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Encyclopedia > Technology during World War II

Technology during World War II played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. Much of it had begun development during the interwar years of the 1920s and 1930s, some was developed in response to lessons learned during the war, and yet more was only beginning to be developed as the war ended. The massive research and development demands of the war had a great impact on the scientific community. Given the scope of the war and the rapid technological escalation which happened during the war, a vast array of technology was employed, as different nations and different units found themselves equipped with different levels of technology. No area of military technology went without development during the war. After the war ended, these developments opened out to new sciences like cybernetics and computer science. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Technological escalation during World War II was more profound than any other period in human history. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In business and engineering, new product development (NPD) is the term used to describe the complete process of bringing a new product or service to market. ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...

Contents

Areas of technology

While almost all types of technology were converted to participation or assistance in the war efforts of the participating nations, the most important items were those actually employed in the war. The main areas of technology which saw major developments were: Participants in World War II involves all nations who either participated directly or were affected by any of the theatres or events of World War II. Alliances World War II was primarily fought between two large alliances. ...

  • Weaponary; including ships, vehicles, aircraft,artillery, rocketry, and biological,chemical and atomic weapons.
  • Logistical Support; including vehicles necessary for transporting soldiers and supplies, such as trains, trucks, and aircraft.
  • Communications and Intelligence; including devices used for navigation, communication, and espionage.
  • Medical; including surgical innovations, chemical drugs, and techniques
  • Industrial; including the technologies employed at factories and production/distribution centers.

Weaponry

Military weapons technology experienced rapid advances during World War II, and over six years there was a disorientating rate of change in combat in everything from aircraft to small arms. World War II weapons are an extensive list, too long for a single article. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ...


The war began with most armies utilizing technology that had changed little from World War I, and in some cases, had remained unchanged since the 19th century. The war began with cavalry, trenches, and World War I-era battleships, but within only six years, armies around the world had developed jet aircraft, ballistic missiles, and even atomic weapons by one. Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... A gas main being laid in a trench. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


The best jet fighters at the end of the war easily outflew any of the leading aircraft of 1939, such as the Spitfire Mark I. The early war bombers that caused such carnage would almost all have been shot down in 1945, many with one shot, by radar-aimed, proximity fuze-detonated anti-aircraft fire, just as the 1941 "invincible fighter", the Zero, had by 1944 become the "turkey" of the "Marianas Turkey Shoot". The best late-war tanks, such as the Soviet JS-3 heavy tank or the German Panther medium tank, handily outclassed the best tanks of 1939 such as Panzer IVs. In the navy the battleship, long seen as the dominant element of sea power, was displaced by the greater range and striking power of the aircraft carrier. The chaotic importance of amphibious landings stimulated the Western Allies to develop the Higgins boat, a primary troop landing craft; the DUKW, a six-wheel-drive amphibious truck; and amphibious tanks to enable beach landing attacks. Increased organization and coordination of amphibious assaults coupled with the resources necessary to sustain them caused the complexity of planning to increase by orders of magnitude, thus requiring formal systematization giving rise to what has become the modern management methodology of project management by which almost all modern engineering, construction and software developments are organized. This is a list of jet aircraft that flew or were about to fly during the Second World War: // Gloster E.28/39 - May 15 1941 became the first jet engined aircraft to fly in the United Kingdom. ... The Supermarine Spitfire was a British single-seat fighter, which was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries during the Second World War, and into the 1950s. ... A proximity fuze (also called a VT fuze, for variable time) is a fuze that is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when the distance to target becomes smaller than a predetermined value or when the target passes through a given plane. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Kakuji Kakuta Strength 7 fleet carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 5 fleet carriers, 4 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties... The Iosif Stalin tank (or IS tank, named after the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin), was a heavy tank developed by the Soviet Union during World War II. The tanks in the series are also sometimes called JS or ИС tanks. ... Tank classification can be done either by weight or by role. ... The Panther ( ) was a tank fielded by Nazi Germany in World War II that served from mid-1943 to the end of the European war in 1945. ... Tank classification can be done either by weight or by role. ... Panzer IV is the common name of a medium tank that was developed in the late 1930s by Nazi Germany and used extensively in World War II. The official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen IV (abbreviated PzKpfw IV) and the tank also had the ordnance inventory designation SdKfz 161. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... The Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Higgins boat was a landing craft used extensively in World War II. The craft was designed by Andrew Higgins of Louisiana, based on boats made for operating in swamps and marshes. ... DUKW DUKW for the Boston Duck Tour The DUKW (popularly pronounced DUCK) is a six-wheel-drive amphibious truck that was originally designed inside General Motors Corporation during World War II for transporting goods and troops over land and water and for use approaching and crossing beaches in amphibious attacks. ... Meethodology is defined as the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline, the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline or a particular procedure or set of procedures [1]. It should be noted that methodology is... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ...


Aircraft

The famous "Stuka" dive bomber - Junkers 87.

In the Western European Theatre of World War II, air power became crucial throughout the war, both in tactical and strategic operations (respectively, battlefield and long-range). Superior German aircraft allowed the German armies to overrun Western Europe with great speed in 1940, largely assisted by lack of Allied aircraft. Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive-bombers. ... Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive-bombers. ... Nazi propaganda image Air victory over Poland with an artistic vision of a Junkers Ju 87. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ...


Since the end of World War I, the French Air Force had been badly neglected, as military leaders preferred to spend money on ground armies and static fortifications to fight another World War I-style war. As a result, by 1940, the French Air Force had only 740 fighter planes and 140 bombers, against 8,250 Luftwaffe fighters and fighter-bombers. Most French airfields were located in north-east France, and were quickly overrun in the early stages of the campaign. The Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom possessed some very advanced fighter planes, such as Spitfires and Hurricanes, but these were not useful for attacking ground troops on a battlefield, and the small number of planes dispatched to France with the British Expeditionary Force were destroyed fairly quickly. Subsequently, the Luftwaffe was able to achieve air superiority over France in 1940, giving the German military an immense advantage in terms of reconnaissance and intelligence. The French Air Force is the air force branch of the French Armed Forces. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... For other uses, see Bomber (disambiguation). ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... A ground attack aircraft is an aircraft that is designed to operate very close to the ground, supporting infantry and tanks directly in battle. ... RAF redirects here. ... The Supermarine Spitfire was a British single-seat fighter, which was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries during the Second World War, and into the 1950s. ... The Hawker Hurricane was a British single-seat fighter aircraft designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. ... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939–1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the...


German aircraft rapidly achieved air superiority over France in early 1940, allowing the Luftwaffe to begin a campaign of strategic bombing against British cities. With France out of the war, German bomber planes based near the English Channel were able to launch raids on London and other cities during the Blitz, with varying degrees of success. The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Blitz. ...


After World War I, the concept of massed aerial bombing—the "Bomber Dream"—had become very popular with politicians and military leaders seeking an alternative to the carnage of trench warfare, and as a result, the air forces of Britain, France, and Germany had developed fleets of bomber planes to enable this (France's bomber wing was severely neglected, whilst Germany's bombers were developed in secret as they were explicitly forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles). This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


Wars across the world in the 1930s, such as the bombing of Shanghai by the Imperial Japanese Navy on January 28, 1932 and the bombings during the Spanish Civil War (1936 - 1939), had demonstrated the power of strategic bombing, and so air forces in Europe and the United States came to view bomber aircraft as extremely powerful weapons which, in theory, could bomb an enemy nation into submission on their own. As a result, the fear of bombers triggered major developments in aircraft technology. For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Nazi Germany had put only one large, long-range strategic bomber (the Heinkel He 177 Greife, with many delays and problems) into production, while the Amerika Bomber concept resulted only in prototypes. The Spanish Civil War had proved that tactical dive-bombing using Stukas was a very efficient way of destroying enemy troops concentrations, and so resources and money had been devoted to the development of smaller bomber craft. As a result, the Luftwaffe was forced to attack London in 1940 with heavily overloaded Heinkel and Dornier medium bombers, and even with the unsuitable Junkers Ju 87. These bombers were painfully slow—German engineers had been unable to develop sufficiently large piston aircraft engines (those that were produced tended to explode through extreme overheating), and so the bombers used for the Battle of Britain were woefully undersized. As German bombers had not been designed for long-range strategic missions, they lacked sufficient defenses. The ME 109 fighter escorts had not been equipped to carry enough fuel to guard the bombers on both the outbound and return journeys, and the longer range ME 110s could be out-maneuvered by the short range British fighters. The air defense was well organized and equipped with effective radar that survived the bombing. As a result, German bombers were shot down in large numbers, and were unable to inflict enough damage on cities and military-industrial targets to force Britain out of the war in 1940 or to prepare for the planned invasion. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Heinkel He 177 Greif (Griffin) was a long-range twin engined bomber of the Luftwaffe. ... The Amerika Bomber project was an initiative of the German Air Ministry to obtain a long-range bomber aircraft for the Luftwaffe that would be capable of striking the continental United States from Germany. ... Junkers Ju 87 Dive-Bombers The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka was the most famous Sturzkampfflugzeug (German dive bomber) in World War II, instantly recognisable by its inverted gull-wings and fixed undercarriage. ... Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company founded by and named after Ernst Heinkel. ... Dornier may refer to Claudius Dornier, original founder of Dornier GmbH Lindauer DORNIER GmbH FairchildDornier Dornier Medtech [1], maker of medical equipment e. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... This article is about military history. ...


British long-range bomber planes such as the Short Stirling had been designed before 1939 for strategic flights and given a large armament, but their technology still suffered from numerous flaws. The smaller and shorter ranged Bristol Blenheim, the RAF's most-used bomber, was defended by only one hydraulically operated machine-gun turret, and whilst this appeared sufficient, it was soon revealed that the turret was a pathetic defence against squadrons of German fighter planes. American bomber planes such as the B-17 Flying Fortress had been built before the war as the only adequate long-range bombers in the world, designed to patrol the long American coastlines. Defended by as many as six machine-gun turrets providing 360° cover, the B-17s were still vulnerable without fighter protection even when used in large formations. The Stirling was a World War II heavy bomber design built by Short Brothers. ... The Bristol Blenheim is also the name of the main model produced by Bristol Cars since 1994. ... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ...


Despite the abilities of Allied bombers, though, Germany was not quickly crippled by Allied air raids. At the start of the war the vast majority of bombs fell miles from their targets, as poor navigation technology ensured that Allied airmen frequently could not find their targets at night. The bombs used by the Allies were very high-tech devices, and mass production meant that the precision bombs were often made sloppily and so failed to explode. German industrial production actually rose continuously from 1940 to 1945, despite the best efforts of the Allied air forces to cripple industry.


Significantly, the Bomber Offensive kept the revolutionary Type XXI U-Boat from entering service during the war. Moreover, Allied air raids had a serious propaganda impact on the German government, all prompting Germany to begin serious development on air defence technology—in the form of fighter planes.


The Jet aircraft age began during the war with the development of the Heinkel He 178, the first true turbojet. Late in the war the Germans brought in the first operational Jet fighter, the Messerschmitt Me 262. However, despite their technological edge, German jets were overwhelmed by Allied air superiority, frequently being destroyed on or near the airstrip. Other jet aircraft, such as the British Gloster Meteor, which flew missions but never saw combat, did not significantly distinguish themselves from top-line piston-driven aircraft. The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (German: Swallow) was the worlds first operational turbojet fighter aircraft. ... The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies first operational jet. ...


Aircraft saw rapid and broad development during the war to meet the demands of aerial combat and address lessons learned from combat experience. From the open cockpit airplane to the sleek jet fighter, many different types were employed, often designed for very specific missions.


During the war the Germans produced various Glide bomb weapons, which were the first smart bombs; the V-1 flying bomb, which was the first cruise missile weapon; and the V-2 rocket, the first ballistic missile weapon. The last of these was the first step into the space age as its trajectory took it through the stratosphere, higher and faster than any aircraft. This later led to the development of the Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). Wernher Von Braun led the V-2 development team and later emigrated to the United States where he contributed to the development of the Saturn V rocket, which took men to the moon in 1969. A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ...


Theoretical foundation

The laboratory of Ludwig Prandtl at Göttingen was the main center of theoretical and mathematical aerodynamics and fluid dynamics research from soon after 1904 to the end of World War II. Prandtl coined the term boundary layer and founded modern (mathematical) aerodynamics. The laboratory lost its dominance when the researchers were dispersed, after the war. Ludwig Prandtl (4 February 1875 - 15 August 1953) was a German physicist. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is that layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface. ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ...


This helps to understand why the Messerschmitt Me 262 had swept wings but the Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star didn't.[citation needed] The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (German: Swallow) was the worlds first operational turbojet fighter aircraft. ... The swept wing of an airliner: British Midland Airbus A320-200 A swept-wing is a wing planform used on high-speed aircraft that spend a considerable portion of their flight time in the transonic. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star was the first operational jet fighter used by the United States Army Air Forces and, as the F-80, saw extensive combat in Korea with the United States Air Force. ...


Vehicles

The Treaty of Versailles had imposed severe restrictions upon Germany constructing vehicles for military purposes, and so throughout the 1920s and 1930s, German arms manufacturers and the Wehrmacht had begun secretly developing tanks. As these vehicles were produced in secret, their technical specifications and battlefield potentials were largely unknown to the European Allies until the war actually began. When German troops invaded the Benelux nations and France in May 1940, German weapons technology proved to be immeasurably superior to that of the Allies. The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ...


The Americans created the first amphibious water vehicles in 1941, and these greatly helped against German subs.


The French Army suffered from serious technical deficiencies with its tanks. In 1918, the Renault FT-17 tanks of France had been the most advanced in the world, although small, capable of far outperforming their slow and clumsy British, German, or American counterparts. However, this superiority resulted in tank development stagnating after World War I. By 1939, French tanks were virtually unchanged from 1918. French and British Generals believed that a future war with Germany would be fought under very similar conditions as those of 1914–1918. Both invested in thickly-armoured, heavily-armed vehicles designed to cross shell damaged ground and trenches under fire. At the same time the British also developed faster but lightly armoured Cruiser tanks to range behind the enemy lines. The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... The Renault FT-17 (Automitrailleuse à chenilles Renault FT modèle 1917) was a French light tank; it is among the most revolutionary and influential tank designs in history. ... The cruiser tank (also called cavalry tank or fast tank) was a British tank design concept of the inter-war period. ...


In contrast, the Wehrmacht invested in fast, light tanks designed to overtake infantry. These vehicles would be useless in trench warfare, but would vastly outperform British and French tanks in mechanized battles. German tanks followed the design of France's 1918 Renault versions—a moderately-armoured hull with a rotating turret on top mounting a cannon. This gave every German tank the potential to engage other armoured vehicles, but in contrast, around 35% of French tanks were only equipped with machine guns (again designed for trench warfare), ensuring that when French and German tanks met in battle, a third of the French vehicles could only fire machine-gun bullets, which simply bounced harmlessly off German armour. Only a handful of French tanks had radio sets, and these often broke as the tank lurched over uneven ground. German tanks were all equipped with radios, allowing them to communicate with one another throughout battles, whilst French tank commanders could rarely contact other vehicles. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ...


The Matilda Mk I tanks of the British Army were also designed for infantry support and were protected by thick armour. This was ideal for trench warfare, but made the tanks painfully slow in open battles. Their light cannons and machine-guns were usually unable to inflict serious damage on German vehicles. The exposed caterpillar tracks were easily broken by gunfire, and the Matilda tanks had a tendency to incinerate their crews if hit, as the petrol tanks were located on the top of the hull. By contrast the Infantry tank Matilda II fielded in lesser numbers was largely invulnerable to German gunfire and its gun was able to punch through the German tanks. However French and British tanks were at a disadvantage compared to the air supported German armoured assaults, and a lack of armoured support contributed significantly to the rapid Allied collapse in 1940. General characteristics Length 4. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Tank, Infantry, Mk II, Matilda II (A12) (sometimes referred to as Senior Matilda) was a British tank of World War II. In a somewhat unorthodox move, it shared the same name as the Tank, Infantry, Mk I (A11). ...


World War II marked the first full-scale war where mechanization played a significant role. Most nations did not begin the war equipped for this. Even the vaunted German Panzer forces relied heavily on non-motorised support and flank units in large operations. While Germany recognized and demonstrated the value of concentrated use of mechanized forces, they never had these units in enough quantity to supplant traditional units. However, the British also saw the value in mechanization. For them it was a way to enhance an otherwise limited manpower reserve. America as well sought to create a mechanized army. For the United States, it was not so much a matter of limited troops, but instead a strong industrial base that could afford such equipment on a great scale. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Germany had several main tank designs during World War II. The first four, designed before the war, fell under the Panzer class. ...


The most visible vehicles of the war are the tanks, forming the armored spearhead of mechanized warfare. Their impressive firepower and armor made them the premier fighting machine of ground warfare. However, even more important to a fighting mechanized army were the large number of trucks and lighter vehicles that kept the army moving.


Ships

Naval warfare changed dramatically during World War II, with the ascent of the aircraft carrier to the premier vessel of the fleet, and the impact of increasingly capable submarines on the course of the war. The development of new ships during the war was somewhat limited due to the protracted time period needed for production, but important developments were often retrofitted to older vessels. Advanced German submarine types came into service too late and after nearly all the experienced crews had been lost. Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


The German U-boats were used primarily for stopping/destroying the resources from the United States and Canada coming across the Atlantic. Submarines were critical in the Pacific Ocean as well as in the Atlantic Ocean. Japanese defenses against Allied submarines were ineffective. Much of the merchant fleet of the Empire of Japan, needed to supply its scattered forces and bring supplies such as petroleum and food back to the Japanese Archipelago, was sunk. This kept them from training adequate replacements for their lost aircrews and even forced the navy to be based near its oil supply. Among the warships sunk by submarines was the war's largest aircraft carrier, the Shinano. U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ... Shinano (Japanese:信濃) was an aircraft carrier operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. It was laid down as the third of five projected Yamato-class superbattleships. ...


The most important shipboard advances were in the field of anti-submarine warfare. Driven by the desperate necessity of keeping Britain supplied, technologies for the detection and destruction of submarines was advanced at high priority. The use of ASDIC (SONAR) became widespread and so did the installation of shipboard and airborne radar. This article is about underwater sound propagation. ...


Weapons

The actual weapons; the guns, mortars, artillery, bombs, and other devices, were as diverse as the participants and objectives. A bewildering array were developed during the war to meet specific needs that arose, but many traced their development to prior to World War II. For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ...


Specific Weapons substantially invented during the war were:

  • Naval Weapons: Guns reached 18 inches in bore and were aimed with the aid of radar and airplanes. Torpedoes began to use magnetic detonators; compass directed, programmed and even acoustic guidance systems; and improved propulsion. Fire-control systems continued to develop for ships' guns and came into use for torpedoes and anti-aircraft fire.
  • Aircraft: Glide bombs - the first "smart bombs", such as the Fritz X anti-shipping missile, had wire or radio remote control; the world's first jet fighter (Messerschmitt 262) and jet bomber (Arado 234), the world's first operational military helicopters (Flettner Fl 282), the world's first rocket-powered fighter (Messerschmitt 163)
  • HEAT, and HESH Anti Armour warheads.
  • Proximity fuze for shells, bombs and rockets. This fuze is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when close enough to the target to destroy it, so a direct hit is not required and time/place of closest approach does not need to be estimated. Magnetic torpedoes and mines also had a sort of proximity fuse.
  • Guided weapons (by radio or trailing wires): glide bombs, crawling bombs, rockets.
  • Self-guiding weapons: torpedoes (sound seeking, compass guided and looping), V1 missile (compass and timer guided)
  • Aiming devices for bombs, torpedoes, artillery and machine guns, using special purpose mechanical and electronic analog and (perhaps) digital "computers". The mechanical analog Norden bomb sight is a well known example.

For other uses, see Bazooka (disambiguation). ... Panzerschreck (German: tank terrorizer; lit. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ... The Projector, Infantry, Anti Tank, was one of the earlier anti-tank weapons using a high explosive anti-tank projectile. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... The AK-47 is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... Sturmgewehr 44 (StG44) was an assault rifle developed in Nazi Germany during World War II and was the first of its kind to see major deployment. ... A fire-control system is a computer, often mechanical, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. ... A self-propelled anti-tank gun, or tank destroyer, is a type of armoured fighting vehicle. ... Badge of the 79th Armoured Division Amphibious DD tanks await blowing of breaches in the sea wall on Utah Beach. ... Combat engineers place satchel charges and detonating cord, preparatory to blowing up a railway bridge during the Korean War, 30 July 1950 Combat engineering is the practice of using the knowledge, tools and techniques of engineering in combat. ... A flail tank utilizes a protruding beam with chains and weights attached to find and detonate mines ahead of the tank. ... Marine M67 in Vietnam, 1968. ... A glide bomb is an aerial bomb that is modified with aerodynamic surfaces to modify its flight path from a purely ballistic one, to a flatter, gliding, one. ... Fritz X was a German air-launched anti-ship missile, deployed during World War II. Fritz X was an allied code-name; alternate names include Ruhrstahl SD 1400 X. History Development began in 1938. ... The Arado Ar 234 Blitz was the worlds first operational jet powered bomber, built by the Arado company in the closing stages of World War II. In the field it was used almost entirely in the reconnaissance role, but in its few uses as a bomber it proved to... The Flettner Fl 282 Kolibri (Hummingbird) is a single-seat open cockpit intermeshing rotor helicopter produced by Anton Flettner of Germany. ... The Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet was the only operational rocket fighter aircraft. ... A pulse jet engine is a very simple form of internal combustion engine wherein the combustion occurs in pulses and the propulsive effort is a reaction to the rearward flow of hot gasses. ... The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... US Smarties (by Ce De Candy) US Smarties (by Ce De Candy) In the United States, Smarties are a type of artificially fruit-flavored candy produced by Ce De Candy. ... For other uses, see V2. ... Katyusha multiple rocket launchers are a type of rocket artillery built and fielded by the Soviet Union beginning in the Second World War. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... A proximity fuze (also called a VT fuze, for variable time) is a fuze that is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when the distance to target becomes smaller than a predetermined value or when the target passes through a given plane. ... The Norden bombsight A page from the Bombardiers Information File (BIF) that describes the components and controls of the Norden Bombsight. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ... Plastic explosive (or plastique) is a specialised form of explosive material. ... Nobel 808, a plastic explosive that looks like green Plasticine with a distinctive smell of almonds. ...

Small Arms Development

Often too overlooked by the general public, the state of small arms technology made a huge leap during the period around the war. New production methods for weapons such as stamping, riveting, and welding came into being to produce the number of arms needed. While this had been tried before, during World War I, it had resulted in quite possibly the worst firearm ever adopted by any military for use: the French Chauchat light machine gun. Design and production methods had advanced enough to manufacture weapons of reasonable reliability such as the PPSh-41, PPS-42, Sten, MP 40, M3 Grease Gun, Gewehr 43, Thompson submachine gun and the M1 Garand rifle. Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Chauchat (pronounced show-shah) was a light machine gun used mainly by the French Army but also by seven other nations, including the USA, during and after World War I. Its formal designation in the French Army was Fusil-Mitrailleur Mle 1915 CSRG. It was also known as the... The M249 Squad Automatic Weapon, one of the most popular modern 5. ... The PPSh-41 (Pistolet-Pulemet Shpagina, Russian: , nicknamed Phe-phe-sha, Shpagin and Burp Gun) submachine gun was one of the most simplisticly produced weapons of World War II. It was designed by Georgi Shpagin, as an inexpensive alternative to the PPD-40, which was expensive and time consuming to... Designed by Aleksei Sudaev and first issued during the Siege of Leningrad, PPS-43 (Pistolet-Pulemet Sudaeva, Russian: Пистолет-пулемёт Судаева) was a result of further simplification of the PPSh-41, and it is often considered the best submachine gun of World War II. It was initially produced as PPS-42, but soon... This article is about the submachine gun. ... Maschinenpistole 40 Nationality Germany Type Submachine gun Inventor Erma Werk Date of design 1938 Service duration 1939-1945 Cartridge 9 x 19 mm Action Blowback Rate of fire 500 rpm Muzzle velocity ~380 mps Effective range ~ 100 m Weight (Unloaded) 3. ... The M3 Grease Gun (more formally United States Submachine Gun, Cal. ... The Gewehr 43 or Karabiner 43 (G43, K43, Gew 43, Kar 43) is a 7. ... Tommy Gun redirects here. ... The M1 Garand (more formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ...


World War II saw the birth of the reliable semi-automatic rifle e.g. the American M1 Garand and, more importantly, that of the first real assault rifles. The Germans essentially created and pioneered the idea of an "assault rifle" or sturmgewehr, coining the name for the species in the process. Earlier renditions that hinted at this idea were that of the employment of the Browning Automatic Rifle and 1916 Fedorov Avtomat in a walking fire tactic in which men would advance on the enemy position showering it with a hail of lead. The Germans first developed the FG 42 for its paratroopers in the assault and later the Sturmgewehr 44 (StG 44), the world's first true assault rifle. The FG 42 would probably hold this place but for its use of a full powered rifle cartridge making it hard to control by an unskilled operator. A semi-automatic rifle is a type of rifle that fires a single bullet each time the trigger is pulled, without the need to manually operate a bolt, lever or other firing or loading mechanism. ... The M1 Garand (more formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ... The AK is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... ... The Browning Automatic Rifle (more formally first as the Rifle, Caliber . ... Avtomat Fedorova model 1916 The Fedorov Avtomat was an early self-loading battle rifle[1][2][3] designed by Vladimir Grigoryevich Fedorov and made in Russia. ... (UTC) Walking your fire is a technique used by operators of certain types of weapons to engage a target without the use of a targeting device. ... The Fallschirmjagergewehr 42, shown with magazine and detachable bayonet. ... Sturmgewehr 44 (StG44) was an assault rifle developed in Nazi Germany during World War II and was the first of its kind to see major deployment. ... Sturmgewehr 44 Nationality Germany Type Assault rifle Inventor Gustloff Date of design 1943 Service duration July 1944 - May 1945 Cartridge 7. ...


Developments in machine gun technology culminated in the Maschinengewehr 42 (MG42) which was of an advanced design unmatched at the time. It spurred post-war development on both sides of the upcoming Cold War and is still used by some militaries to this day including the German Bundeswehr's MG 3. The Heckler & Koch G3, and many other Heckler & Koch designs, came from its system of operation. The United States military meshed the operating system of the FG 42 with the belt feed system of the MG42 to create the M60 machine gun used in the Vietnam War. A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Maschinengewehr 42 Type Machine gun Nationality Germany Era WW2 Platform Individual Target personnel History Date of design 1942 Production period 1942 - 1945 Service duration 1942 - 1945 Operators Nazi Germany War service WW2 Specifications Type Calibre 7. ... The MG42 (shortened from German: Maschinengewehr 42, or Machine Gun 42) was a machine gun that was developed for and entered service with Nazi Germany in 1942, during World War II. The 7. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Bundeswehr (German for Federal Defence Force;  ) is the name of the unified armed forces of Germany. ... The MG3 is an air-cooled, belt-fed general purpose machine gun manufactured by the German firm Rheinmetall. ... The G3 is a 7. ... Heckler & Koch GmbH (H&K) (pronounced [1]) is a German weapons manufacturing company famous for various series of small firearms, notably the MP5 submachine gun, the MP7 personal defense weapon, USP series of handguns, high-precision PSG1 sniper rifle, and the G3 and G36 assault rifles. ... A disintegrating belt feeding into an M249 Squad Automatic Weapon, from a United States Army training manual A non-disintegrating belt feeding into a . ... For other uses, see M60. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


The Atomic Bomb

The massive research and development demands of the war included the Manhattan Project, the effort to quickly develop an atomic bomb, or nuclear fission warhead. It was perhaps the most profound military development of the war, and had a great impact on the scientific community, among other things creating a network of national laboratories in the United States. This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The DOE is one of the biggest funders of science research in the US The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories are a system of federally funded research and development centers overseen by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of advancing science and helping promote...


Development was completed too late for use in the European Theatre of World War II. Its invention meant that a single bomber aircraft could carry a weapon sufficiently powerful to devastate entire cities, making conventional warfare against a nation with an arsenal of them suicidal.


The strategic importance of the bomb, and its even more powerful fusion-based successors, did not become fully apparent until the United States lost its monopoly on the weapon in the post-war era. The Soviet Union developed and tested their first nuclear weapon in 1949, based partially on information obtained from Soviet espionage in the United States. The competition between the two superpowers would lead to the Cold War. The strategic implications of such a massively destructive weapon still reverberates in the 21st century.


There was also a German project to develop an atomic weapon. This failed for a variety of reasons, most notably German antisemitism. The first tier of continental high energy physicists (Einstein, Bohr, Fermi, and Oppenheimer), were either Jewish or, in the case of Enrico Fermi, married to a Jew. When they left Germany, the only significant atomic physicist left in Germany was Heisenberg, who dragged his feet on the project. He made some faulty calculations suggesting that the Germans would need significantly more heavy water than was necessary. The project was then doomed due to insufficient resources. Einstein redirects here. ... Niels Bohr Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, Danish physicist who made essential contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics. ... Fermi has multiple definitions: Enrico Fermi, the physicist Fermi problem, an estimation problem designed to teach dimensional analysis, approximation, and the importance of clearly identifying ones assumptions. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Werner Heisenberg Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics. ...


Electronics, Communications and Intelligence

Electronics rose to prominence quickly in World War II. While prior to the war few electronic devices were seen as important pieces of equipment, by the middle of the war such instruments as radar and ASDIC (sonar) had proven their value. Additionally, equipment designed for communications and the interception of those communications was becoming critical. Enigma This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... Enigma This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... For a discussion of how Enigma-derived intelligence was put to use, see Ultra (WWII intelligence). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ...


Digital electronics, particularly, were also given a massive boost by war-related research. The pressing need for numerous time-critical calculations for various projects like code-breaking and ballistics tables accentuated the need for the development of electronic computer technology. The semi-secret ENIAC and the super-secret Colossus demonstrated that devices using thousands of valves could be reliable enough to be useful, paving the way for the post-war development of stored program computers. ENIAC ENIAC, short for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer,[1] was the first large-scale, electronic, digital computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems,[2] although earlier computers had been built with some of these properties. ... A Colossus Mark II computer. ... The tower of a personal computer. ...


The United Kingdom and the United States were the leaders in electronics. The US center for basic radar development was the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Radiation Laboratory. The British developed the magnetron which is now used in microwave ovens. “MIT” redirects here. ... The Radiation Laboratory or often RadLab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology was in operation from October 1940 until December 31, 1945. ... A cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates coherent microwaves. ... Microwave oven A microwave oven, or microwave, is a kitchen appliance employing microwave radiation primarily to cook or heat food. ...


Electronic and optical countermeasures such as jamming and radar absorbing material were developed. The term Jamming can refer to several things: Jamming as an electronic warfare (EW) - a technique to limit the effectiveness of an opponents communications and/or detection equipment, like Radio Jamming and Radar Jamming E-Mail Jamming- used by electronic political activists or hackers to disable e-mail systems...


While the war stimulated many technologies, such as radio and radar development, it slowed down related yet non-critical fields such as television and radio.


Industrial technology

While the development of new equipment was rapid, it was also important to be able to produce these tools and get them to the troops in appropriate quantity. Those nations that were able to maximize their industrial capacity and mobilize it for the war effort were most successful at equipping their troops in a timely way with adequate material.


One of the biggest developments was the ability to produce synthetic rubber. Natural rubber was mainly harvested in the South Pacific, and the Allies were cut off from a large quantity of it due to Japanese expansion. Thus the development of synthetic rubber allowed for the Allied war machine to continue growing, giving the US a significant technical edge as World War II continued. Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ...


For the Germans it was the development of alternative fuels as in hydrogen peroxide - which would be a forerunner to the development of fuel-cell technology and synthetic fuel technology.


New Medicines

Advances in Jordan's health methods may have been a few of the most crucial medical developments during World War II, but one of the most dramatic single medical advance was probably the wide spread use of penicillin to treat wounds and bacterial diseases. For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ...


See also

The military funding of science has had a powerful transformative effect on the practice and products of scientific research since the early 20th century. ... During World War II women worked in factories throughout much of the Western and Eastern United States. ... The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ... Technological escalation during World War II was more profound than any other period in human history. ... Ground Vehicles List of common WWII combat vehicles List of limited service WWII combat vehicles List of prototype WWII combat vehicles List of WWII support vehicles Infantry Weapons List of common WWII infantry weapons List of secondary and special issue WWII infantry weapons List of prototype WWII infantry weapons List...

References

Anderson, J. (2005). Ludwig Prandtl's boundary layer. Physics Today.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Technology during World War I Summary (3181 words)
It was not until the final year of the war that the major armies made effective steps in revolutionizing matters of command and control and tactics to adapt to the modern battlefield, and started to harness the myriad of new technologies to effective military purposes.
By World War II, the tank had evolved to a fearsome weapon which made the trench obsolete, just as the trench and the machine gun had made horse-mounted cavalry obsolete.
World War I was the first conflict in which submarines were a serious weapon of war.
Technology during World War I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2469 words)
It was not until the final year of the war that the major armies made effective steps in revolutionizing matters of command and control and tactics to adapt to the modern battlefield, and started to harness the myriad of new technologies to effective military purposes.
By World War II, the tank had evolved to a fearsome weapon which made the trench obsolete, just as the trench and the machine gun had made horse-mounted cavalry obsolete.
World War I was the first conflict in which submarines were a serious weapon of war.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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