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Encyclopedia > Technology during World War I
The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front.
The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front.

Technology during World War I reflected a trend toward industrialism and the application of mass production methods to weapons and to the technology of warfare in general. This trend began fifty years earlier during the U.S. Civil War, and continued through many smaller conflicts in which new weapons were tested. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled . ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


August 1914 marked the end of a relatively peaceful century in Europe with unprecedented invention and new science. The 19th century vision of a peaceful future fed by ever-increasing prosperity through technology was largely shattered by the war and, after the technological escalation during World War II, it was apparent that whatever the gains in prosperity and comfort due to technology applied to civilian uses, these benefits would always be under the shadow of the horrors of technology applied to warfare. Technological escalation during World War II was more profound than any other period in human history. ...


The earlier years of the First World War can be characterized as a clash of 20th century technology with 19th century tactics. This dichotomy had disastrous results in the form of ineffectual battles with huge numbers of casualties on both sides. It was not until the final year of the war that the major armies made effective steps in revolutionizing matters of command and control and tactics to adapt to the modern battlefield, and started to harness the myriad of new technologies to effective military purposes. Tactical reorganizations (such as shifting the focus of command from the 100+ man company to the 10+ man squad) went hand in hand with armoured cars, the first submachine guns, and automatic rifles that could be carried and used by one man. By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... A dichotomy is a division into two non-overlapping or mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive parts. ...

Contents

Trench warfare

Main article: Trench warfare

The new metallurgical and chemical industries, and many innovative mechanical inventions, had created new firepower that made defense almost invincible and attack almost impossible. These innovations included bolt-action infantry rifles, rifled artillery and hydraulic recoil mechanisms, zigzag trenches and machine guns, and their application had the effect of making it difficult or nearly impossible to cross defended ground. The hand grenade, already in existence —though crude—developed rapidly as an aid to attacking trenches. Probably the most important was the introduction of high explosive shells, which dramatically increased the lethality of artillery over the 19th Century equivalents. Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... Half opened bolt on a Winchester Model 70. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... An early naval cannon design, allowing the gun to roll backwards a small distance when firing The recoil when firing a gun is the backward momentum of a gun, which is equal to the forward momentum of the bullet or shell, due to conservation of momentum. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... For the alcoholic beverage sold in New Orleans, see hand grenade (drink). ... A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large solid projectiles previously termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and Proof shot). ... Lethality is a term designating the ability of a weapon to kill. ...


Trench warfare led to the development of the concrete pill box, a hardened blockhouse that could be used to deliver machinegun fire. They could be placed across a battlefield with interlocking fields of fire.[1] A bunker is a defensive warfare fortification to protect personnel or equipment. ...


The flamethrower was pioneered by the German Army used most notably, and with great effect, during the Hooge battle of the Western Front on 30 July 1915. The German Army had two main types of flamethrowers during the Great War. A small single person version called the Kleinflammenwerfer and a larger multiple person configuration called the Grossflammenwerfer. Both the large and small versions of the flamethrower were of limited use because of their short range, and while they were effective in terrorizing the enemy, they were easily dispatched by means of concentrated fire directed at the flamethrower operator’s fuel pack. Thus, the image of the flamethrower on the battlefield served more to incite fear among enemies rather than offer decisive tactical benefits. Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... Hooge (豪格 hao ge; 1609-1648) was the eldest son of Emperor Hong Taiji of the Manchu Qing Dynasty. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Germans developed flamethrowers before and during the First World War. ... In addition to man-portable units, the Germans designed heavy flamethrowers before and during the First World War. ...


Because attacking an entrenched enemy was so difficult, tunneling underneath enemy lines became one of the major efforts during the war. Once enemy positions were undermined, huge amounts of explosives would be planted and detonated as part of the preparation for an overland charge. Sensitive listening devices that could detect the sounds of digging were a crucial method of defense against these underground incursions. The British proved especially adept at these tactics, thanks to the skill of their tunnel-digging "sappers" and the sophistication of their listening devices.


Artillery

Of all the types of weapons in existence in 1914, artillery underwent the most revolutionary and scientific advances. At the beginning of the war, artillery was often sited in the front line to fire over open sights at enemy infantry. During the war, the following improvements were made:

  • the first box barrage in history was fired at Neuve Chapelle in 1915; this was the use of indirect fire to prevent the movement of enemy infantry
  • the wire-cutting No. 106 fuze was developed, specifically designed to explode on contact with barbed wire, or the ground, and equally effective as an anti-personnel weapon
  • the first anti-aircraft guns were designed, of necessity
  • indirect counter-battery fire was developed for the first time in history
  • flash spotting and sound ranging were invented, for the location and eventual destruction of enemy batteries
  • the creeping barrage was perfected
  • factors such as weather, air temperature, and barrel wear could for the first time be accurately measured and taken into account when firing indirectly

The majority of casualties inflicted during the war were the result of artillery fire. A box barrage is a type of artillery barrage. ... Rolling barrage is a military tactic in which massed artillery support an infantry advance by firing continuously at positions just in front of the advancing troops. ...


Poison gas

Australian infantry with gas masks, Ypres, 1917.
Australian infantry with gas masks, Ypres, 1917.

At the beginning of the war, Germany had the most advanced chemical industry in the world, accounting for more than 80% of the world's dye and chemical production. Although the use of poison gas had been banned in the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Germany turned to this industry for what it hoped would be a decisive weapon to break the deadlock of trench warfare. Chlorine gas was first used on the battlefield in April 1915 at the Second Battle of Ypres in Belgium. Later, mustard gas, phosgene and other gases were used. England and France soon followed suit with their own gas weapons. The first defenses against gas were makeshift, mainly rags soaked in water or urine. Later, relatively effective gas masks were developed, and these greatly reduced the effectiveness of gas as a weapon. Although it sometimes resulted in brief tactical advantages and probably caused over 1,000,000 casualties, gas seems to have had no significant effect on the course of the war. It only added immeasurable suffering to an already horrific conflict. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1071, 521 KB) Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators (SBR). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1071, 521 KB) Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators (SBR). ... Ypres municipality and district in the province West Flanders Ypres (French, pronounced generally used in English1) or Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced ) is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ... A poison gas attack using gas cylinders in World War I. The use of poison gas in World War I was a major military innovation. ... The longtime status of Netherlands as a largely neutral nation in international conflicts and the corresponding ascendance of The Hague as a primary location for diplomatic and international conferences has led to several negotiated conventions over the years being termed the Hague Convention: The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Belgian 1930s era L.702 model civilian mask. ...


Command and control

In the early days of the war, generals tried to direct tactics from headquarters many miles from the front, with messages being carried back and forth by couriers on motorcycles. It was soon realized that more immediate methods of communication were needed. In the military: The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. ...


Radio sets of the period were too heavy to carry into battle, and phone lines laid were quickly broken. Runners, flashing lights, and mirrors were used, but dogs were used only rarely, as troops tended to adopt them as pets and men would volunteer to go as runners in the dog's place. There were also aircraft (called "contact patrols") that could carry messages between headquarters and forward positions, sometimes dropping their messages without landing. Color Autochrome Lumière of a Nieuport Fighter in Aisne, France 1917 One of the many innovations of World War I, aircraft were first used for reconnaissance purposes and later as fighters and even bombers. ...


The new long-range artillery developed just before the war now had to fire at positions it could not see. Typical tactics were to pound the enemy front lines and then stop to let infantry move forward, hoping that the enemy line was broken, though it rarely was. The "liftoff" and then the creeping barrage were developed to keep artillery fire landing directly in front of the infantry "as it advanced". Communications being impossible, the danger was that the barrage would move too fast--losing the protection--or too slow--killing your own troops with friendly fire. Rolling barrage is a military tactic in which massed artillery support an infantry advance by firing continuously at positions just in front of the advancing troops. ... Friendly fire or non-hostile fire, a term originally adopted by the United States military, is fire from allied or friendly forces, as opposed to fire coming from enemy forces or enemy fire. ...


There were also countermeasures to these artillery tactics: by aiming a counter barrage directly behind an enemy's creeping barrage, one could target the infantry that was following the creeping barrage. Microphones (Sound ranging) were used to triangulate on the position of enemy guns and engage in counter-battery fire. Muzzle flashes of guns could also be spotted and used to target enemy artillery. Eventually 85-90% of guns were being wiped out in the first few minutes of any given battle. Sound Ranging (also known as sound location) is a collection of techniques for generating a position estimate of a source of sound. ... The term counter-battery fire refers to the concept of detecting the source of artillery (shells or rockets) landing on friendly forces and firing back at them with artillery, suppressing or destroying them in order to protect the friendly forces and reduce enemy artillery strength. ...


War of attrition

All countries involved in the war applied the full force of industrial mass-production to the manufacture of weapons and ammunition, especially artillery shells. Women on the home-front played a crucial role in this by working in munitions factories. This complete mobilization of a nation's resources, or "total war" meant that not only the armies, but also the economies of the warring nations were in competition. Rosie the Riveter: We Can Do It! - Many women first found economic strength in World War II-era manufacturing jobs. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...


For a time, in 1914-1915, some hoped that the war could be won through an attrition of materiel--that the enemy's supply of artillery shells could be exhausted in futile exchanges. But production was ramped up on both sides and this hope proved futile. In Britain the Shell Crisis of 1915 brought down the British government, and led to the building of HM Factory, Gretna, a huge munitions factory on the English-Scottish border. Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... The Poo Crisis of 1915 brought down the government of the United Kingdom (then engaged in World War I) because it was widely perceived that the production of artillery shells for use by the British Army was inadequate. ... H.M. Factory, Gretna was a UK government World War I Cordite factory, adjacent to the Solway Firth, near Gretna, Dumfries and Galloway. ...


The war of attrition then focused on another resource: human lives. In the battle of Verdun in particular, German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn hoped to "bleed France white" through repeated attacks on this French village. This article is about the military strategy. ... Combatants  France  German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ...


In the end, the war ended through a combination of attrition (of men and material), advances on the battlefield, and a breakdown of morale and productivity on the German home-front due to an effective naval blockade of her seaports. A blockade is an effort usually (but not always, see below) at sea, to prevent supplies from reaching the enemy. ...


Air warfare

The Fokker triplane belonging to Manfred von Richthofen (the "Red Baron")
The Fokker triplane belonging to Manfred von Richthofen (the "Red Baron")

As with most other technologies, the aircraft underwent many improvements during World War I. Early war aircraft were not much different in design from the original Wright Flyer, which made its first flight over a decade earlier. Image File history File links Fokker_Dr1_on_the_ground. ... Image File history File links Fokker_Dr1_on_the_ground. ... The Fokker Dr. I Dreidecker (triplane) was a World War I fighter aircraft designed by Reinhold Platz and built by the company led by Anthony Fokker. ... “Red Baron” redirects here. ... Color Autochrome Lumière of a Nieuport Fighter in Aisne, France 1917 One of the many innovations of World War I, aircraft were first used for reconnaissance purposes and later as fighters and even bombers. ... The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ...


While early air spotters were unarmed, they soon began firing at each other with handheld weapons and even throwing spears. An arms race commenced, quickly leading to increasingly agile planes equipped with machine guns. A key innovation was the interrupter gear, a German invention that allowed a machine gun to be mounted behind the propeller so the pilot could fire directly ahead, along the plane's flight path. Damaged propeller from a Sopwith Baby aircraft circa 1916/17 with evidence of bulletholes from a machine gun fired behind the propeller without an Interruptor. ...


As the stalemate developed on the ground, with both sides unable to advance even a few miles without a major battle and thousands of casualties, planes became greatly valued for their role gathering intelligence on enemy positions and bombing the enemy's supplies behind the trench lines. Large planes with a pilot and an observer were used to reconnoiter enemy positions and bomb their supply bases. Because they were large and slow, these planes made easy targets for enemy fighter planes. As a result, both sides used fighter aircraft to both attack the enemy's observer planes and protect their own.


Germany led the world in the design of Zeppelins, and used these airships to make occasional bombing raids on military targets, London and other British cities, without any great effect. Later in the war, Germany began attacking English cities with long range strategic bombers. As with the Zeppelin attacks, Germany's strategic bombing of England had limited tactical value, but it was demoralizing and showed the British they could not be completely immune from the effects of the war in their own country. It also forced the British air forces to maintain squadrons of fighters in England to defend against air attack, depriving the British Expeditionary Force of planes, equipment, and personnel badly needed on the Western front. This is an article about Zeppelin airship class. ... A strategic bomber is a large bomber designed to drop massive amounts of ordinance on a single target, generally in carpet bombing style. ...


Manned observation balloons floating high above the trenches were used as stationary reconnaissance points on the front lines, reporting enemy troop positions and directing artillery fire. Balloons commonly had a crew of two, each equipped with parachutes: upon an enemy air attack on the flammable balloon, the crew would jump to safety. At the time, parachutes were too heavy to be used by pilots in aircraft, and smaller versions would not be developed until the end of the war. (In the British case, there were also concerns they might undermine morale, effectively encouraging cowardice.) Recognized for their value as observer platforms, observation balloons were important targets of enemy aircraft. To defend against air attack, they were heavily protected by large concentrations of antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft. Observation balloons were widely employed as aerial platforms for purposes of intelligence gathering and artillery direction during the First World War and beyond. ... Parachutes is the debut album by English rock band Coldplay, released on July 10, 2000 in the UK and on November 7 in the U.S., making it the only Coldplay album to have a delayed release in America. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cowardice is a vice that is conventionally viewed as the corruption of prudence, to thwart all courage or bravery. ...


By inhibiting the enemy's ability to move in secrecy, aerial reconnaissance over the front can been blamed for some degree for the stalemate of trench warfare. Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ...


Tanks

Main article: Tanks in World War I

Although the concept of the tank had been suggested as early as the 1890s, few authorities showed interest in them until the trench stalemate of World War I caused serious contemplation of unending war and ever escalating casualties. In Britain, a Landships Committee was formed, and teamed with the Inventions Committee, set out to develop a practicable weapon. Little Willie, the first tank prototype, had riveted armour, flat caterpillar tracks, and no main gun. ...


Based on the caterpillar track (first invented in 1770 and perfected in the early 1900s) and the four-stroke gasoline powered Internal combustion engine (perfected in the 1870s), early tanks were fitted with Maxim type guns or Lewis guns, armour plating, and their caterpillar tracks were configured to allow crossing of an eight-foot wide trench. U.S. M60 Patton tank. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An early Maxim gun in operation with the Royal Navy 1895 . ... The Lewis Gun is a pre-World War I era squad automatic weapon/machine gun of American design that was most widely used by the forces of the British Empire. ...


Early tanks were unreliable, breaking down often. Though they first terrified the Germans, their use in 1917 engagements provided more opportunities for development than actual battle successes. It was also realized that new tactics had to be developed to make best use of this weapon. In particular, planners learned that tanks needed infantry support and massed formations to be effective. Once tanks could be fielded in the hundreds, such as they were at the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917, they began to show their potential. Still, reliability was the achilles heel of tanks throughout the remainder of the war. In the Battle of Amiens, a major Entente counteroffensive near the end of the war, British forces went to field with 534 tanks. After several days, only a few were still in commission, those that suffered mechanical difficulties outnumbering those disabled by enemy fire. Combatants United Kingdom Newfoundland German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Georg von der Marwitz Strength 2 Corps 1 Corps Casualties 44,207 Casualties 179 tanks out of action 45,000 Casualties (British estimates) The Battle of Cambrai (20 November - 3 December 1917) was a British campaign of World War I. Noted... Combatants United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia Germany Commanders Henry Rawlinson Georg von der Marwitz Strength 4 Aus. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Regardless of their effects on World War I, tank technology and mechanized warfare had been launched and grew increasingly sophisticated in the years following the war. By World War II, the tank had evolved to a fearsome weapon which made the trench obsolete, just as the trench and the machine gun had made horse-mounted cavalry obsolete. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ...


Submarines

World War I was the first conflict in which submarines were a serious weapon of war. In the years shortly before the war, the relatively sophisticated propulsion system of diesel power while surfaced and battery power while submerged was introduced. USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ...


The United Kingdom relied heavily on imports to feed its population and supply its war industry, and the German navy hoped to blockade and starve Britain using U-boats to attack merchant ships in unrestricted submarine warfare. This struggle between German submarines and British counter measures became known as the First Battle of the Atlantic. As German submarines became more numerous and effective, the British sought ways to protect their merchant ships. "Q-ships," attack vessels disguised as civilian ships, were one early strategy. U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ... A hidden gun on a Q-ship in World War I. The Q-ship or Q-boat was a weapon used against German U-boats during World War I primarily by Britain and during World War II primarily by the United States. ...


Consolidating merchant ships into convoys protected by one or more armed navy vessels was adopted later in the war. There was initially a great deal of debate about this approach, out of fear that it would just provide German U-boats with a wealth of convenient targets. Thanks to the development of active and passive sonar devices, coupled with increasingly deadly anti-submarine weapons, the convoy system reduced British losses to U-boats to a small fraction of their former level. Lieutenant Otto Weddigen remarked of the first submarine attack of the Great War: This article is about the general concept, particularly its use by the military. ... The F70 type frigates (here, La Motte-Picquet) are fitted with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar) type DUBV43 or DUBV43C towed sonars SONAR (SOund Navigation And Ranging) â€” or sonar â€” is a technique that uses sound propagation under water (primarily) to navigate, communicate or to detect other vessels. ... An Anti-submarine weapon is any weapon system designed explicitly to attack and destroy enemy submarines and other underwater devices. ... Otto Weddigen (* August 15, 1880 in Herford; † March 18, 1915 on sea) was a german u-boat commander during World War I. He started his military career in the imperial german navy in 1901. ...

How much they feared our submarines and how wide was the agitation caused by good little U-9 is shown by the English reports that a whole flotilla of German submarines had attacked the cruisers and that this flotilla had approached under cover of the flag of Holland. These reports were absolutely untrue. U-9 was the only submarine on deck, and she flew the flag she still flies -- the German naval ensign.

Mobility

Between late 1914 and early 1918, the Western Front hardly moved. Ironically, the beginning of the end for Germany started with a huge German advance. In 1917, when Russia surrendered after the October Revolution, Germany was able to move many troops to the Western Front. Using new stormtrooper tactics developed by Oskar von Hutier, the Germans pushed forward some tens of kilometers and, by March 1918, the German advance came to the outskirts of Paris. “Red October” redirects here. ... The Stormtroopers were special military troops which were formed in the last year of World War I as the German army developed new methods of attacking enemy trenches, called infiltration tactics. Men trained in these methods were known as in German as Sturmmann (literally storm man or assault man but... Oskar von Hutier (August 27, 1857-December 5, 1934) was one of Germanys most successful and innovative generals of World War I. Hutier spent the first year of the war as a divisional commander in France, performing well but not distinguishing himself until the spring of 1915, when he...


In the Battle of Amiens of August 1918, the Entente forces began a counter attack that would be called the Hundred Days Offensive. The Australian and Canadian divisions that spearheaded the attack managed to advance 13 kilometers on the first day alone. These battles marked the end of trench warfare on the Western Front and a return to mobile warfare. Combatants United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia Germany Commanders Henry Rawlinson Georg von der Marwitz Strength 4 Aus. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire France United States of America German Empire Commanders King Albert I Ferdinand Foch Douglas Haig Philippe Petain John Pershing Erich Ludendorff Casualties 411,636 British 531,000 French 127,000+ American 785,733 The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by...


The Hindenburg Line fell to the Allies and the Canal du Nord was crossed. In Berlin, Kaiser Wilhelm was told Germany had lost, and must now surrender. There were no advances in the Fall as details of the surrender were negotiated, leading to the Armistice on November 11, 1918. The Hindenburg Line was a vast system of defences in Northern France constructed by the Germans during the winter of 1916– 17 during World War I; the Germans called it the Siegfried Line. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


The war was over, but a new mobility-driven form of warfare had emerged; one that would be mastered by the defeated Germans and deployed in 1939 as their blitzkrieg, or lightning warfare, embodying all they had learned in 1918. The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ...


Small Arms

The machine gun directly impacted the organization of the infantry in 1914, and, by the middle of 1917, put an end to the tactic of company sized waves. Platoons and squads of men became important; hand in hand with that organization was the use of light automatic weapons. The Lewis Gun was the first true light machine gun that could in theory be operated by one man, though in practice the bulky ammo pans required an entire section of men to keep the gun operating. The Browning Automatic Rifle was adopted by the U.S. Army in 1918; adapters on cartridge belts allowed the BAR man to walk and fire the gun at the same time. Early sub-machine guns were also developed in this period.


See also

The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ... The military funding of science has had a powerful transformative effect on the practice and products of scientific research since the early 20th century. ... Technology during World War II played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... In the history of cryptography, Room 40 (formally I.D. 25) was the room in the Admiralty which was the first location of the British cryptography effort during World War I. It was formed shortly after the start of the war in October 1914, as a result of codebooks and...

References

World War I Portal
  • Keegan, John (1999). The First World War. ISBN 0-375-40052-4. 
  • Taylor, A. J. P. (1963). The First World War: An Illustrated History. Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-399-50260-2. 
  • Editors of American Heritage (1964). History of WWI. Simon & Schuster. 
  • Barrie, Alexander (1961). War Underground. ISBN 1-86227-081-3. 
  • Hartcup, Guy (1988). The War of Invention; Scientific Developments, 1914-18. ISBN 0-08-033591-8. 
  • Cross, Wilbur (1991). Zeppelins of World War I. ISBN 1-55778-382-9. 
  • Smithers, A. J. (1986). A New Excalibur; The Development of the Tank, 1909-1939. ISBN 0-436-47520-0. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Technology during World War I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2315 words)
It was not until the final year of the war that the major armies made effective steps in revolutionizing matters of command and control and tactics to adapt to the modern battlefield, and started to harness the myriad of new technologies to effective military purposes.
By World War II, the tank had evolved to a fearsome weapon which made the trench obsolete, just as the trench and the machine gun had made horse-mounted cavalry obsolete.
World War I was the first conflict in which submarines were a serious weapon of war.
Technology during World War II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3852 words)
Much of it had begun development during the interwar years of the 1920s and 1930s, some was developed in response to lessons learned during the war, and yet more was only beginning to be developed as the war ended.
During the war the Germans produced various Glide bomb weapons, which were the first smart bombs; the V-1 flying bomb, which was the first cruise missile weapon; and the V-2 rocket, the first ballistic missile weapon.
Naval warfare changed dramatically during World War II, with the ascent of the aircraft carrier to the premier vessel of the fleet, and the impact of increasingly capable submarines (originally known as U-boats by the Germans) on the face of naval tactics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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