phases of the Metro, some of these above problems have been mitigated. Tehran Metro // The initial plans of the Tehran Metro, which was to be Irans first metro system, were laid out before the Iranian revolution in the 1970s. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ...


Tehran is served by Mehrabad national Airport, an old airport which doubles as a military base located in the Western part of the city, and Imam Khomeini International Airport, 50 kilometers (31 mi) South, which handles international flights. , Mehrabad International Airport (Persian: ) (IATA: THR, ICAO: OIII) is an airport that serves Tehran, Iran. ... , For the similarly named Swedish furniture company, see IKEA. For the company IKA, see Industrias Kaiser Argentina. ...


Tehran also has a central train station with connecting services round the clock to various cities in the country. There are four bus terminals that also provide connections at low fares. These are the South, East, West, and Bei-haghi Park-Drive Terminals.


While the center of the city houses the government ministries and headquarters, the commercial centers are more located toward Valiasr Street (formally known as Pahlavi street), Taleghani Ave, and Beheshti Ave further north. Although administratively separate, Rey, Shemiran, and Karaj are often considered part of the larger Tehran metropolitan area. Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... Shemiran (sometimes Shemiranat) is the name of the northern part of the city of Tehran, capital of Iran. ... Karaj Country Iran Province Tehran Population 2000000 (2005) Area 1000 km² Coordinates Lat. ...


See also: List of Tehran metro stations, Tehran Monorail. Tehrans Metro system consists of five lines, of which 3 already operational. ... In 2004 the capital of Iran, Tehran, began to re-examine the possibilities for installing a monorail transport system to help reduce the citys traffic congestion problem. ...


Pollution

See also: Environmental issues in Iran
Smog is easily seen in Downtown Tehran.
Smog is easily seen in Downtown Tehran.
Alborz Mountains in a day of relatively clean air.
Alborz Mountains in a day of relatively clean air.

Tehran suffers from severe air pollution and the city is often covered by smog making breathing difficult and causing widespread pulmonary illnesses. It is estimated that about 27 people die each day from pollution-related diseases.[14] According to local officials, 3,600 people died in a single month due to the hazardous air quality.[15] Environmental issue in Iran Especially in urban areas, vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents contribute to poor air quality. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (872x713, 195 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tehran User:Marmoulak/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (872x713, 195 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tehran User:Marmoulak/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ...


The air pollution is due to several different reasons[citation needed]: 1) Economical: most Iranian industries are located on the outskirts of Tehran. The city is also overrun with old and aging cars which do not meet today's emission regulations. Furthermore, Iran's busiest airport, Mehrabad International Airport, is located in the west of the city; 2) Infrastructure: Tehran has a poor public transportation network. Buses and metros do not cover every area of the city. Most people are then obliged to either use private cars or hire taxis. This has created severe traffic congestion; 3) Geographical: Tehran is bound in the north by the massive Alborz mountain range that is stopping the flow of the humid Caspian wind. As a result, thermal inversion that traps Tehran's polluted air is frequently observed. The lack of humidity and clouds makes Tehran a very sunny city. The UV radiations then combined with the existing pollutants significantly raise the level of the ozone. , Mehrabad International Airport (Persian: ) (IATA: THR, ICAO: OIII) is an airport that serves Tehran, Iran. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... A temperature inversion is a meteorological phenomenon where air temperature increases with height. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ...


The government, however, is engaged in a battle to reduce the air pollution.[citation needed] It has for instance encouraged taxis and buses to convert from petrol engines to engines that run on compressed natural gas. Furthermore, since 1979 the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has setup a "Traffic Zone" (طرح ترافیک) covering the city center during peak traffic hours. Entering and driving inside this zone is only allowed with a special permit. The government is also trying to raise people's awareness about the hazards of the pollution. One method that is currently been employed is the installation of Pollution Indicator Boards all around the city to monitor the current level of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). The board also displays the Pollutant Standard Index (PSI), which is a general indication of air quality based on the measurements of the above-mentioned five pollutants. The Pollution Indicator Boards classify the level of each pollutants as either safe, hazardous or dangerous. In 2007 Iran imposed fuel rations and since the use of cars has thereafter declined, streets are less congested and the air quality has improved. The main reason for this rationing was to reduce fuel consumption, so that fuel is not imported eventually. Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ... Particulates, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM) , aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...


Education and research

See also: Education in Iran and List of colleges and universities in Tehran

Tehran is the biggest and most important educational center of Iran. Today there are nearly 50 major colleges and universities total in Greater Tehran. Irans educational system comprises many schools and universities scattered throughout the country. ... Tehrans major colleges and universities are: See also Higher education in Iran List of Universities in Tehran Province Categories: | | ... Greater Tehran is the metropolitan urban area in Tehran Province that covers the contiguous cities of Tehran, Ray, Karaj, Islamshahr, Hesarak, Shemiran, Varamin, and other areas. ...


Since the establishment of Darolfonoon in the mid 1800s, Tehran has amassed a large number of institutions of higher education. Some of these institutions have played crucial roles in the unfolding of Iranian political events. The University of Tehran is the oldest state university and the largest university of Iran. Samuel M. Jordan, whom Jordan Avenue in Tehran is named after, was also one of the founding pioneers of the American College of Tehran. Daralfonoon (Persian دار الفنون), established 1851 was the first modern institution of higher learning in Iran. ... The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران in Persian), also known as Tehran University, is the oldest and largest university of Iran. ... McCormick Hall, American College of Tehran, circa 1930. ... Alborz High School (in Persian:دبیرستان البرز), is a high school located in the heart of Tehran, Iran. ...


Tehran is also home to Iran's largest military academy, and several religious schools and seminaries.


Sport

See also: Sport in Iran

Tehran was the first city in the Middle East to host the Asian Games. The 7th Asian Summer Games in 1974, was held with the participation of 2,363 athletes and officials from 25 countries. Many kinds of sports are practiced in Iran, both traditional and modern. ... Asian Games Logo The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. ...


Tehran is also the site of Iran's national football stadium on Azadi Sport Complex with 100,000 seating capacity. Many of the top matches of Iran's Premier League are held here. In 2005, FIFA ordered Iran to limit spectators allowed into Azadi stadium because of a fatal crush and inadequate safety procedures. Other stadiums in Tehran are Shahid Dastgerdi Stadium, Takhti Stadium, and Shahid Shirudi Stadium, among others. The Azadi Stadium is Irans national and largest stadium. ... Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, either in terms of the space available, or in terms of limitations set by law. ... This article is about the international association football organization. ... Shahid Dastgerdi Stadium (اسناديوم شهيد دستگردي in Persian) is a football stadium located in the Ekbatan area of Tehran, Iran. ...

International Snowboard championship in Dizin. The ski resort of Dizin is situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz Mountains range.
International Snowboard championship in Dizin. The ski resort of Dizin is situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz Mountains range.

Within 10 minutes driving distance from Tehran lies a ski resort. Tochal is the world's fifth highest ski resort, at over 3,730 metres (12,240 ft) at its highest 7th station. The resort was completed in 1976 shortly before the overthrow of the Shah. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... One of the best ski resorts in the world, Dizin is situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz mountain range. ... Alborz Mountains underneath clouds seen from Tehran Alborz (in Persian البرز), also written as Alburz or Elburz, is a mountain range in northern Iran, stretching from the borders of Armenia in the north-west to the southern end of the Caspian Sea, where also Tehran and Irans highest peak... Categories: Mountains of Iran | Iran geography stubs ...


Here, one must first ride the eight kilometre (five mile) long gondola lift which covers a huge vertical. The 7th station has three slopes. The resort's longest slope is the south side U shaped slope which goes from the 7th station to 5th station. The other two slopes are located on the north side of the 7th station. Here, there are two parallel chair ski lifts that go up to 3,900 metres (12,795 ft) near Tochal's peak (at 4,000 m/13,125 ft), rising higher than the gondola 7th station. This altitude is higher than any of the European resorts.


From the Tochal peak, one has a spectacular view of the Alborz range, including the 5,671 metre (18,606 ft) high Mt. Damavand, a dormant volcano.


At the bottom of the lifts in a valley behind the Tochal peak is Tochal hotel, located at 3,500 metres (11,483 ft) altitude. From there a T lift takes skiers up the 3,800 metres (12,500 ft) of Shahneshin peak, where the third slope of Tochal is.


Tochal 7th station has skiing eight months of the year. But there are also some glaciers and year-round snow fields near Tehran where skiing began in 1938, thanks to the efforts of two German railway engineers. Today, 12 ski resorts operate in Iran, but the most famous are Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak, all within one to three hours of Tehran. Categories: Mountains of Iran | Iran geography stubs ... One of the best ski resorts in the world, Dizin is situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz mountain range. ... Shemshak is a ski resort situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz mountain range. ...


Football

In Football (soccer), Tehran is host to six football clubs in Iran's Premier Football League, namely: Soccer redirects here. ... Irans Premier Football League (Persian: , officially known as the Persian Gulf Cup, previously known as the IPL:Iranian Pro League) is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the highest level of the Iranian football league system above the Azadegan League. ...

Club Sport Founded League Head Coach
Esteghlal F.C.[16] Football (soccer) 1945 Iran Pro League (IPL) Firouz Karimi
Persepolis F.C.[17] Football (soccer) 1963 Iran Pro League (IPL) Afshin Ghotbi
Paykan F.C. Football (soccer) 1967 Iran Pro League (IPL) Asghar Modirousta
Saba Battery F.C.[18] Football (soccer) 2002 Iran Pro League (IPL) Yahya Golmohammadi
Saipa F.C.[19] Football (soccer) 1989 Iran Pro League (IPL) Ali Daei
Rah Ahan F.C. Football (soccer) 1964 Iran Pro League (IPL) Davoud Mahabadi

These clubs have on numerous occasions won Asian titles, and some of their players are known internationally.[20] The prominent matches are usually held at Azadi Stadium. Esteghlal Cultural and Athletic Club (Persian: ) is an Iranian sports club most widely known for its professional football team based in Tehran. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Iran Pro League (IPL) (Persian: , currently known as the Persian Gulf Cup (جام خلیج فارس) is a professional football league competition for clubs located at the highest level of the Iranian football league system. ... Firouz Karimi is an Iranian football manager who is currently Head-Coach of Esteghlal Ahvaz F.C. in Irans Premier Football League. ... Persepolis Football Club (Persian: ) is an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran. ... Soccer redirects here. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... The Iran Pro League (IPL) (Persian: , currently known as the Persian Gulf Cup (جام خلیج فارس) is a professional football league competition for clubs located at the highest level of the Iranian football league system. ... Afshin Ghotbi (Persian: , born February 8, 1964 in Shiraz, Iran) is an Iranian-American football coach who is the manager of Persepolis FC in Irans Premier Football League. ... For the automobile , see Paykan. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Iran Pro League (IPL) (Persian: , currently known as the Persian Gulf Cup (جام خلیج فارس) is a professional football league competition for clubs located at the highest level of the Iranian football league system. ... Saba Battery Football Club (Persian: ‎ ) is a football team based in Irans top football league, the IPL. Saba Battery is owned by Saba Battery Co, and is located in Robat Karim, although they are registered as a team from Tehran. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Iran Pro League (IPL) (Persian: , currently known as the Persian Gulf Cup (جام خلیج فارس) is a professional football league competition for clubs located at the highest level of the Iranian football league system. ... Yahya Golmohammadi is a senior Iranian football player with Team Melli enjoying a second spell with the team after he was out for a few years. ... For the automobile company, see SAIPA. Saipa Karaj Football Club (Persian: ) is a football team based in Karaj, Iran. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Iran Pro League (IPL) (Persian: , currently known as the Persian Gulf Cup (جام خلیج فارس) is a professional football league competition for clubs located at the highest level of the Iranian football league system. ... Ali Daei (Persian: nicknamed Shahriar, born March 21, 1969 in Ardabil, Iran) is a retired Iranian football player who currently is head coach of IPL team Saipa F.C.[1] and the Iran national football team. ... Rah Ahan Football Club (Persian: ‎ ) is an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The Iran Pro League (IPL) (Persian: , currently known as the Persian Gulf Cup (جام خلیج فارس) is a professional football league competition for clubs located at the highest level of the Iranian football league system. ... The Azadi Stadium (Persian: ) is Irans national and largest stadium. ...


Tourism and attractions

Tehran, as Iran's showcase and historical capital city, has a wealth of cultural attractions. The Peacock Throne of the Persian Kings (Shahs) can be found in Tehran's Golestan Palace. Some of the well-known museums are National Museum of Iran, Sa'dabad Palaces Complex, Glassware and Ceramics Museum of Iran, The Carpet Museum of Iran, Tehran's Underglass painting Museum, and Niavaran Palace Complex. The Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art features the works of great artists such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol. The collection of these paintings was selected by the former Empress Farrah Diba.[citation needed] The Peacock Throne, called Takht-e-Tavous (Persian: تخت طائوس) in Persian, is the name originally of a Mughal throne, later used to describe the thrones of the Persian emperors from Nader Shah Afshari to Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... A view of the Gulistan Palaces garden from Khalvat e Karimkhani. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is an archeological and historical museum located in Tehran. ... The Sadabad Palace (کاخ سعدآباد) is a palace built by the Pahlavi dynasty of Iran in the Shemiran area of Tehran. ... Carpet Museum of Iran, Tehran Located in Tehran, beside the Laleh Park, and founded in 1976, the Carpet Museum of Iran exhibits a variety of Persian carpets from all over Iran, dating from 18th century to present. ... External links Niavaran Palace Website Categories: Stub | Iran ... The Museum is based on some traditional Persian elements such as Badgirs, and yet has a spiraling design reminiscent of Frank Lloyd Wrights Guggenheim. ... van gogh is a piece of shit Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890), Netherlands artist. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ...


Tehran is also home to the Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia, its is claimed to be the largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. The collection is comprised of a set of crowns and thrones, some 30 tiaras, numerous aigrettes, jewel-studded swords and shields, a vast amount of precious loose gems, including the largest collections of emeralds, rubies and diamonds in the world. It also includes other items collected by the Shahs of Iran during the 2,500 year existence of the Iranian Kingdom. The Imperial Crown Jewels are still on display in the Iranian Central Bank in Tehran. The Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia, is the by far largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. ... Bank Markazi, Tehran, Iran Bank Markazi Iran or Bank Markazi Jomhouri Islami Iran (Persian: بانک مرکزی جمهوری اسلامی ايران) is the Central bank of Iran. ...


The following table is shown some fascinating outdoor places in Tehran:

Tochal Ski resort Darband hiking trail Chitgar Park Niavaran Park Sa'ei Park Daneshju Park [[Shahr-e Bazi]] amusement park HAS BEEN TAKEN DOWN
Mellat Park Laleh Park Jamshidieh Park Shatranj Park Darabad hiking trail Darakeh hiking trail Jahan-e Kudak Park
Azadi sports complex Enghelab Sports Complex and Golf course Latyan Lake Lavizan Forest Park Vardavard Forest Park KhajeerNational Park Kavir National Park
Tar Lake Amir Kabir Lake Lar Protected Natural Habitat Varjeen Protected Natural Habitat Pardisan Tangeh Savashi [[Shahr-e Bazi]] HAS BEEN TAKEN DOWN

Darband is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... Chitgar Forest Park is situated in the Tehran province, Iran. ... The Niavaran Public Library is nestled snuggly within the Niavaran city park. ... Mellat Park (Pârk-e Mellat) is a park in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. ... Laleh Parks southwestern entrance with a statue of Biruni, a medieval Persian astronomer. ... Jamshidieh Park (or Jamshidieh Stone Garden), In memorial of Jamshid Davallu Qajar, a Qajar Prince that dedicated this garden to Farah Diba, Iranian Empress. ... Darabad (in Persian: دارآباد) is a quarter of Tehran, the capital city of Iran. ... Darakeh with a population of 1,000,000 is located north of the provincial capital of Tehran in Iran. ... The Azadi Stadium is Irans national and largest stadium. ... Lavizān (Persian: لویزان) is a northeastern neighborhood of Tehran, the capital of Iran. ... Kavir (Desert) National Park is a 400,000-hectare (1,000,000-acre) protected ecological zone in northern Iran. ... Lar is a city in Fars Province in the south of Iran. ... A park in north-west of Tehran, Iran ... Visitors from Tehran flock to the area on weekends to enjoy the idyllic surroundings. ...

Religious centers

  • Hosseiniye Ershad
  • Soltani Mosque, built by Fath Ali Shah
  • Atiq Mosque, built in 1663.
  • Mo'ezz o-dowleh mosque, built by Fath Ali Shah
  • Haj Seyd Azizollah mosque, built by Fath Ali Shah
  • Al-javad mosque, Iran's first modernist design mosque.
  • The Old Sepahsalar mosque, another prominent Qajar era mosque.
  • The new Sepahsalar mosque (Madreseh e Motahari)
  • Filsuf o-dowleh Mosque, Qajar era
  • Moshir ol-Saltaneh Mosque, Qajar era
  • Mo'ayyer ol-Mamalik Mosque, Qajar era
  • Shahr Banu Mausoleum
  • Javan-mard Qassab Mausoleum, a pre-Islamic semi-mythical hero
  • Dozens of Imam-zadeh shrines, hundreds of years old, including that of Imam Zadeh Saleh.
  • Dozens of Saqa Khanehs: traditional places of prayer
  • Several Tekyehs: traditional places for mourning Muharram ceremonies for Husayn ibn Ali.
  • Ebn-e Babooyeh cemetery, where many Iranian giants such as Takhti and Ali Akbar Dehkhoda are buried.
  • Zahir o-dowleh cemetery, where many Iranian giants of art and culture such as Iraj Mirza, Mohammad Taghi Bahar, Forough Farrokhzad, Abolhasan Saba, Ruhollah Khaleghi, and Darvish-khan are buried.
  • Kordan Tomb, Seljuqi era, Karaj.
  • Maydanak Tomb, 13th century, Karaj
  • The Polish Cemetery 1-north of Tehran in British Gholhak Garden, where numerous World War II western Allied soldiers are buried. 2- Polish cemetery (Catholic cemetery) Dulab south of Tehran
  • Orthodox Cemetery, Dulab/The Russian Unknown Soldier's Tomb (Cenotaph) is located here with a red star over it
  • Tower of silence (Dakhme gabrha). Located on Moshiryh Road behind 7th unit of Tehran cement factory. It is circular in shape.
  • Naghare Khane Tower. Located on a mountain with same name (Nagharekhane) in Haftdastagh District, beside Amin Abad Road. Its age is not clear but it is related to the Seljuk Era. This tower is the tomb of a Seljuk king. Under the tower you can see other historical ruins (Einanj Dome). This place is a royal cemetery and was used in the early years of the Islamic Era in Persia.

The Hosseiniye Ershad (or Hoseynieh Ershad) is a religious institute in Tehran, Iran. ... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The shrine of Bibi Shahrbanu, Rey, Iran Shahr banu (or Shahr banoo), was the eldest daughter of Yazdegerd III, the last Emperor of Sassanid Persia. ... Man prostrating at the Shrine of Imamzadeh Saleh. ... Tekyeh of Niavaran, built in 1858. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... This December 2006 does not cite its references or sources. ... Gholamreza Takhti (غلامرضا تختی‎; 1930-1968) is the most famous Iranian wrestler. ... Allameh Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... This December 2006 does not cite its references or sources. ... Iraj Mirza was also active in politics. ... Bahars tomb in Darband, Shemiran, Tehran. ... Forough Farrokhzad Forough Farrokhzad (Persian: فروغ فرخزاد) (January 5, 1935 — February 13, 1967) was an Iranian poetess and film director. ... The tomb of Saba is prohibited from visitor access. ... Ruhollah Khaleghi is buried in Darband, Shemiran, Tehran. ... Darvish Khan Darvish Khan (Persian: , Gholam Hossein Darvish, b. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Karaj Country Iran Province Tehran Population 2000000 (2005) Area 1000 km² Coordinates Lat. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Churches

  • Surep Georg Church, 1790
  • Thaddeus Bartoqimus Church, 1808
  • Tatavus Church, from the Qajar era
  • Enjili Church, 1867
  • Assyrian Church

For other uses, see Saint Jude (disambiguation). ...

The Mayor of Tehran

Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf (محمد باقر قالیباف; born September 1961 in Mashhad) is an Iranian General and the former commander of Police Forces of Iran. ... This is a list of Mayors of Tehran: Gholamhossein Karbaschi Morteza Alviri Ahmad Malekmadani Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Categories: Incomplete lists | Mayors of Tehran ... The Islamic City Council of Tehran (شورای اسلامی شهر تهران) is the elected council that presides over the city of Tehran, elects the Mayor of Tehran, and budgets the Municipality of Tehran. ...

Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Peking redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... Nickname: Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...

Events

  • 1974 Asian Games: The 7th Asian Games were held from September 1, 1974 to September 16, 1974 in Tehran, Iran. The Azadi sports complex was made for the Games. The Asian Games were hosted in the Middle East for the first time. Tehran, the capital of Iran, played host to 3,010 athletes coming from 25 countries/NOCs, the highest number of participants since the inception of the Games.[21]
  • 1976 AFC Asian Cup: The 1976 AFC Asian Cup was the sixth edition of the Asian Nations Cup, the football (soccer) championship of Asia (AFC). It was hosted by Iran. The field of six teams was split into two groups of three. Iran won their third title in a row, beating Kuwait in the final 1-0.[22]
  • 1997 1st West Asian Games: The 1st West Asian Games was first organized in Tehran from 19 to 28 November 1997. It was considered the first of their kind. The success of the games led to the creation of the West Asian Games Federation (WAGF) and the intention of hosting the games every two year.[23]

===Pictures=== Asian Games Logo The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. ... The Azadi Stadium is Irans national and largest stadium. ... The 1976 AFC Asian Cup was the sixth edition of the Asian Nations Cup, the football (soccer) championship of Asia (AFC). ... The West Asian Games were first organised in Tehran, Iran and were considered the first of their kind. ...

Panoramic view

Panoramic view from Tehran
Panoramic view from Tehran
Panoramic view from Tehran at night
Panoramic view from Tehran at night

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 122 pixels Full resolution (4000 × 612 pixel, file size: 721 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tehran Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 122 pixels Full resolution (4000 × 612 pixel, file size: 721 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tehran Metadata This file contains...

See also

TSE Logo The Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) (Persian: بورس اوراق بهادار تهران) is Irans largest stock exchange, which first opened in April 1968. ... Tehran is a relatively old city. ... A.S.P Towers to the right A.S.P. Towers (also referred to as Kooy-e Nobonyad-e Vanak) are one of the most prominent skyscrapers in Tehran, the capital of Iran. ... Tehrans major colleges and universities are: See also Higher education in Iran List of Universities in Tehran Province Categories: | | ... The Iran International Exhibitions Company (IIEC) is the largest and the leading organizer of international and specialized exhibitions in Iran with its offices located at the Tehran permanent fairground. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... The Islamic City Council of Tehran (شورای اسلامی شهر تهران) is the elected council that presides over the city of Tehran, elects the Mayor of Tehran, and budgets the Municipality of Tehran. ... The economy of Iran is a transition economy where a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%.[8] According to experts, annual economic growth above five per cent would be needed...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tehran

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Official

Underground

References

  1. ^ Statistical Center of Iran 2006 Census website [1]
  2. ^ Tehran Municipality, Atlas of Tehran Metropolis
  3. ^ Tehran Oil Refining Company Official Website. Tehran Oil Refining Company Official Website
  4. ^ Climate of Tehran
  5. ^ Heavy Snowfall in Tehran (in Persian)
  6. ^ http://www.sci.org.ir/content/userfiles/_census85/census85/natayej/
  7. ^ Tehran Capital City of Iran. Tehran
  8. ^ The Style of Tehran. Library of Congress. Accessed 04-13-2008.
  9. ^ Milad Tower Official Website. Milad Tower
  10. ^ Tehran International Tower Wesite. Tehran International Tower Website
  11. ^ Tehran International Tower Wesite. Tehran International Tower Website
  12. ^ BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3129995.stm
  13. ^ Tehran. An Educational Website about Tehran
  14. ^ The BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/story/2006/09/060909_mv-pollution-tehran.shtml
  15. ^ The BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6245463.stm
  16. ^ Esteghlal F.C. Official Website. Esteghlal F.C.
  17. ^ Persepolis F.C. Official Website. Persepolis F.C.
  18. ^ Saba Battery F.C. Official Website. Saba Battery F.C.
  19. ^ Saipa F.C. Official Website. Saipa F.C.
  20. ^ AFC Official Website. The official site of Asia's premier club competition
  21. ^ 7th Asian Games. Asian Games
  22. ^ AFC Asian Cup. AFC Asian Cup
  23. ^ West Asian Games. West Asian Games

Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (Бишкек) is the capital of Kyrgyzstan. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - Total 100 km² (38. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Peking redirects here. ... This article is about the city. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Template:Infobox Settlementcookis and ceam For the band, see Ulan Bator (band). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Thimphu (Tibetan script: ཐིམ་ཕུག།) is the capital of Bhutan, and also the name of the surrounding valley and dzongkhag, the Thimphu District. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... Malé (Dhivehi: މާލެ), (pronounced: Maa-lay) population 81,647 (2004), is the capital of the Republic of Maldives located at the southern edge of North Male Atoll Kaafu Atoll. ... For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ... , District Government  - Mayor Swarnalatha Silva (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 17 km²  (6. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque Bandar Seri Begawan, estimated population 46,229 (1991), is the capital and the royal town of the Sultanate of Brunei. ... Naypyidaw (also spelt Nay Pyi Taw, literally Royal City) is currently the national capital of Myanmar, located in Kyatpyae Village, Pyinmana Township of Mandalay Division. ... Nickname: Location of Phnom Penh, Cambodia Coordinates: , Country Province Settled 1372 Became Capital 1865 Government  - Type Municipality  - Mayor & Governor H.E. Keb Chutema (Khmer: )  - Vice Governors H.E. Than Sina, H.E. Map Sarin, H.E. Seng Tong Area  - Total 376 km² (145. ... Dili, also spelled Díli, Dilli or Dilly, is the capital of East Timor. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... 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Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... Bahrain from space, June 1996 Manama (Arabic: المنامة Al-Manāmah) is the capital city of Bahrain and is the countrys largest city with a population of approximately 155,000, roughly a quarter of countrys entire population. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Kuwait City Kuwait City (also Al-Kuwait - الكويت), population 32,403 (2005 Census), is the capital of the emirate of Kuwait and part of the Al-Asimah governorate. ... 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Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Gran Buenos Aires or Greater Buenos Aires is the metropolitan area next to the city of Buenos Aires and comprises the following 24 partidos (administrative subdivisions) of the Province of Buenos Aires. ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shenzhen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Lagos (disambiguation). ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Location within Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Saigon redirects here. ... Nickname: Map of the Dem. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Bogota redirects here. ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... Madras redirects here. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hong Kong (香港; Cantonese IPA: ; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2; Yale: heūng góng; pinyin: Xiānggǎng; Wade-Giles: Hsiang-kang) is one of the two Special Administrative Regions of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... A map of Gauteng, showing the East Rand. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... Dongguan (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Miami redirects here. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


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TEHRAN (614 words)
Tehran is immense and proliferates like a coral reef, but in an orderly manner.
Tehran became a capital in the 19th century.
Some expert skiers people consider the snow quality in northen tehran to be one of the best in the world.
TEHRAN SIGHTS at Best Iran Travel.com (161 words)
Tehran is a sprawling multi-ethnic city at the foot of the Alborz mountain range with an immense network of highways unparalleled in western Asia.
Tehran became a residence of the Safavid rulers in the 17th century.
Tehran finally became the capital of Persia in 1795, when the Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan was crowned in the city.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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