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Encyclopedia > Technological escalation during World War II

Technological escalation during World War II was more profound than any other period in human history. More new inventions, certainly as measured by such means as patent applications for dual-use technology and weapon contracts issued to private contractors, were deployed to the task of killing humans more effectively, and to a much lesser degree, avoiding being killed. Unlike technological escalation during World War I, it was generally believed that speed and firepower, not defenses or entrenchments, would bring the war to a quicker end. The term technological escalation describes the fact that whenever two parties are in competition, each side tends to employ continuing technological improvements to defeat the other. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which is new, inventive, and... Dual-use is a term often used in politics and diplomacy to refer to technology which can be used for both peaceful and military aims, usually in regard to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. ... The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ... The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ...


To some degree the atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki which brought about the surrender of the Empire of Japan in August 1945, seemed to validate this, at least in postwar propaganda. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the A-Bomb Dome, the closest building to have survived the citys atomic bombing. ... The flag of Imperial Japan is still used as the flag of Japan. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... U.S. propaganda poster, depicting a Nazi stabbing a Bible. ...

Contents


Between the wars

After World War I many innovations in metals and chemicals had created withering firepower that made defenses effective. In France the lesson was translated into the Maginot Line which was supposed to hold a line at the border with Germany. France had also more, and much better, tanks than Germany as of the outbreak of their hostilities in 1940. As in World War I, the French generals expected that armour would mostly serve to help infantry break the static trench lines and storm machine gun nests. They thus spread the armour among their infantry divisions, ignoring the new German doctrine of blitzkrieg based on the fast movement using concentrated armour attacks (against which there was no effective defense but mobile anti-tank guns - infantry anti-tank weapons having not been invented yet). Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead:5 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:8 million Military dead:4 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:7 million The First World... The Maginot Line (IPA: [maʒino], named after French minister of defense André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defences which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy in the wake of World War I. Generally the term... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers or marines who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Blitzkrieg relies on close co-operation between infantry and panzers (tanks). ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ...


Air power was a major concern of Germany and Britain between the wars. Amazingly, however, trade in aircraft engines continued, with Britain selling hundreds of its best to German firms - which used them in a first generation of aircraft, and then improved on them much for use in German aircraft. Aerial warfare is the use of aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ...


The beginnings

Depending on one's frame of reference, one can reasonably assert that World War II began with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, or as late as the last declarations of war between the United States and Germany in December 1941. Quite a bit occurred during this time to escalate technological conflict, most notably the upgrading and deployment of aircraft carriers by the U.S. and Japan in the Pacific, and invention of carrier-type aircraft such as the Mitsubishi Zero, largely considered the best plane of its time. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: ) is a name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft—in effect acting as a sea-going airbase. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ...


more on aircraft carriers and 1930s innovations in military technologies


Command and control

(Radio, radar, aerial photography, advanced use of cryptography and cryptanalysis) This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll[1]. Radar is a system that uses radio waves to detect, determine the distance of, and map, objects such... The Georgian terrace of Royal Crescent (Bath, England) from a hot air balloon Dulles Airport in Reston, Virginia, from an airplane Aerial photography is the taking of photographs from above with a camera mounted on an aircraft, balloon, rocket, kite, skydiver or similar vehicle. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine Cryptography or cryptology is a field of mathematics and computer science concerned with information security and related issues, particularly encryption and authentication. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ...


War of attrition

(Shipping, submarines, bombing, the draft, civilian labour in Germany vs. USA) German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Gunter Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine Typhoon class ballistic-missile carrying (SSBN) submarine, compared to a man USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine...


Beaches

(Island hopping, seaborne invasions Dieppe, Sicily and Normandy) Dieppe is a town and commune in the Seine-Maritime département of Haute-Normandie (eastern Normandy), France. ... Sicilian redirects here; for other uses, see Sicilian (disambiguation). ... Mont Saint Michel, one of the famous symbols of Normandy. ...


Tanks

(Mass tank battles, e.g. Kursk) The Christian Orthodox monastery on the Red Square Kursk (Russian: Курск; pronunciation: koorsk) is a city in Central Russia, an administrative center of Kursk Oblast. ...


Mobility

Extreme mobility (gliders, paratroops, bicycles, boats, landing craft,tanks)


Urban warfare

Horrifying city battles (Stalingrad, Berlin) and sieges (Leningrad, London) from ground and air. Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad (metro station... Berlin is the capital city and a single state of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... This article is about the British city. ...


See also

List of World War II jet aircraft // Allies American Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star– early 1945 it became the first operational jet fighter used by the United States Army Air Force American experimental and test jet aircraft Northrop XF-79–called Flying Ram, begun in January 1943. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ... The Battle of the Beams was a period in early World War II when Luftwaffe bombers started using radio navigation for night bombing. ... List of World War II electronic warfare equipment and code words Airborne Cigar (A.B.C.) - Jamming transmitter carried by 101 Sqn Lancasters using 8th crew member to monitor and then jam German nightfighter frequencies Berlin - German night fighter radar, introduced April 1945, centrimetic radar (9cm) Boozer - Fighter radar early... Computing hardware has been an essential component of the process of calculation and data storage since it became necessary for data to be processed and shared. ... The history of radar began in the 1900s when engineers invented reflection devices. ... A cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates coherent microwaves. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Nylon represents a family of synthetic polymers, a thermoplastic material, invented in 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. ... The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ... Operations research, operational research, or simply OR, is the use of mathematical models, statistics and algorithms to aid in decision-making. ...

Sources

See also:


  Results from FactBites:
 
Technological escalation during World War II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (538 words)
Unlike technological escalation during World War I, it was generally believed that speed and firepower, not defenses or entrenchments, would bring the war to a quicker end.
Depending on one's frame of reference, one can reasonably assert that World War II began with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, or as late as the last declarations of war between the United States and Germany in December 1941.
Quite a bit occurred during this time to escalate technological conflict, most notably the upgrading and deployment of aircraft carriers by the U.S. and Japan in the Pacific, and invention of carrier-type aircraft such as the Mitsubishi Zero, largely considered the best plane of its time.
Technology during World War I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1872 words)
In the end, the war ended through a combination of attrition (of men and materiel), advances on the battlefield, and a breakdown of morale and productivity on the German home--front due to an effective naval blockade of her seaports.
By World War II, the tank had evolved to a fearsome weapon which made the trench obsolete, just as the trench and the machine gun had made horse-mounted cavalry obsolete.
World War I was the first conflict in which submarines were a serious weapon of war.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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