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Encyclopedia > Technology College

Institute of technology, and polytechnic, are designations employed in a wide range of learning institutions awarding different types of degrees and operating often at variable levels of the educational system. It may refer to both an institution of higher education specialising in technology, a vocational education institution specialized in technical education, or a mixture of both. It can be also the name of any secondary education school using that terms, usually focused in vocational training courses. The term polytechnic comes from the Greek πολύ polú meaning "many" and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning "arts". While the term "institute of technology" is often abbreviated IT, the term is not to be confused with information technology. The designation "institute of technology" is related with the technological character of those institutions. A wide range of terms and school types are seen around the globe, using both names (polytechnic and institute of technology). The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a level of technological mastery sufficient to leave the surface of the planet for the first time and explore space. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Information technology (IT)[1] is a broad subject concerned with technology and other aspects of managing and processing information, especially in large organizations. ...

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Institutes of Technology vs. Polytechnics

The first institutes of technology and polytechnics have existed at least since the 18th century but became increasingly popular post-WWII with the expansion of technical education, associated with the new needs created by generalized industrialization. In some cases, polytechnics or institutes of technology are engineering schools or technical colleges. More rarely, both polytechnics (as the Polytechnic Universities) and institutes of technology (as MIT and ETH Zurich) are considered universities when they have autonomy to offer masters and doctoral degrees and they are at the same time independent research institutions, these conditions being necessary to be formally considered a university. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... The ETH Zurich, often called Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, is a science and technology university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... Research is often described as an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry aimed at discovering, interpreting and revising facts. ...


The term institute of technology is used in many countries rather than polytechnic, and indeed in these countries the latter term may never have been common (the opposite is also true). For example in Canada the British Columbia Institute of Technology is one such institution, and École de technologie supérieure. Indian Institutes of Technology is used in India to denote a number of specific institutes which were based on a post WWII recommendation for industrialisation. In Ireland the term Institute of Technology is more favored now to the term Regional Technical College though the latter is the legally correct term; Dublin Institute of Technology is an institute which is a university in all but name as it can confer degrees in accordance with law. The Federal Institute of Technology located in Zurich, Switzerland and Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, MA, USA are possibly some of the oldest institutions to use "institute of technology" in its title and being actually universities. The British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) is an institute of technology in Burnaby, British Columbia. ... The École de technologie supérieure (School of Higher Technology) is an engineering university founded in 1974 and located in Montreal specifically for students that have graduated from college technical programs (CEGEP). ... Location of IITs The Indian Institutes of Technology (Hindi: भारतीय प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान), or IITs, are a group of seven autonomous engineering and technology-oriented institutes of higher education established and declared as Institutes of National Importance by the Government of India. ... A Regional Technical College (RTC) is a type of college in Ireland now replaced by an Institute of Technology (IOT). ... The Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) was established officially in 1992 under the Dublin Institute of Technology Act but had been previously setup in 1978 on an ad-hoc basis. ... The ETH Zurich, often called Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, is a science and technology university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is one of the worlds leading research institutions in science and technology. ... Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904) The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ...


Although being today generally considered similar institutions of higher learning across many countries, polytechnics and institutes of technology used to have a quite different statute among each other, its teaching competences and organizational history. In many cases "polytechnic" were a former designation for a vocational institution, before it has been granted the exclusive right to award academic degrees and can be truly called an "institute of technology".


Polytechnic type institutions survive in many countries, there is often not the same distinction between polytechnics and universities that was seen in Britain. All over the world, after many legal and curricular reforms, some polytechnics are often seen today as being quite similar to universities in terms of standards and quality. However, many of those polytechnics are simply a result of a formal upgrading from its original and historical role as intermediate technical education schools. Many former polytechnics have emerged through an administrative change of statutes, which often includes a name change with the introduction of new designations like Institute of Technology, or University of Technology for marketing purposes[1] [2], with limited exceptions.


The emergence of so many upgraded polytechnics, former vocational education and technical schools converted into more university-like institutions like the institutes of technology or polytechnic universities, has caused concern in many countries where the lack of specialized intermediate technical professionals, lead to industrial skill shortages in some fields, being also associated to an increase of the graduate unemployment rate. Other evidence have shown a declining in the general quality of teaching and graduates preparation for the workplace, due to the fast-paced reconversion of that technical institutions to more advanced higher level institutions.[3] [4]


Australia

See the articles on Education in Australia and Technical and Further Education (TAFE), Category:Australian tertiary institutions and College of advanced education Education in Australia follows a three tier model: primary, secondary and tertiary education. ... Technical and Further Education or TAFE institutions are a type of adult education organisation in Australia. ... The College of Advanced Education (CAE) was a class of Australian tertiary education institutions that existed in the period of the 1970s until the early 1990s. ...


In Australia the "Institutes of Technology" became founding members of the Australian Technology Network of universities. The Institute of Technology title has since been appropriated by a number of TAFE institutes. The Australian Technology Network (ATN) is an alliance of five Australian universities of technology. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...


1970s-1990s

During the 1970s to early 1990s, the term was used to describe state owned and funded technical schools that offered both vocational and higher education. They were part of the College of Advanced Education system. In the 1990s most of these merged with existing universities, or formed new ones of their own. These new universities generally took the title University of Technology, for marketing rather than legal purposes. AVCC report. A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The College of Advanced Education (CAE) was a class of Australian tertiary education institutions that existed in the period of the 1970s until the early 1990s. ... A University of Technology is an university with a focus on technology. ...


1990s-Today

Since the mid 1990s, the term has been applied to some technically minded Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes. These offer vocational education, although some are beginning to offer higher education. This usage of the term is most prevalent in NSW and the ACT. This usage is not widely known in Australia outside these areas, and in such places the older meaning is much more likely to be understood. Technical and Further Education or TAFE institutions are a type of adult education organisation in Australia. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...


Belgium and the Netherlands

Hogeschool is used in Belgium and in the Netherlands. The Hogeschool has many similarities to the Ammattikorkeakoulu in Finland and to the Fachhochschule in the German language areas.


The Hogeschool institutions in the Flemish Community of Belgium, such as for example the Erasmus Hogeschool Brussel, are now undergoing a process of academization, where they form associations with an university and where research is being integrated in the curriculum, which will allow them to deliver academic master degrees. The term Flemish Community has two distinct, though related, meanings: culturally and sociologically, it refers to Flemish organisations, media, social and cultural life; alternative expressions for this concept might be the Flemish people or the Flemish nation (in a similar sense as the Scottish nation, the Basque or Catalan); politically... The Erasmus Hogeschool Brussel is an institute of higher education based in Brussels, Belgium. ... Master is a term that indicates a person from stanton). ...


Canada

The British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) is an institute of technology in Burnaby, British Columbia. ... The British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) is a polytechnic institute in Burnaby, British Columbia that provides full- and part-time education leading to certificates, diplomas, applied bachelors degrees and applied masters degrees in technologies and trades. ... Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, or SAIT (say-t) as its referred to locally, is located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, or SAIT (say-t) as its called by the students and faculty, is located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Calgary is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. ... The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) is located in Edmonton, Alberta. ... The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) is located in Edmonton, Alberta. ... Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the north central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ... The École de technologie supérieure (School of Higher Technology) is an engineering university founded in 1974 and located in Montreal specifically for students that have graduated from college technical programs (CEGEP). ... ETS is an abbreviation of: Educational Testing Service, which administers tests such as SAT and GRE Emission Trading Scheme (see also European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme) Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy, a medical procedure Environmental Tobacco Smoke, see tobacco smoking Escondido Tutorial Service, an online tutorial service for homeschooling families... This article needs cleanup. ... LÉcole Polytechnique de Montréal is an engineering school in Montreal, Quebec. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

Finland - Ammattikorkeakoulu - Yrkeshögskola

An Ammattikorkeakoulu is the common term in Finland, as is the Swedish alternative "Yrkeshögskola" – their focus is on studies leading to bachelor degree, particularly in technology. After January 1st 2006 some Finnish institutes of technology switched the English term polytechnic to the term University of Applied Sciences in their official names. The Ammattikorkeakoulu has many similarities to the Hogeschool in Belgium and in the Netherlands and to the Fachhochschule in the German language areas. One should not confuse this with korkeakoulu, or "university", for example, Teknillinen korkeakoulu. Ammattikorkeakoulu, short AMK, is a Finnish polytechnical institution. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course that generally lasts three or four years. ... Alvar Aaltos landmark auditorium of the main building. ...


French language areas - Écoles Polytechniques

In the French areas like France, Canada and Switzerland, a Polytechnic is an école polytechnique:

In the French speaking part of Switzerland exists also the term Haute Ecole Specialisee for a type of institution called Fachhochschule in the German speaking part of the country. (see below) For other Écoles Polytechniques, see École Polytechnique de Montréal and École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, as viewed from the Trocadéro This article is about the capital and largest city in France. ... LÉcole Polytechnique de Montréal is an engineering school in Montreal, Quebec. ... The École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne in Switzerland (French speaking part of Switzerland). ...


France has some polytechnic type higher education establishments which belong to a group of renowned and specialized institutions called Grandes écoles; they generally have full names starting with École supérieure (higher school) or École nationale (national school), often shortened or summarized into acronyms (for instance, the full name of the École des Mines is École nationale supérieure des Mines de Paris or ENSMP). These schools are the most prestigious higher education institutions in the country. This may lead to some confusion in English-speaking countries, where the term "polytechnic" often carries a more average connotations. The grandes écoles (French: grand schools) of France are higher education establishments outside the mainstream framework of the public universities. ... The École nationale supérieure des Mines de Paris (also known as École des Mines de Paris, ENSMP, les Mines, Mines Paris) is one of the French generalist and most prominent engineering Grandes Ecoles. ...


In particular, the École Polytechnique is popularly seen as the most prestigious scientific and technical school in the country (although other schools such as the École Normale Supérieure and the École des Mines might have a better claim to seniority), giving rise to popular expressions such as Pas besoin d'avoir fait Polytechnique pour comprendre ça ("No need to have been to Polytechnique to understand this", to be said of something which should be readily understood). The quadrangle at the main ENS building on rue dUlm is known as the Cour aux Ernests – the Ernests being the goldfish in the pond. ... The École nationale supérieure des Mines de Paris (also known as École des Mines de Paris, ENSMP, les Mines, Mines Paris) is one of the French generalist and most prominent engineering Grandes Ecoles. ...


German language areas - Fachhochschule and Technische Hochschule

Fachhochschule and Technische Hochschule are the common terms in a number of countries with German influences, these are Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein, Switzerland - the term Fachhochschule is often translated as "University of Applied Sciences" to resect their role. Polytechnic type institutions are widespread in this part of Europe. For example, Germany has 159 Fachhochschule-institutions. A Fachhochschule (plural: Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland is a university specialized in certain topical areas (e. ... Technische Hochschule (acronym TH) is, what a university of technology (i. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ...


One should distinguish these two types: A Fachhochschule is an institution of tertiary education which gives a training near to the requirement of the job, with many internships and awards degrees that traditionally rank below university degrees. A Technische Hochschule (or Technische Universität) is a real university, i.e. it focuses on research and can grant Bachelor's, Magister, Diplom, Master's and doctoral degrees. The Fachhochschule, in contrast, has many similarities to the Hogeschool in Belgium and in the Netherlands and to the Ammattikorkeakoulu in Finland and can grant Bachelor's, Diplom (FH) and Master's degrees. Additionally the Fachhochschule is also one of the worldwide rare examples of a higher education which in its own form to falls also under the (local) definition of vocational education. A Fachhochschule (plural: Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland is a university specialized in certain topical areas (e. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... For information about a medical intern, see the article on Medical residency. ... Technische Hochschule (acronym TH) is, what a university of technology (i. ... Technische Hochschule (acronym TH) is, what a university of technology (i. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Diplom is an academic degree in Germany. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate or graduate course of one to three years in duration. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Diplom is an academic degree in Germany. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate or graduate course of one to three years in duration. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ...

ETH Zurich (from its German name Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, ETHZ) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. ... The Central Institute for Modern Languages at the Technical University The Technical University of Berlin (TUB, TU Berlin, German: Technische Universität Berlin) is located in Berlin in Germany. ... RWTH Aachen University is a large university located in Aachen (Germany). ... The Fachhochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (FHTW) is the youngest and largest Fachhochschule in Berlin. ...

India

India has an "Institute of Technology" system referred to as Indian Institutes of Technology. These institutions specialise in science and technology. There are currently seven such institutions. Location of IITs The Indian Institutes of Technology (Hindi: भारतीय प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान), or IITs, are a group of seven autonomous engineering and technology-oriented institutes of higher education established and declared as Institutes of National Importance by the Government of India. ... Science in the broadest sense refers to any knowledge or trained skill, especially (but not exclusively) when this is attained by verifiable means. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a level of technological mastery sufficient to leave the surface of the planet for the first time and explore space. ...


Also India offers students apply to for either a polytechnic or a Junior College after 10 standard. Polytechnics offer three year diploma courses in subjects such as information technology, engineering subjects and other vocational fields. Junior Colleges, on the other hand, offer two year courses in more traditional subjects such as English, History, the pure sciences and others after which students take their 'A'-levels, a university entrance examination.


Other colleges

The Birla Institute of sides. ... Don Bosco Institute of Technology (DBIT) is an engineering college situated at Kurla (West), Mumbai. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई) (pronounced ), formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, and the most populous city of India, with an estimated population of about 13 million (as of 2006)[1]. Mumbai is located on Salsette Island, off the west coast of Maharashtra. ... Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Technology is located in Pampady, Kottayam district, Kerala State, India. ... Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई) (pronounced ), formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, and the most populous city of India, with an estimated population of about 13 million (as of 2006)[1]. Mumbai is located on Salsette Island, off the west coast of Maharashtra. ...

Ireland

The Republic of Ireland has an "Institute of Technology" system, formerly referred to as Regional Technical College (RTCs) system - the latter term is still the correct legal term for the colleges when used generically or collectively. These institutions have a similar number of students attending as at Irish universities, and offer subdegree and degree level studies. Some institutions have "delegated authority" that allows them to make awards in their own name, after authorisation by the Higher Education & Training Awards Council. A Regional Technical College (RTC) is a type of college in Ireland now replaced by an Institute of Technology (IOT). ... This is a list of colleges and universities in the Republic of Ireland, some colleges are constituent colleges of universities. ... The Higher Education and Training Awards Council (HETAC) is the legal successor to the National Council for Educational Awards and awards higher education awards in Ireland in the extra-university system since 2001. ...


Dublin Institute of Technology developed separately from the Regional Technical College system, and after several decades of association with the University of Dublin, Trinity College it acquired the authority to confer its own degrees. The Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) was established officially in 1992 under the Dublin Institute of Technology Act but had been previously setup in 1978 on an ad-hoc basis. ... The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin or more commonly Trinity College, Dublin (TCD) was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ...


See also: Community College In Canada and the United States, a community college, sometimes called a county college, a junior college or a city college, is an educational institution providing post-secondary education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and Associates degrees. ...


Italian language areas

Politecnico is the common term used in Italy:

In the Italian speaking part of Switzerland exists also the term Scuola Universitaria Professionnale for a type of institution called Fachhochschule in the German speaking part of the country. (see at "German language areas") Politecnico di Milano is the largest technical university in Italy with about 42,000 students. ... The Polytechnic University of Turin (Italian: Politecnico di Torino) is a Engineering University based in Turin. ...


Japan

See the Kyushu Institute of Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology and the Imperial College of Engineering, forerunner of Tokyo University's engineering faculty. See also Technical education in Japan. KIT Tobata campus front gate (Seimon) on a national holiday Kyushu Institute of Technology (九州工業大学 Kyushu Kougyou Daigaku) is one of the 89 national universities in Japan. ... Tokyo Institute of Technology Tokyo Institute of Technology (東京工業大学; Tōkyō Kōgyō Daigaku), often called Tokyo Tech or Tōkōdai (東工大) for short, is the largest institution of higher learning in Japan dedicated to science and technology. ... The Imperial College of Engineering (ICE or Kobu Daigakko 工部大学校) was founded at Tokyo in 1873 though its predecessor the Kogakuryo 工学寮 existed from 1871. ... Western-style technical education in Japan began in earnest in the Meiji period with the founding of the British-dominated Imperial College of Engineering. ...


Hong Kong

The first polytechnic in Hong Kong is The Hong Kong Polytechnic, established in 1972 through upgrading the Hong Kong Technical College (Government Trade School before 1947). A second polytechnic, the City Polytechnic of Hong Kong, was founded in 1984. These polytechnics awards diplomas, higher diplomas, as well as academic degrees. Like the United Kingdom, the two polytechnics were granted university status in 1994 and 1995 respectively, and renamed The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the City University of Hong Kong. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, a university with a focus in applied science, engineering and business, was founded in 1991. 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A diploma (from Greek diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree. ... The Higher Diploma is an academic award in Hong Kong and Ireland. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) (Traditional Chinese: 香港理工大學) is a university located in Hung Hom, Hong Kong. ... The City University of Hong Kong (CityU) (Traditional Chinese: 香港城市大學) is one of the universities in Hong Kong. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also: Education in Hong Kong, List of universities in Hong Kong. Education in Hong Kong has a similar system to that of the United Kingdom, in particular the English education system, as Hong Kong was colonised by the British from 1841 to 1997. ... The following is a list of universities in Hong Kong: Government-funded Degree-granting Institute The Chinese University of Hong Kong City University of Hong Kong Hong Kong Baptist University Hong Kong Institute of Education - dedicated solely to teacher education Hong Kong Polytechnic University The Hong Kong University of Science...


Malaysia

In Malaysia, polytechnic does not have the power to confer degree or anything higher.


See also: Education in Malaysia. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Types of school in Malaysia. ...


New Zealand

New Zealand polytechnics are established under the Education Act 1989 as amended, and are considered state-owned tertiary institutions along with universities, colleges of education, and wānanga; there is today often much crossover in courses and qualifications offered between all these types of institutions. Some have officially taken the title 'institute of technology', while one has opted for 'Universal College of Learning' (UCOL), and another 'Unitec New Zealand' instead. Many if not all now issue at least bachelor-level degrees. Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... In Polynesian mythology, Wananga is secret, occult knowledge of magic and sorcery. ... Universal College of Learning (UCOL) is a Government Institute of Technology (Polytechnic) located in the lower North Island of New Zealand. ... Unitec New Zealand is a major polytechnic tertiary education institute situated in Auckland, New Zealand. ...


Since the 1990s, there has been consolidation in New Zealand's state-owned tertiary education system. In the polytechnic sector: Wellington Polytechnic amalgamated with Massey University. The Central Institute of Technology explored a merger with the Waikato Institute of Technology, which was abandoned, but later, after financial concerns, controversially amalgamated with Hutt Valley Polytechnic, which in turn became Wellington Institute of Technology. Some smaller polytechnics in the North Island, such as Waiarapa Polytechnic, amalgamated with UCOL. (The only other amalgamations have been in the colleges of education.) See also 1990s, the band Seinfeld was a pop cultural phenomenon during the 90s and became one of the most popular TV programs ever. ... Massey University is a university of New Zealand. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... Universal College of Learning (UCOL) is a Government Institute of Technology (Polytechnic) located in the lower North Island of New Zealand. ...


The Auckland University Institute of Technology is the only polytechnic to have been elevated to university status; while Unitec has had repeated attempts blocked. The Auckland University of Technology (AUT) is New Zealand’s newest university, formed on 1 January 2000 when the Auckland Institute of Technology was granted university status. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Unitec New Zealand is a major polytechnic tertiary education institute situated in Auckland, New Zealand. ...


See also: List of polytechnics and institutes of technology in New Zealand and Education in New Zealand State sector organisations in New Zealand (as at January 2004) are as follows: Parliamentary Offices Office of the Controller and Auditor-General (Tumuaki o te Mana Arotake) Office of the Ombudsmen (Nga Kaitiaki Mana Tangata) Office of the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (Te Kaitiaki Taiao a Te Whare Pāremata... Education in New Zealand is nominally free for all primary, intermediate and secondary schooling. ...


Portugal

There are fifteen state-run polytechnical institutes in Portugal and also several other private polytechnical institutions. The designation institute of technology is not applied at all, being meaningless in Portugal. The polytechnical institutes (institutos politécnicos) of Portugal are not universities, but rather a confederation of polytechnic higher education schools and institutes. Since its creation in the late 1970s to the mid 2000s, the polytechnical institutions were only allowed to offer a three year minor bachelor degree (bacharelato). In opposition, the Portuguese universities conferred 4 to 6 years major bachelor degrees, also known as licenciate degree (licenciatura), and were the only institutions awarding masters and doctoral degrees in Portugal. Due to their limited and well-defined legal statute and purpose, the polytechnical institutes do not have autonomy to offer doctoral degrees, even with the Bologna process implementation (to be in full use in Europe in 2010). However, since the mid 2000s, polytechnical institutions are being allowed to offer masters degrees, and from 2006 onwards, they can propose to a university of their choice a doctoral degree for their best students. Although being in practice one more concession in favour of polytechnical institutes, this legal rules were fiercely criticized and contested by them, since in their opinion, some polytechnical institutions have conditions to award the same degrees that universities have conferred. On the other side, there are also respected university lecturers, governmental leaders, and public education responsibles who do not agree with the criticizers, based on studies, surveys and evaluations conducted by accredited independent organs (like CNAVES - Conselho Nacional de Avaliação do Ensino Superior [1]) on the general teaching and researching capabilities of polytechnics. A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The purpose of the Bologna process is to create the European higher education area by harmonising academic degree standards and quality assurance standards throughout Europe for each faculty and its development. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Polytechnic Schools (Escolas Politécnicas) were created in the 19th century in Lisbon and Porto, and were merged into the newly created universities of Lisbon and Porto in 1911. The current Polytechnical Institutes started to open after 1974. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also: list of colleges and universities in Portugal and Education in Portugal This is a list of Portuguese institutions providing higher education. ... Education in Portugal is a subject of controversy due to its complexities and state of flux. ...


Singapore

Singapore retains a system very similar to the British system distinguishing strictly between polytechnics and universities. Under this system, all Singaporean students sit for their 'O'-levels after four/five years of secondary school. They then apply for a place at either a polytechnic or a Junior College. Polytechnics offer three year diploma courses in subjects such as information technology, engineering subjects and other vocational fields. Junior Colleges, on the other hand, offer two year courses in more traditional subjects such as English, History, the pure sciences and others after which students take their 'A'-levels, a university entrance examination. High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the Indian grade 11 and 12 schools, see Junior College A junior college is a two-year post-secondary school whose main purpose is to provide a method of obtaining academic, vocational and professional education. ... A diploma (from Greek diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree. ...


See also: Education in Singapore Students having assembly in the hall of a Singapore secondary school. ...


Thailand

Most of Thailand's institutes of technology are developed from technical college, which at that time cannot granted a Bachelor's degree, to nowadays a university level institute, which some of them can grant degrees to the doctoral level. Examples are Pathumwan Institute of Technology (developed from Pathumwan Technical School), King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (Nondhaburi Telecommunications Training Centre), and King Mongkut's Institute of Technology North Bangkok (Thai-German Technical School). King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL for short) is a leading research and educational institution in Bangkok, Thailand. ... In 1959, KMITNB was established by Co-operation between the Thai Government and the Federal Republic of Germany as the “Thai-German Technical School. ...


There are two former institutes of technology, which already changed their name to "University of Technology": Rajamangala University of Technology (formerly Institute of Technology and Vocational Education) and King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (Thonburi Technology Institute). Rajamangala University of Technology มหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีราชมงคล มหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีราชมงคล จัดตั้งตาม ร่างพ.ร.บ.มหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีราชมงคล พ.ศ.2548 จากเดิมคือ สถาบันเทคโนโลยีราชมงคล มหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีราชมงคลทั้งเก้า ได้แก่ 1. ... Main gate of the KMUTT King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT) is a technology academy in Thailand, focusing in teaching about Engineering. ...


Institutes of technology with different origins are Asian Institute of Technology, which developed from SEATO Graduate School of Engineering, and Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, an engineering school of Thammasat University. The Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) is an international graduate institution of higher learning based in Thailand with the mission of developing highly qualified and committed professionals who will play a leading role in the sustainable development of the region and its integration into the global economy. ... External links kamouflage. ... Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (Thai: สถาบันเทคโนโลยีนานาชาติสิรินธร) (SIIT) is a semi-autonomous institute of technology established in 1992 within Thammasat University. ... Thammasat University (Thai: มหาวิทยาลัยธรรมศาสตร์), formerly known as the University of Moral and Political Science (มหาวิทยาลัยวิชาธรรมศาสตร์และการเมือง), is the second oldest university in Thailand and is often considered to be one of the most prestigious universities in the country. ...


See also: Education in Thailand According to a report in Italic textThe NationItalic text newspaper, research by the Thai Ministry of Public Health has found that the average IQ of Thai youths is just 88. ...


United Kingdom

Polytechnics were tertiary education teaching institutions in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The comparable institutions in Scotland were collectively referred to as Central Institutions. Like other polytechnics, their aim was to teach practical subjects rather than academic. Under the Further and Higher Education Act, 1992 they became fully fledged universities. Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom, England and Wales and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... Dieu et mon droit (motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Official Languages English, Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked 4th UK 13,843... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The Further and Higher Education Acts 1992 made changes in the funding and administration of further education and higher education within the United Kingdom. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...


Academic degrees in polytechnics were validated by the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) from 1965 to 1992. After this time, the new universities awarded their own degrees. Sub-degree courses at these institutions were validated by the Business & Technology Education Council (BTEC), and many of them contiue to offer BTEC qualifications. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... The Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) was a degree awarding authority, from the 1965, in the United Kingdom until 1992. ... In the United Kingdom, the term New University has two meanings regarding British universities. ... The Business & Technology Education Council (BTEC) was a subdegree conferring council in the United Kingdom until 1996, when its functions were transferred to Edexcel. ...


Many polytechnics were formed in the expansion of higher education in the 1960s, others can trace their history back much further than this. One of the most famous polytechnics was the London Polytechnic, which was originally founded in the 19th century. Ulster Polytechnic remains the only polytechnic to unite with a university; this occurred in 1984. The first U.K. Institution to use the name "Polytechnic" was the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. The outrageously crowded Woodstock festival epitomized the popular antiwar movement of the 60s. ... The London Polytechnic also known as Polytechnic of Central London (PCL) was one of the British polytechnics. ... University of Ulster The University of Ulster (UU) is a multi-site university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest university on the Island of Ireland. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In 1833 the Fox family, a prominent Quaker shipping family of Falmouth, founded the Cornwall Polytechnic Society, to promote the ideas and inventions of the workers in their Perran Foundry. ...


Historically, British polytechnics were seen as ranking below universities in the provision of higher education, due to their lack of degree-awarding powers and the fact that they concentrated on vocational rather than academic courses. Even since 1992 differences still remain between the former polytechnics (and other post-1992 universities) and the older universities in terms of pay, conditions for staff, public perception and research budgets. A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ...


Although many of the former polytechnics remain at the bottom of the University League Tables, some former polytechnics have steadily moved up, and can now be found in the top half of the tables of all universities. Examples include Middlesex University (ranked 19th in the Guardian league table) and Oxford Brookes University (ranked 26th of 119 entries and widely considered to be the best new university). [2] Former polytechnics also perform particularly well in vocational subjects. For example, Nottingham Trent University is home to one of the best postgraduate law schools in the UK, and has a strong reputation in primary education. League Tables of British Universities, which rank the performances of universities in Great Britain on a number of criteria, have been published every year by The Times newspaper since the early 1990s. ... Middlesex University is a university in North London, England, located in the traditional county of Middlesex (from which it takes its name). ... Oxford Brookes is a university in Oxfordshire, England. ... Arkwright Building Nottingham Trent University (NTU) is a university in Nottingham, England. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ...


Many British polytecnics changed their name when they gained university status. Some simply dropped "Polytechnic" and added "University" to their titles, however this was often not possible as there was another University with the name. In these cases by far the most popular choice of title was "Metropolitan", not least because there is a phonic simularity to Polytechnic in the word, but more likely because the insitution was situated in a city or other large metropolitan area. Examples are Manchester Metropolitan University and Leeds Metropolitan University. These titles are often shortened to "Met" (Man Met, Leeds Met) or an acronym (MMU, LMU). Introduction Phonics is the study of the way in which spellings represent the sounds that make up words. ... A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or hubs. ... Manchester Metropolitan University is a university in Manchester, England. ... Leeds Metropolitan University Leeds Metropolitan University is a University with campuses in Leeds and Harrogate, Yorkshire. ... Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ...


See also: British universities Most United Kingdom universities can be classified into 5 main categories, Ancient universities - universities founded before the 19th century Red Brick universities - universities founded in the 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


United States

Rogers Hall - this is the main building of Polytechnic University, in Brooklyn, NY.
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Rogers Hall - this is the main building of Polytechnic University, in Brooklyn, NY.

The United States has several institutions called "Institute of Technology", "Polytechnic Institute", "Polytechnic University", etc. They are research intensive universities with a focus on science and technology. They are generally seen as elite universities. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 465 KB) Summary The main building of the Polytechnic University in Brooklyn, NY. Viewed through the beautifully christmass-adorned Metro-Tech center Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 465 KB) Summary The main building of the Polytechnic University in Brooklyn, NY. Viewed through the beautifully christmass-adorned Metro-Tech center Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... Research is often described as an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry aimed at discovering, interpreting and revising facts. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Look up elite, élite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Venezuela

Institutes of technology in Venezuela were developed in the 1950's as an option for post-Secondary education in technical and scientific courses, after the polytechnic French concepts. At that time, technical education was considered essential for the development of a sound middle class economy. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


Nowadays, most of the Institutos de Tecnología are privately run businesses, with varying degrees of quality. They are widely regarded, sometimes incorrectly, as inferior to the university education. Representation of a university class, 1350s. ...


Most of these institutes award diplomas after three or three and a half years of education. Few, if any Institutos de Tecnología have any research facilities.


Institutions using the terms "institute of technology" or "polytechnic"

University level

There are many university level higher learning institutions granting the highest academic degrees (including doctorate), that use the terms "institute of technology" or "polytechnic" for historic reasons: Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ...

Arkansas Tech University is a state supported collegiate institution located in Russellville, Arkansas, USA. The university offers programs at both baccalaureate and graduate levels in a range of fields. ... The British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) is an institute of technology in Burnaby, British Columbia. ... Cal Poly San Luis Obispo California Polytechnic State University, popularly known as Cal Poly, is a public coeducational university located in San Luis Obispo, California. ... California State Polytechnic University, Pomona is a public, nationally-ranked, coeducational university situated at the western corner of the city of Pomona, a suburb of Los Angeles, California, and is adjacent to the Kellogg Interchange and Mt. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... The Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) was established officially in 1992 under the Dublin Institute of Technology Act but had been previously setup in 1978 on an ad-hoc basis. ... // Florida Tech Founded by Jerome P. Keuper in 1958 as Brevard Engineering College, absorbing the University of Melbourne, and changing its name to Florida Institute of Technology in 1966, Florida Tech is a growing independent technological college centered on engineering fields. ... The Georgia Institute of Technology, or Georgia Tech, is a public, coeducational university located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and part of the University System of Georgia. ... The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) (Traditional Chinese: 香港理工大學) is a university located in Hung Hom, Hong Kong. ... State Street Village, S.R. Crown Hall, Armour Main Building Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) is a private Ph. ... Location of IITs The Indian Institutes of Technology (Hindi: भारतीय प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान), or IITs, are a group of seven autonomous engineering and technology-oriented institutes of higher education established and declared as Institutes of National Importance by the Government of India. ... The Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (IIT Bombay)is one of the Indian Institutes of Technology. ... The Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (IIT-Delhi), is a major college of engineering in Delhi, India. ... Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Guwahati or IITG), the sixth member of the IIT fraternity, was established in 1994. ... The Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (IIT Kanpur) is one of the Indian Institutes of Technology, set up in the (then) industrial city of Kanpur in 1960. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Categories: India-related stubs | Universities and colleges in India | Chennai | Tamil Nadu ... The Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (IITR) is the oldest engineering college in India. ... Indiana Institute of Technology The Indiana Institute of Technology (Indiana Tech) is a small, private college located in Fort Wayne, Indiana. ... Iowa State University (ISU) is a public land-grant university and space-grant university located in Ames, Iowa. ... The Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG) (Grenoble Institute of Technology or GIT)[1] is a French technological university consisting of nine Grandes écoles of engineering (engineering schools). ... Lawrence Technological University is a university located in Southfield, Michigan. ... Louisiana Tech University, located in Ruston, Louisiana, is a coeducational public university with an approximate enrollment of 12000 students. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is one of the worlds leading research institutions in science and technology. ... Michigan Technological University (abbr. ... Montana Tech is a university located in Butte, Montana. ... New Jersey Institute of Technology (subsuming the Newark College of Engineering) is a public research university in Newark, New Jersey. ... New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (Also called New Mexico Tech, sometimes just called Tech, and previously known as the New Mexico School of Mines), is a research university located in Socorro, New Mexico. ... Wisser Memorial Library, Old Westbury The New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) is a private, co-educational college in New York in the USA. The college has three campuses, two on Long Island, and one in New York City. ... Politecnico di Milano is the largest technical university in Italy with about 42,000 students. ... The Polytechnic University of Turin (Italian: Politecnico di Torino) is a Engineering University based in Turin. ... Polytechnic University (Brooklyn Poly, Poly, or Polytech), located in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City, is the United States second oldest private technology university, founded in 1854. ... The Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico (PUPR) —commonly referred as Poly or La Poly in Spanish— is a private non-profit university located in San Juan, Puerto Rico. ... Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a coeducational private university in Troy, New York, near Albany, founded in 1824 by Stephen Van Rensselaer. ... It has been suggested that Computer Science House be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T) was founded in 1885 as Dakota School of Mines, primarily as an institution to teach mining engineering and related disciplines. ... The State University of New York Institute of Technology (SUNYIT) is located just north of Utica, New York, USA. Historically an upper-division (i. ... Edwin A. Stevens Building, home to the Charles V. Schaefer, Jr. ... ETH Zurich (from its German name Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, ETHZ) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. ... Tennessee Technological University, popularly known as Tennessee Tech, is an accredited public university located in Cookeville, Tennessee, a small city approximately seventy miles east of Nashville. ... Texas Tech University is a nationally recognized doctoral/research university located in Lubbock, Texas (USA) established in 1923 originally as Texas Technological College. ... Tunisia Polytechnic School, or ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE DE TUNISIE (EPT) was founded by virtue of the law 91-42 ,26 June 1991, EPT, and welcomed its first students in September 1994. ... Categories: Romania-related stubs | Bucharest | Universities in Romania ... The Technical University of Madrid (Spanish: Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, often abbreviated as UPM), is an important Spanish university, located in Madrid. ... The Technical University of Catalonia (Catalan: Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spanish: Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña) is located in the city of Barcelona, Spain. ... Washington Avenue Bridge at night The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, almost always abbreviated U of M, is the oldest and largest part of the University of Minnesota system. ... Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (better known as Virginia Tech, abbreviated as VT, historically abbreviated as VPI, informally abbreviated as VPI&SU, and commonly referred to regionally as simply Tech) is a public land-grant polytechnic university in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. Its historical strengths are in agriculture, engineering, architecture... Waterford Institute of Technology (WIT) situated on the western outskirts of Waterford city, Ireland was established in 1970 as Regional Technical College, Waterford with an initial intake of just 200 students. ... West Virginia University Institute of Technology is a four-year college located in Montgomery, West Virginia. ... For other Worcester Colleges, see Worcester College (disambiguation). ...

Other higher education

There are many other types of higher education institutions (post-secondary education) which are not universities and use the terms "institute of technology" or "polytechnic": ...

The Otago Polytechnic logo over the main entrance to F Block on Forth Street Campus The Otago Polytechnic is a public New Zealand tertiary education institute, centred in Dunedin with campuses throughout the Southern province of Otago including Cromwell, Wanaka, Queenstown and Oamaru. ... Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology is a school located in Christchurch, New Zealand. ... The Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT) is a State University of New York college of art and design located in New York City, New York, United States. ... The Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra (IPC) is a public polytechnic institute in Coimbra, Portugal. ... Lisbon Polytechnic (Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa) is one of the biggest state-run polytechnic institutes in Portugal. ... The Porto Polythecnic or Instituto Politécnico do Porto (IPP) was created in 1985, throw the creation and joint of different schools and the joint of centenary colleges in 1988, and its objective was to relaunch the polytechnic studies in Portugal. ... Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana (usually shortened to Ivy Tech Community College or, colloquially, Ivy Tech) is the state of Indianas system of community colleges, formed in 2005, as a rechartering of a system of vocational technical schools. ... The Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) is an accredited university of the Oregon University System. ... Nanyang Polytechnic (Chinese: 南洋理工学院) is a modern campus located next to Yio Chu Kang MRT station, Singapore. ... The National Polytechnic Institute (in Spanish: Instituto Politécnico Nacional, IPN) is one of the largest Mexican public universities. ... New York City College of Technology, called New York City Technical College prior to 2002 and nicknamed City Tech, is the largest four-year technical school in the northeastern United States, and one of three colleges within the City University of New York (CUNY) system to grant, within the same... Ngee Ann Polytechnic (Chinese: 义安理工学院), the second oldest of five polytechnics in Singapore, was founded in 1963. ... The Pennsylvania College of Technology, or Penn College, is a small university (of approximately 6000 students) located in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. ... Savonia Polytechnic Savonia Polytechnic is a Finnish polytechnical institution (ammattikorkeakoulu) based in the city of Kuopio. ... Singapore Polytechnic (Chinese: 新加坡理工学院), the first polytechnic established in Singapore, was founded in 1954. ... Unitec New Zealand is a major polytechnic tertiary education institute situated in Auckland, New Zealand. ...

Secondary education

There are also secondary education schools using that names: Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Long Beach Polytechnic High School, founded in 1895 as Long Beach High School, is a secondary school located at 1600 Atlantic Avenue in Long Beach, California, United States. ... Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government Country State County United States California Los Angeles County Mayor Beverly ONeill (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 170. ... Polytechnic Upper School Polytechnic School, often referred to as Poly, is a K-12 college preparatory private school in Pasadena, California. ... Pasadena is a city located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Polytechnic to change its name, By Desie Heita, The Namibia Economist, Retrieved June 2006.
  2. ^ Name change on the cards for APU, 2006 Anglia Ruskin University, United Kingdom. Retrieved June 2006.
  3. ^ "Producing New Workers: quality, equality and employability in higher education - Quality in Higher Education, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2001", Louise Morley, University of London Institute of Education. Retrieved June 2006.
  4. ^ First destination graduate employment as key performance indicator: outcomes assessment perspectives, Prof. Johan Bruwer, unit for institutional planning and research, Cape Technikon, South Africa, November 1998. Retrieved June 2006.

External links

  • Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges in Europe
  • All India Council For Technical Education

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